40 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Engineering research on positive displacement gas expanders. Phase I technical report

Description: A research, design, and development program related to positive displacement gas expanders is reported. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate a more cost effective gas expander for use in those waste heat recovery systems which utilize an Organic Rankine Cycle. To provide a lower cost machine, the gas expander uses a positive displacement concept, rather than a turbine as currently used. Several positive displacement machine concepts were examined, and various performance measures have been developed for each of the concepts. The machine concepts were: single and multiple cylinder reciprocators, radial piston, roller piston, sliding vane, trochoidal, helical screw, and lobed rotor. For each of the concepts, designs were generated for machines operating with three different sets of operating conditions. These designs were then used to develop measures of efficiency and cost, and to examine other characteristics of the machines, such as development risk and ability to operate with different flow, pressure, and temperature levels. Based upon an evaluation of these characteristics, a specific concept was selected for further development. This concept is a double acting, single cylinder reciprocating machine with crossheads and ceramic liners.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Lord, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

Description: The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

Description: The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)
Date: August 29, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High pressure pumps, drivers, and energy recovery devices for large seawater reverse osmosis plants

Description: The primary objective of this study was to prepare a technical survey of currently available high pressure pumps, drivers, and energy recovery devices for large reverse osmois (RO) plants. This equipment was specified for two seawater RO plant sizes (2.5 MGD and 25 MGD) and two product recovery ratios (25 and 50 percent) operating at 900 psi pressure. Four types of drivers were considered: electric motors, steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesels. It was concluded that: pumps suitable for seawater RO systems are available in single units for plant size through 25 MGD; the cost and availability of energy is the most significant item in the selection of a pump driver; energy recovery can be an economic choice with a low recovery ratio and high values of energy cost, operating pressure, and plant size. Also, since the cost of power can be a large part of the annual cost, an optimization of the pumping system is worthwhile.
Date: October 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of energy conservation for multi-deck board dryers. Phase I. Final report

Description: A study was made to determine the feasibility of recover and reuse of low level heat from the exhausts of multi-deck dryers used to dry boards in the building materials industry. There are approximately 1000 dryers of this type in the USA, with no heat recovery equipment. These dryers are used in the manufacture of: roof insulation board, ceiling tile and panel stock, wood fiber sheathing, gypsum board, and veneer plywood. Pilot scale tests and analyses show that heat recovery designs utilizing several types of heat exchange equipment are feasible. These include the following: indirect contact air-to-air heat exchangers for preheating combustion air for the dryer furnaces; direct contact air-to-water heat exchangers using water sprays to heat process water; and indirect contact air-to-liquid heat exchangers to heat recirculating liquid in a plant building heating system. The systems recommended for design and installation at the Rockdale plant include all three of the types of heat exchangers. The preliminary estimate for the installed cost for these systems at the Rockdale plant is $565,000 (1979 dllars). Annual heat recovery of 186,000 million Btu is projected with a value of $545,000 using gas costs of $3.00 per million Btu. Payback based on a discounted cash flow analysis using ten year depreciation is about two years.
Date: February 8, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brayton-cycle heat-recovery-system characterization program. Gas-conditioning final evaluation report

Description: Flue gas conditioning approaches for the Brayton-cycle heat recovery system are discussed. This revision incorporates the results of recent AiResearch tests on the subatmospheric system (SAS) turbocompressor, as well as the Electric Power Research Institute sponsored tests on ceramic fiber filters. The two primary purposes of the gas conditioning evaluation are: to determine the need for protecting the Brayton-cycle turbocompressor and heat exchanger from the potential damaging effects of erosion and deposition, and to determine what type of approach should be used for cleanup, if protection by flue gas conditioning is required.
Date: July 31, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brayton-cycle heat recovery-system characterization program. Subatmospheric-system test report

Description: The turbine tests and results for the Brayton cycle subatmospheric system (SAS) are summarized. A scaled model turbine was operated in the same environment as that which a full-scale SAS machine would experience from the hot effluent flue gas from a glass container furnace. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the effects of a simulated furnace flue gas stream on the turbine nozzles and blades. The following specific areas were evaluated: erosion of the turbine nozzles and blades from the dust in the flue gas, hot corrosion from alkali metal salts in the dust and acid vapor (sulfur trioxide and hydrogen chloride) in the flue gas, and fouling and flow blockage due to deposition and/or condensation from the flue gas constituents.
Date: July 31, 1981
Creator: Burgmeier, L. & Leung, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brayton-cycle heat-recovery system characterization program. Component test plan

Description: The critical components of the glass furnace subject to corrosion/erosion are: the valve gate and the valve seat bottom and sides which can also be subject to warpage causing subsequent leakage and the furnace flues (or ducting). The Brayton System will be added to the glass furnace just downstream of the reversal valve. Hence, the inlet air to the flues will no longer be at ambient temperature but at a higher level between 800 to 1000/sup 0/F. Also, the exhaust gas for the Brayton System is required to be 1500 to 1600/sup 0/F at these locations. Thus, the flues and valve components will be exposed to a much higher average temperature operating with the Brayton System. The possibility of cracking of the refractory linings and warpage and scaling of the switching valve, with consequent leakage to the exhaust stream should be avoided or decreased as much as feasible because of its effect of lowering the turbine inlet temperature and thus the total system value. On the inlet side, leakage dilutes the heat added to the air (which is preheated) and reduces the expected fuel savings. Assessment of such effects and determination of potential solutions and/or improvements in these areas is the purpose of this component system analysis and testing. The materials, mechanics and operations of the two areas of concern and the program for testing alternative approaches including test hardware, objectives, conditions and locations are described.
Date: January 19, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental testing and analytical analysis of a plastic panel heat exchanger for greenhouse heating

