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Managing the Department of Energy's hazardous and mixed defense wastes

Description: Like other large and complex industries, the nuclear weapons programs produce hazardous chemical wastes, many of which require special handling for the protection of health, safety, and the environment. This requires the interaction of a multiplicity of organizational entities. The HAZWRAP was established to provide centralized planning and technical support for DP RCRA- and CERCLA-related activities. The benefits of a centralized program integrator include DP-wide consistency in regulatory compliance, effective setting and execution of priorities, and development of optimal long-term waste management strategies for the DP complex.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Daly, G.H.; Sharples, F.E. & McBrayer, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

Description: A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: MacKenzie, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive waste package acceptance criteria

Description: Preliminary acceptance criteria have been developed for packages containing nuclear waste which must be stored or disposed of by the US Department of Energy. Acceptance criteria are necessary to ensure that the waste packages are compatible with all elements of the Waste Management System. The acceptance criteria are subject to revision since many of the constraints that will be imposed on the waste packages by the Waste Management System have either not been defined or are being revised. Delineation of the acceptance criteria will provide bases for handling, transporting and disposing of the commercial waste.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Moore, E. L. & Calmus, D. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Characterization Center program plan

Description: The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) has been established at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Materials Characterization Organization for providing an authoritative, referenceable basis for establishing nuclear waste material properties and test methods. The MCC will provide a data base that will include information on the components of the waste emplacement package - the spent fuel or processed waste form and the engineered barriers - and their interaction with each other and as affected by the environment. The MCC will plan materials testing, develop and document procedures, collect and analyze existing materials data, and conduct tests as necessary.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Nelson, R.D.; Ross, W.A.; Hill, O.F.; Mendel, J.E.; Merz, M.D. & Turcotte, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas generation from transuranic waste degradation: an interim assessment

Description: A review of all available, applicable data pertaining to gas generation from the degradation of transuranic waste matrix material and packaging is presented. Waste forms are representative of existing defense-related TRU wastes and include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, concrete, process sludges, and mild steel. Degradation mechanisms studied were radiolysis, thermal, bacterial, and chemical corrosion. Gas generation rates are presented in terms of moles of gas produced per year per drum, and in G(gas) values for radiolytic degradation. Comparison of generation rates is made, as is a discussion of potential short- and long-term concerns. Techniques for reducing gas generation rates are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Molecke, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

Description: Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Hutchison, D. & Magleby, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sources, amounts, and characteristics of low-level radioactive solid wastes

Description: Low-level radioactive solid wastes (LLW) are generated in the nuclear fuel cycle, national defense programs, institutional (especially medical/biological) applications, and other research and development activities. The estimated total accumulation of defense LLW, approx. 50.8 x 10/sup 6/ ft/sup 3/ (approx. 1.4 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/), is roughly three times that estimated for commercial LLW, mill tailings excepted. All nuclear fuel cycle steps generate some LLW, but power plants are the chief source. From 1975 through 1977, reactor process stream cleanup generated approx. 1 x 10/sup 6/ (approx. 2.8 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/) annually. Spent fuel storage (or reprocessing) and facility decontamination and decommissioning will become important LLW generators as the nuclear power industry matures. The LLW contains dry contaminated trash, much of which is combustible and/or compactible; discarded tools and equipment; wet filter sludges and ion-exchange resins; disposable filter cartridges; and solidified or sorbed liquids, including some organics. A distinguishing characteristic of LLW is a long-lived alpha-emitting transuranic content of < 10 nCi/g; this limit, however, is presently under review by NRC. If it is increased, the amount of LLW would also increase. The nonfuel-cycle waste generation rate in 1975 was estimated to be approx. 7.6 x 10/sup 5/ ft/sup 3/ (approx. 2.1 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/)/y. The majority of these wastes, > 6 x 10/sup 5/ ft/sup 3/(> 1.7 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/), was medical and academic wastes which usually contained isotopes with induced activities of less than or equal to 60-day half-life, neglecting /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Kibbey, A.H. & Godbee, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status and strategy of the U. S. commercial waste management program. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

