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Guidelines for developing certification programs for newly generated TRU waste

Description: These guidelines were prepared with direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Program in support of the DOE effort to certify that newly generated TRU wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The guidelines provide instructions for generic Certification Program preparation for TRU-waste generators preparing site-specific Certification Programs in response to WIPP requirements. The guidelines address all major aspects of a Certification Program that are necessary to satisfy the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria and their associated Compliance Requirements and Certification Quality Assurance Requirements. The details of the major element of a Certification Program, namely, the Certification Plan, are described. The Certification Plan relies on supporting data and control documentation to provide a traceable, auditable account of certification activities. Examples of specific parts of the Certification Plan illustrate the recommended degree of detail. Also, a brief description of generic waste processes related to certification activities is included.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S. & Geoffrion, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site. [At 30 meters]

Description: The Greater Confinement disposal Test (GCDT) at the Nevada Test Site will be a full scale demonstration of intermediate depth burial for disposal of defense low-level radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial. The GCDT project will demonstrate that these wastes can be efficaciously disposed at a depth of approximately 30 meters where the probability of future inadvertent human intrusion and of potential waste migration are negligible. The GCDT will be instrumented to collect data on properties of the disposal madium (alluvial sediments). Tracers will be injected to assess the transport potential of wastes through the medium. Tracer data will be analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the disposal method.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Dickman, P.T. & Boland, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual TRU waste container design specifications

Description: A contractor questionnaire was used to gather pertinent data. Site visits were made to formulate an integrated contractor consensus; a packaging meeting was held to examine, discuss, and integrate packaging philosophies; and data collected from these activities and from Task Force meetings were consolidated to provide input to the Basic Application Checklist and Criteria Checklists. Conceptual Design Criteria were developed from an analysis and evaluation of the application data against federal regulations and interim/terminal storage constraints.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Doty, J.W. & Peterson, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of thermal conduction models to deepsea disposal of radioacitve wastes

Description: Thermal problems associated with the emplacement of radio-active wastes in the deepsea sedimentary layer have been studied. In particular, the nature of the temperature field surrounding and the interstitial water velocity arising from a buried cask have been examined. Worst case estimates indicate that the velocity will be extremely weak and thus not likely to provide a primary transport mechanism for the radioactive material. This statement will, of course, only apply for moderately low levels of heat generation by the decaying radio nuclides. Because of the low interstitial water velocity, thermal conduction models can be used to predict the temperature field in the surrounding sediments as well as the cask surface temperature. This is equivalent to ''decoupling'' the energy and momentum conservation relationships thus simplifying the solution of the temperature field. The present work considers in come detail the temperature field surrounding a vertical circular ''cylinder'' located a distance below a horizontal, isothermal, plane surface. Actually, the isotherm corresponding to the cask surface is an ellipsoid of revolution but the error will be small for large values of the length to diameter ratio. The resulting expression can be usd to estimate temperature of the cask surface for material degradation studies and the effect of temperature upon the ion transport process in the sediments.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Schimmel, W.P. Jr. & Hickox, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m. The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 liters of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is about $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. Recent regulatory constraints may cause permanent cessation of the operation. Federal and state statutes, written for other types of injection facilities, impact the ORNL facility. This disposal process, which may have great applicability for disposal of many wastes, including hazardous wastes, may not be developed for future use.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Stow, S.H. & Haase, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste classification - history, standards, and requirements for disposal

Description: This document contains an outline of a presentation on the historical development in US of different classes (categories) or radioactive waste, on laws and regulations in US regarding classification of radioactive wastes; and requirements for disposal of different waste classes; and on the application of laws and regulations for hazardous chemical wastes to classification and disposal of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials; and mixed radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes.
Date: June 27, 1989
Creator: Kocher, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank farm surveillance and waste status report for July 1991

Description: This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. The intent of the report is to provide data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and to provide supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. 1 fig., 8 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Hanlon, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development activities on shallow land disposal of solid radioactive waste. Progress report, January--December 1976

Description: Progress on projects focused on problems of shallow land burial of radioactively contaminated solid waste is summarized. Developments on a system to evaluate the containment adequacy of existing burial sites are described. Efforts to describe the environmental factors in monitoring the LASL disposal sites are discussed. The aim of a new program on radioactive waste burial technology is outlined.
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass transfer from penetrations in waste containers

Description: Recent studies have indicated that localized corrosion of a relatively small area of a waste container may impair the containment function to such an extent that larger releases may be possible than from the bare waste form. This would take place when a large number of holes coexist on the container while their concentration fields do not interact significantly with each other. After performing a steady state analysis of the release from a hole, it is shown that much fewer independent holes can coexist on a container surface than previously estimated. The calculated radionuclide release from multiple independent holes must be changed accordingly. Previous analyses did not proceed to a correct application of the linear superposition principle. This resulted in unacceptable physical conclusions and undue strain on the performance assessment necessary for a container licensing procedure. The paper also analyzes the steady state release from penetrations of finite length and whose concentration fields interact with one another. The predicted release from these penetrations is lower than the previously calculated release from holes of zero thickness. It is concluded here that the steady-state release from multiple holes on a waste container can not exceed the release from the bare waste form and that multiple perforations need not be a serious liability to container performance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Pescatore, C. & Sastre, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of mixed waste issues