Description: The performance of a plastic panel-type heat exchanger, suitable for greenhouse heating using low-grade (25 to 60/sup 0/C water) power plant reject heat, was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical analysis showed that a plastic panel heat exchanger would have an overall heat transfer coefficient, U/sub 0/, of about 18 w/m/sup 2/-/sup 0/C compared to about 12 w/m/sup 2/-/sup 0/C for a fin-tube heat exchanger, under typical greenhouse conditions. Furthermore the plastic heat exchanger would require less fan power due to reduced air pressure losses. The experimental data revealed a similar functional relationship for U/sub 0/ and air flow when compared with the theoretical calculations, however the experimental values of U/sub 0/ were consistently larger by 20 to 30%. It was concluded that a properly designed plastic heat exchanger can compete with metal fin tube type exchangers on a performance basis, but the plastic heat exchangers are 3 to 4 times larger by volume. However, because of the lower cost of plastic, a substantial cost reduction is expected. It appears that further study, examining heat exchanger lifetime, performance and costs, is warranted.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Olszewski, M. & Thomas, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recuperative system for high and ultra-high temperature flue gases. Final report

Description: Advanced recuperative system technology for high and ultra-high temperature flue gases was investigated. Several high temperature recuperator system and component concepts were evolved and studied for the purpose of finding the schemes and designs that attain maximum fuel savings. The most promising concepts for industrial application were pre-engineered further to devise designs for adaptation to existing steel mills. The principal effort was aimed at steel soaking pit applications. The concept which provides the highest air preheat temperatures and the largest fuel savings for soaking pit application utilizing basic state-of-the-art technology is a low air pressure ceramic recuperator operated in conjunction with a higher air pressure metallic recuperator. This concept has the additional advantage that higher air pressures can be attained at the burner than can be attained with an all ceramic recuperator. These higher air pressures are required for high momentum, high efficiency burner performance, resulting in improved productivity and additional fuel savings. The technical feasibility of applying this high temperature recuperation system to existing soaking pits was established.
Date: January 31, 1979
Creator: Reitz, J.G.; Coeling, K.J. & Thekdi, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature recuperator tests. Final report

Description: A demonstration and test program was conducted on a high temperature, two pass ceramic tube recuperator. Data pertaining to heat exchanger performance characteristics were collected and compared with calculated values. The effect of improved heat exchanger effectiveness on system fuel consumption was demonstrated. Changes in fuel flow as a function of combustion air preheat while maintaining a given heat load were demonstrated. The effects of excess air on fuel consumption with and without system recuperation were demonstrated. A preheat level of 1740/sup 0/F with a heat exchanger inlet of 2537/sup 0/F for a recuperator effectiveness of 68% was demonstrated. Comparison of test measurements and calculated heat balance and heat transfer characteristics indicated that the measured effects of recuperation and excess air levels on fuel consumption were close to theoretical values. A post-program examination of the recuperator indicted that no damage to the recuperator occurred that could not be alleviated by minor design modification. The modifications necessary to achieve 1800 to 2000/sup 0/F preheat with a ceramic tube recuperator of the type demonstrated were extrapolated from measurements made in this program. The same two pass approach demonstrated in this program can be used. The number of face tubes vs. pressure drop for increased recuperator effectiveness was calculated. Modifications and procedures necessary to achieve a 1800 to 2000/sup 0/F preheat with furnace temperatures between 2500/sup 0/F and 2800/sup 0/F are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Bjerklie, J.W. & Penty, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, 1 August 1981-31 January 1982

Description: The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R. & Joshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, 1 August 1982-31 January 1983

Description: The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Cole, W.E.; DeSaro, R. & Joshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development. Semiannual report, February 1, 1983-July 31, 1983

Description: A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize this energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air from the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this report, the accomplishments of the proceeding six-month period are described.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Cole, W. E.; De Saro, R. & Joshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, February 1-July 31, 1982

Description: The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Griffith, J. & Joshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature waste-heat-stream selection and characterization

Description: Four types of industrial high-temperature, corrosive waste heat streams are selected that could yield significant energy savings if improved heat recovery systems were available. These waste heat streams are the flue gases from steel soaking pits, steel reheat furnaces, aluminum remelt furnaces, and glass melting furnaces. Available information on the temperature, pressure, flow, and composition of these flue gases is given. Also reviewed are analyses of corrosion products and fouling deposits resulting from the interaction of these flue gases with materials in flues and heat recovery systems.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Wikoff, P.M.; Wiggins, D.J.; Tallman, R.L. & Forkel, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancement of heat transfer in waste-heat heat exchangers