Description: Management of airborne waste generally involves the following steps: recovery, treatment, interim storage, transportation, and disposal. The recovery (retention) of airborne radionuclides is generally well developed since the first-generation processes have been used for iodine and particulates for decades by the DOE nuclear materials production plants. Later-generation processes have been carried separately through the cold pilot-plant stage. However, the design and demonstration of a hot, integrated flowsheet for the recovery of all airborne species to the extent necessary to meet applicable regulations are still required. Treatment of the recovered airborne wastes is generally less-well developed. Tentatively preferred processes have been identified: iodine-barium iodate and/or silver zeolites in concrete with additives; krypton-implanted as ions in a metal alloy and encapsulated in concrete; carbon-barium carbonate in concrete with additives; particulates-encapsulation of HEPA filters in concrete; ruthenium-ruthenium traps encapsulated in concrete. The technology for interim storage and transportation appears to be straightforward engineering extensions of existing technology, assuming that the waste forms listed above are to be employed. Waste disposal concepts are the least well-developed aspect of airborne waste mangement technology. It appears that the long-lived materials such as /sup 129/I, /sup 14/C, and particulates will have to be emplaced in a geologic repository and that shorter-lived airborne waste may be acceptable in shallow-land burial grounds. The long-range goal of the program is to determine all of the steps necessary to manage airborne wastes.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Croff, A.G. & Jubin, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bibliography of articles on radioactive waste from 1973-1978

Description: This bibliography of approximately 900 citations is a supplement to a study on the content of public information on radioactive waste. The bibliography distinguishes between diferent information sources: national press; general scientific press; nuclear scientific press; nuclear industry/utility; environmental press; and local press. In this bibliography articles which appeared in local newspapers in Michigan and Louisiana were included for the years 1976 and 1977, a time of considerable controversy within these states over the OWI's actions.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Bronfman, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of impact fracture of brittle solid-waste forms

Description: This paper presents a methodology for analyzing particle size distributions obtained in impact testing of brittle waste-form materials. The methodology includes (a) a linear two-parameter lognormal correlation of the weight fraction less than any given size, (b) a mathematical function of the two lognormal parameters to determine the total surface area in terms of a dimensionless shape factor, and (c) a surface-energy constant to predict the anticipated increase of surface area from the known energy absorbed in the impact of the brittle material. Preliminary measurements were made on impacted simulated glass specimens. The analysis is used as an example of the methodology. These results are also compared with reanalyzed impact test data reported by others.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Mecham, W.J.; Jardine, L.J.; Pelto, R.H. & Steindler, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of nuclear waste

Description: Nuclear wastes which are logical candidates for deep geologic disposal include commercial (spent fuel, reprocessing) and defense wastes. It is expected that the 5250 metric tons of spent fuel discharged through the end of 1978 would increase to about 100,000 tons by the end of 2000. The individual characteristics of each waste type (spent fuel, solidified waste, defense wastes) are described in turn. (DLC)
Date: February 14, 1979
Creator: Platt, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact on waste management from the beneficial utilization of nuclear wastes

Description: The beneficial utilization of waste, regardless of the form selected, is a type of interim retrievable storage. The waste is not eliminated from the environment; nor are any waste management problems solved. An inventory of all constituents utilized must be maintained, and all materials must eventually be returned to a responsible authority for final disposal. Ultimately, any decision concerning the large-scale utilization of wastes or waste constituents should be based on a detailed risk-cost-benefit analysis that considers the risk of radiation exposure to man. This is in contrast to the economic value of the particular beneficial use, as well as any additional costs to fuel reprocessing and waste management. Such a balanced study has not been made.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Blomeke, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of alternatives for the future of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. [State and NRC-licensed burial areas; low-level liquid waste treatment facilities]

Description: Regulatory considerations are discussed. Alternatives for the continued operation or decommissioning of the state-licensed burial area, the low-level waste treatment facilities, and the NRC licensed burial area are evaluated. Radiological impact analyses were also performed for alternatives on other facilities. (DLC)
Date: August 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transuranic waste assay instrumentation: new developments and directions at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

Description: The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. This also includes wastes generated in the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities and wastes generated during burial ground exhumation. The assay instrumentation will have a detection capability for the transuranics of less than 10 nCi of activity per gram of waste whenever practicable.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Close, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; West, L.; Smith, W.J.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Techniques for sampling nuclear waste tank contents and in situ measurement of activity

Description: A study was conducted to develop suitable sampling equipment and techniques for characterizing the mechanical properties of nuclear wastes; identifying effective means of measuring radiation levels, temperatures, and neutron fluxes in situ in wastes; and developing a waste core sampler. A portable, stainless steel probe was developed which is placed in the tank through a riser. This probe is built for the insertion of instrumentation that can measure the contents of the tank at any level and take temperature, radiation, and neutron activation readings with reliable accuracy. A simple and reliable instrument for the in situ extraction of waste materials ranging from liquid to concrete-like substances was also developed. This portable, stainless steel waste core sampler can remove up to one liter of radioactive waste from tanks for transportation to hot cell laboratories for analysis of hardness, chemical form, and isotopic content. A cask for transporting the waste samples from the tanks to the laboratory under radiation-protected conditions was also fabricated. This cask was designed with a ''boot'' or inner-seal liner to contain any radioactive wastes that might remain on the outside of the waste core sampling device.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Lawrence, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk assessment method for nuclear fuel cycle operations