Description: Based on BNL's study it was concluded that there are LLWs which contain chemically hazardous components. Scintillation liquids may be considered an EPA listed hazardous waste and are, therefore, potential mixed wastes. Since November, 1985 no operating LLW disposal site will accept these wastes for disposal. Unless such wastes contain de minimis quantities of radionuclides, they cannot be disposed of at an EPA an EPA permitted site. Currently generators of LSC wastes can ship de minimis wastes to be burned at commercial facilities. Oil wastes will also eventually be an EPA listed waste and thus will have to be considered a potential radioactive mixed wasted unless NRC establishes de minimis levels of radionuclides below which oils can be managed as hazardous wastes. Regarding wastes containing lead metal there is some question as to the extent of the hazard posed by lead disposed in a LLW burial trench. Chromium-containing wastes would have to be tested to determine whether they are potential mixed wastes. There may be other wastes that are mixed wastes; the responsibility for determining this rests with the waste generator. It is believed that there are management options for handling potential mixed wastes but there is no regulatory guidance. BNL has identified and evaluated a variety of treatment options for the management of potential radioactive mixed wastes. The findings of that study showed that application of a management option with the purpose of addressing EPA concern can, at the same time, address stabilization and volume reduction concerns of NRC.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R. & Siskind, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transuranic waste: long-term planning

Description: Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Young, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface stabilization by grouting of a simulated underground tank

Description: A moisture barrier using water, sodium silicate, formamide, calcium chloride and penechem with a gel time of one-half hour was constructed around a simulated tank 10 feet deep by 10 feet diameter in the subsurface of the 200 West Area. As a test of the moisture barrier integrity, the volume which would normally be occupied by a tank was excavated and filled with water. The barrier was unable to contain the water. The failure to achieve a water-tight barrier was attributed to a leak in the floor grout.
Date: January 27, 1977
Creator: Wiater, P.J. & Higley, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benefit-cost-risk analysis of alternatives for greater-confinement disposal of radioactive waste

Description: Seven alternatives are included in the analysis: near-surface disposal; improved waste form; below-ground engineered structure; augered shaft; shale fracturing; shallow geologic repository; and high-level waste repository. These alternatives are representative generic facilities that span the range from low-level waste disposal practice to high-level waste disposal practice, tentatively ordered according to an expected increasing cost and/or effectiveness of confinement. They have been chosen to enable an assessment of the degree of confinement that represents an appropriate balance between public health and safety requirements and costs rather than identification of a specific preferred facility design. The objective of the analysis is to provide a comparative ranking of the alternatives on the basis of benefit-cost-risk considerations.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C. & Peterson, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

Description: Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K. & Yu, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shallow land burial - why or why not

Description: This paper summarizes a master's thesis on the state-of-the-art for shallow land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes. The coverage of the thesis, which is condensed for this paper, ranges from site selection to problem case histories. Inherent in such coverage is the assessment of risk, the discussion of operational and management problems and the real significance of off-site migration. This topic is discussed in light of the stands taken that the migration is a serious problem and that it is not. Emphasis is on the engineering parameters of importance in site selection, and what pretreatment, if any, is needed.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Thompson, W.T.; Ledbetter, J.O. & Rohlich, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planning for greater confinement disposal

Description: A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E. & Yu, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching of radioactive waste forms. Summary report

Description: At the first Materials Characterization Center (MCC) workshop, on the leaching of radioactive waste forms, there was general agreement that, after certain revisions, the proposed leach test plan set forth by the MCC can be expected to meet most of the nuclear waste community's waste form durability data requirements. The revisions give a clearer definition of the purposes of each test and the end uses of the data. As a result of the workshop, the format of the test program has been recast to clarify the purposes, limitations, and interrelationships of the individual tests. There was also a recognition that the leach test program must be based on an understanding of the mechanistic principles of leaching, and that further study is needed to ensure that the approved data from the MCC leach tests will be compatible with mechanistic research needs. It was agreed that another meeting of the participants in Working Groups 3 and 4, and perhaps some other experts, should be held as soon as possible to focus just on the definition of leach test requirements for mechanistic research. The MCC plans to hold this meeting in April 1980. Many of the tests that will lead to increased understanding of mechanisms will of necessity be long-term tests, sometimes lasting for several years. But the MCC also faces pressing needs to produce approved data that can be used for the comparison of waste forms in the relative near-term, i.e., in the next 1 to 3 yr. Therefore, it was decided to initiate a round-robin test of the MCC short-term static leach procedure as soon as practicable. The MCC has tentative plans for organization of the round robin in May 1980.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Ross, W.A.; Strachan, D.M.; Turcotte, R.P. & Westsik, J.H. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ vitrification large-scale operational acceptance test analysis