Description: The Fluidfire shallow fluidized bed heat transfer facility was modified during this program to give increased air flow capacity and to allow testing with different distributor plates and with two-stage heat exchangers. Tests were conducted using this heat transfer facility to investigate the effect of reduced distributor plate pressure loss and amount and type of bed material on the heat transfer performance of a single-stage fluidized bed heat exchanger. Elutriation from the bed was measured for different bed materials and distributor plates; alternate heat exchanger surfaces having different fin spacings were also tested. Two types of two-stage fluidized bed heat exchangers were tested: one having a baffle (having almost no pressure loss) located between the stages and which allowed bed material to recirculate between upper and lower beds; the second having two distributor plates in series with no recirculation of the bed material. The results obtained in the experimental program were used in conceptual design studies of multi-stage fluidized bed heat exchangers for waste heat recovery from diesel engine exhaust gases. Information was obtained from the literature and from diesel engine manufacturers to determine allowable diesel engine operating back pressures. The costs were estimated for two- and three-stage designs and were compared with costs obtained previously for single-stage fluidized bed and conventional heat exchanger designs.
Date: July 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of energy conservation for multi-deck board dryers: Phase I. Final report

Description: A study to determine the feasibility of recovering and reusing heat from a large multi-deck dryer used in the manufacture of roof insulation board is described. Pilot scale tests and analyses show that heat recovery designs utilizing several types of heat exchange equipment are feasible. These include: indirect contact air-to-air heat exchangers for preheating combustion air for the dryer furnaces; direct contact air-to-water heat exchangers using water sprays to heat process water; and indirect contact air-to-liquid heat exchangers to heat recirculating liquid in a plant building heating system. (MCW)
Date: February 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature range recuperator. Phase I: materials selection, design optimization, evaluation and thermal testing. Final report, April 1977-May 1978

Description: Initial efforts to develop, test, and evaluate counterflow recuperator designs are reported for the High Temperature Range Recuperator project. Potential materials to withstand glass furnace exhaust environments at temperatures up to 2800/sup 0/F were evaluated on the bases of material properties, fabrication capability, and relative performance in the flue environment of a day tank glass furnace. Polycrystalline alumina (Vistal), reaction sintered silicon carbide (KT and NC 430), chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD) and sintered alpha silicon carbide proved most satisfactory in the material temperature range of 2300/sup 0/F to 2800/sup 0/F. Relatively pure alumina (AD 998 and AD 94), mullite and cordierite were most satisfactory in the material temperature range of 1700/sup 0/F to 2300/sup 0/F. Recuperator designs were evaluated on the bases of cold air flow tests on laboratory models, fabricability, and calculated thermomechanical stress under expected operating conditions. Material strengths are shown to be greater than expected stresses by factors ranging from 2.6 for KT silicon carbide to 16 for cordierite. Recuperator test sections were fabricated from KT silicon carbide and subjected to thermal stress conditions in excess of twice the expected operating conditions with no deterioration or failure evident. A test section was subjected to the thermal shock of instant transfer between room temperature and a 2000/sup 0/F furnace without damage. Economic analysis based on calculated heat transfer indicates a recuperator system of this design and using currently available materials would have a payback period of 2.3 years.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Power, D V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design study of a two-phase turbine bottoming cycle. Final report. [Therminol 66 heated in diesel exhaust]

Description: The use of a biphase turbine system to recover waste heat from diesel engines was examined and found to have many favorable attributes. Among these were low rpm, high torque, low heat exchanger cost, and simplicity. Several candidate working fluid combinations were tested at temperatures of interest. The contact heat exchanger concept was substantiated by large scale experiment. The program includes subscale tests of key hardware components of a biphase turbine bottoming system. These are the two-phase nozzle, two-phase turbine, and direct contact heat exchanger. A comprehensive cost analysis was completed. A three-year program leading to a full-size system field demonstration has been planned. Progress in the first year of this program and the effort started on the second year program are reported.
Date: June 15, 1979
Creator: Studhalter, W R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized bed waste heat recovery system. Annual report, 1 October 1981-31 March 1983

Description: An agreement was reached in July 1982 with the Aluminum Company of America regarding the Massena operations in New York. Since that agreement, a specification has been published which characterizes the waste stream and includes ALCOA, DOE and Aerojet design requirements. Installation of the test unit has been engineered in preliminary form by ALCOA in close liaison with Aerojet and details are being established. A subcontract has been awarded for the design and fabrication of the fluid bed heat exchanger. Initial thermal analyses are complete and a preliminary arrangement layout has been started. Materials corrosion tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory on samples of fluid bed heat exchanger materials under the range of temperatures expected. Samples included carbon steel, stainless steels and Incoloy. Test atmospheres included hydrogen chloride and chlorine corrosive species. A study was completed of the research and development which would be necessary to raise the gas inlet temperature rating of the heat exchanger above 1100/sup 0/F. This study has been formalized and submitted in a topical report and discussions are ongoing regarding an activity (Task VI) added to the present contract to conduct high temperature R and D work.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Williams, H. W. & Unmack, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department