Description: A method is described for the identification and preliminary evaluation of potential accidents (release sequences) which could lead to the release of radioactive material from nuclear fuel cycle operations. Potential accident sequences are evaluated on the basis of risk. The basic elements of this method are presented along with its application to a conceptual high-level radioactive waste management.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Pelto, P J & Winegardner, W K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptation of SW-846 methodology for the organic analysis of radioactive mixed wastes

Description: Modifications to SW-846 sample preparation methodology permit the organic analysis of radioactive mixed waste with minimum personal radiation exposure and equipment contamination. This paper describes modifications to SW-846 methods 5030 and 3510-3550 for sample preparation in radiation-zoned facilities (hood, glove box, and hot cell) and GC-MS analysis of the decontaminated organic extracts in a conventional laboratory for volatile and semivolatile organics by methods 8240 and 8270 (respectively). Results will be presented from the analysis of nearly 70 nuclear waste storage tank liquids and 17 sludges. Regulatory organics do not account for the organic matter suggested to be present by total organic carbon measurements. 7 refs., 5 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Griest, W.H.; Schenley, R.L.; Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E. Jr.; Fleming, G.S.; Harmon, S.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A sample compositing strategy for classifying non-radioactive hazardous waste for transport

Description: A probabilistic strategy for sample compositing is developed to minimize the radiometric analyses required for classifying non-radioactive waste for transport. Such waste must have concentrations of total radioactivity that are below an acceptance limit of L = 2 nCi/g. A composite of N different samples must have a radioactive concentration below L/N to assure that no individual sample is unacceptable. Unacceptable samples are eventually identified by analyses of successive splits composited with N/2, N/4, {hor ellipsis} of the original samples. The probable number of such analyses is derived using Gaussian distributions for the composite concentrations, per invoking the Central Limit Theorem. A preliminary compositing strategy, based only on the average concentration {mu}, uses N = L/{mu} to yield a minimum fraction of {approx}2{mu}/L analyses per total samples. These approximations are useful for L/{mu} > 4. Refined strategies, based on both the {mu} and {sigma} for the concentration distribution, define the optimization more precisely. Experimental data from composites of 880 samples of low-level radiometric waste are consistent with the calculated predictions. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Winn, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and testing of Spec 7A containers for packaging radioactive wastes

Description: For a variety of reasons, the containers that have or currently are being used for packaging radioactive waste have drawbacks which has motivated LLNL to investigate, design and destructively test different Type A containers. The result of this work is manifested in the TX-4, which is comparatively lightweight, increases the net payload, and the simplicity of the design and ease in handling have proved to be timesaving. The TX-4 is readily available, relatively inexpensive and practical to use. It easily meets Type A packaging specifications with a gross payload of 7000 pounds. Although no tests were performed at a higher weight, we feel that the TX-4 could pass the tests at higher gross weights if the need arises. 20 figures.
Date: November 19, 1982
Creator: Roberts, R.S. & Perkins, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

Description: The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.
Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Stenner, R. D.; Peloquin, R. A. & Hawley, K. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

Description: The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Clark, D. E.; Colombo, P. & Sailor, V. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of methods for the detection of 10 nCi/g of transuranic isotopes in solid waste

Description: The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission has defined transuranic-contaminated waste as material that is contaminated with greater than 10 nCi/g of long-lived and highly toxic radionuclides. The analyses and techniques that show potential for detection at this low level are reviewed. The physics involved with the methods described is relatively straightforward, but difficulties arise in the actual application of the techniques. Therefore, discussion is concentrated on the application of the analyses, including the necessary calculational considerations and the potential problems that may be encountered. No simple method presently exists for measuring transuranic isotopes in solid waste material at the low level of 10 nCi/g. In the absence of an interfering background (< 1 mR/hr), gamma-ray spectroscopy is the best method available. Monitoring helium production in sealed waste material shows good potential for detection at the 10-nCi/g level. The only other viable method involves a complex procedure of counting spontaneous-fission neutrons, neutron irradiation, and counting delayed neutrons. However, if the minimum detectable level permitted in waste material were raised to ..mu..Ci/g, we would be able to use several more measurement methods detect almost all the transuranic isotopes present in solid waste.
Date: January 7, 1977
Creator: King, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department