Description: A thermal treatment process is currently under study to provide possible enhancement of in-place stabilization of transuranic and chemically contaminated soil sites. The process is known as in situ vitrification (ISV). In situ vitrification is a remedial action process that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides into a glass-like material that renders contaminants substantially less mobile and less likely to impact the environment. A large-scale operational acceptance test (LSOAT) was recently completed in which more than 180 t of vitrified soil were produced in each of three adjacent settings. The LSOAT demonstrated that the process conforms to the functional design criteria necessary for the large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) to be conducted following verification of the performance capabilities of the process. The energy requirements and vitrified block size, shape, and mass are sufficiently equivalent to those predicted by the ISV mathematical model to confirm its usefulness as a predictive tool. The LSOAT demonstrated an electrode replacement technique, which can be used if an electrode fails, and techniques have been identified to minimize air oxidation, thereby extending electrode life. A statistical analysis was employed during the LSOAT to identify graphite collars and an insulative surface as successful cold cap subsidence techniques. The LSOAT also showed that even under worst-case conditions, the off-gas system exceeds the flow requirements necessary to maintain a negative pressure on the hood covering the area being vitrified. The retention of simulated radionuclides and chemicals in the soil and off-gas system exceeds requirements so that projected emissions are one to two orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentrations of contaminants at the stack.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Buelt, J.L. & Carter, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed classification scheme for high-level and other radioactive wastes

Description: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 defines high-level radioactive waste (HLW) as: (A) the highly radioactive material resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel....that contains fission products in sufficient concentrations; and (B) other highly radioactive material that the Commission....determines....requires permanent isolation. This paper presents a generally applicable quantitative definition of HLW that addresses the description in paragraph (B). The approach also results in definitions of other waste classes, i.e., transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). A basic waste classification scheme results from the quantitative definitions.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Kocher, D.C. & Croff, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nature of glass leaching

Description: Several models have been proposed in the literature to describe glass leaching behavior in aqueous solutions, but they are primarily applicable to relatively simple glasses. Their shortcoming is that they do not incorporate enough of the phenomena occurring during leaching. Leaching characteristics of a complex waste containment glass are discussed. Gamma irradiation increases the leach rates. Since bulk diffusion does not play a major role in leaching, the existing models are totally indequate for complex glasses. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DLC)
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: McVay, G.L. & Buckwalter, C.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vitrification of underground storage tanks: Technology development, regulatory issues, and cost analysis

Description: In situ vitrification (ISV), developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), is a thermal treatment process for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste sites. The process has been broadly patented both domestically and abroad. Since the inception of ISV in 1980, developmental activities have been focused on applications to contaminated soils, and more recently the potential for application to buried wastes and underground structures (tanks). Research performed to date on the more advanced ISV applications (i.e., application to buried wastes and underground tanks) shows that significant technical and economic potential exists for using ISV to treat buried wastes and underground structures containing radionuclides and/or hazardous constituents. Present ISV applications are directed to the treatment of contaminated soils; the likelihood of using ISV to treat underground tanks depends on the resolution of significant technical and institutional issues related to this advanced application. This paper describes the ISV process and summarizes the technical progress of underground tank vitrification (UTV), discusses pertinent regulatory issues facing the use of UTV, and presents the potential cost of UTV relative to other remedial action alternatives.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Tixier, J.S.; Corathers, L.A. & Anderson, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)

Description: This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B. & McKee, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

Description: The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40/sup 0/C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Buelt, J.L. & Barnes, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site selection criteria for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

Description: Twelve site selection criteria are presented. These are: (1) site shall be of sufficient area and depth to accommodate the projected volume of waste and a three dimensional buffer zone; (2) site should allow waste to be buried either completely above or below the transition zone between the unsaturated and saturated zones; (3) site should be located where flooding will not jeopardize performance; (4) site should be located where erosion will not jeopardize performance; (5) site should be located in areas where hydrogeologic conditions allow reliable performance prediction; (6) site should be located where geologic hazards will not jeopardize performance; (7) site should be selected with considerations given to those characteristics of earth materials and water chemistry that favor increased residence times and/or attenuation of radionuclide concentrations within site boundaries; (8) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected population distributions; (9) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected land use and resource development; (10) site should be selected with consideration given to location of waste generation, access to all-weather highway and rail routes, and access utilities; (11) site should be selected consistent with federal laws and regulations; (12) site should not be located within areas that are protected from such use by federal laws and regulations. These criteria are considered preliminary and do not necessarily represent the position of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C. & Mizell, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department