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Process Simulation as Applied to Transuranic Waste Management

Description: The National Transuranic Waste System Model (the Model) is a computer simulation designed to evaluate the preparation and flow of TRU waste from generator sites throughout the Department of Energy (the Department) complex to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for disposal. The Model uses process simulation software to predict waste outputs of waste management operations as a function of time over the life of the WIPP. Process simulation modeling is a tool used by many industries, both private and public, to evaluate complex systems. For example a manufacturing plant might use process simulation to determine the possible effects of increasing the rate of production: will there be adequate resources (labor pool, raw goods, transportation capability); can the new production rate be sustained for an indefinite period of time without adding additional infrastructure. Process simulation modeling is also used by various military branches to ensure adequate supplies are delivered in a timely manner. The Department currently uses this technique as the basis for its National TRU Waste Management Plan Rev. 1 (DOE, 1997).
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Brown, M.; Downes, S. & Trone, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TWRS privatization phase I liquid effluent transfer systems engineering study

Description: The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford tank waste. This `privatization` initiative includes design, permitting, construction, operations, deactivation and decommissioning of tank waste treatment facilities. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project is part of the first phase of the initiative. It consists of several sub-projects which will provide key physical interfaces and services needed to support the phase I mission. One sub-project is to provide transfer systems integrated with 200 Area liquid effluent facilities to service the private contractors. This study deals with transfer systems requirements, alternatives and identifies a preferred alternative.
Date: September 30, 1996
Creator: Parazin, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation of the First Shipment of Transuranic Waste by the Los Alamos National Laboratory: A Rest Stop on the Road to WIPP

Description: The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) achieved a national milestone on the road to shipping transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) when it received certification authority on September 12, 1997. Since that time, LANL has been characterizing a non-mixed TRU waste stream and preparing shipments of this TRU waste for disposal in the WIPP. The paper describes the TRU waste identified as waste stream TA-55-43 Lot No. 01 from LANL Technical Area-55 and the process used to determine that it does not contain hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (HWA). The non-mixed determination is based on the acceptable knowledge (AK) characterization process, which clearly shows that the waste does not exhibit any RCRA characteristics nor meet any RCRA listing descriptions. LANL has certified TRU waste from waste stream TA-55-43 Lot No. 01 and is prepared to certify additional quantities of TRU waste horn other non-mixed TRU waste streams. Assembly and preparation of AK on the processes that generated TRU waste is recognized as a necessary part of the process for having waste ready for shipment to the WIPP.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Allen, G.; Barr, A.; Betts, S.E.; Farr, J.; Foxx, J.; Gavett, M.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Value of burnup credit beyond actinides

Description: DOE has submitted a topical report to the NRC justifying burnup credit based only on actinide isotopes (U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241). When this topical report is approved, it will allow a great deal of the commercial spent nuclear fuel to be transported in significantly higher capacity casks. A cost savings estimate for shipping fuel in 32 assembly (burnup credit) casks as opposed to 24 assembly (non-burnup credit) casks was previously presented. Since that time, more detailed calculations have been performed using the methodology presented in the Actinide-Only Burnup Credit Topical Report. Loading curves for derated casks have been generated using actinide-only burnup credit and are presented in this paper. The estimates of cost savings due to burnup credit for shipping fuel utilizing 32, 30, 28, and 24 assembly casks where only the 24 assembly cask does not burnup credit have been created and are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E. & Kang, Chi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire hazards analysis for the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058

Description: The fire hazards analysis assess the risk from fire and determines compliance with the applicable criteria of DOE 5480.7A, DOE 6430.1A, and RLID 5480.7. (Project W-058 will provide encased pipelines to connect the SY Tank Farms in 200 West Area with the tank farms in 200 East Area via an interface with the 244-A lift station. Function of the cross-site transfer system will be to transfer radioactive waste from the SY Tank Farm to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities in 200 East Area.)
Date: February 14, 1996
Creator: Sepahpur, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal testing of packages for transport of radioactive wastes

Description: Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be shown capable of surviving tests specified by regulations such as Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (called 10CFR71 in this paper) within the United States. Equivalent regulations hold for other countries such as Safety Series 6 issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The containers must be shown to be capable of surviving, in order, drop tests, puncture tests, and thermal tests. Immersion testing in water is also required, but must be demonstrated for undamaged packages. The thermal test is intended to simulate a 30 minute exposure to a fully engulfing pool fire that could occur if a transport accident involved the spill of large quantities of hydrocarbon fuels. Various qualification methods ranging from pure analysis to actual pool fire tests have been used to prove regulatory compliance. The purpose of this paper is to consider the alternatives for thermal testing, point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and to provide the designer with the information necessary to make informed decisions on the proper test program for the particular shipping container under consideration. While thermal analysis is an alternative to physical testing, actual testing is often emphasized by regulators, and this report concentrates on these testing alternatives.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Koski, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expected residence time model

Description: The Transportation Technology Department of Sandia National Laboratories develops analytical and computational tools for the US Department of Energy to assess the radiological consequences and risks from the transportation of radioactive materials by all modes. When large quantities of materials are to be transported movements may occur over an extended period of time in what is collectively referred as a ``shipping campaign``. Since the routes over which the shipments occur often remain the same, cumulative exposure to individuals inhabiting the population zones adjacent to the transport links must be estimated. However, individuals do not remain in the same residences throughout their lifetimes and, in fact, move quite often. To appropriately allocate exposures among populations over extended periods of time, perhaps years, requires a model that accounts for three population categories; (1) the original populations residing in the areas adjacent to the transport links, (2) individuals moving out and (3) individuals moving into residences in the designated areas. The model described here accounts for these conditions and will be incorporated as a user option in the RADTRAN computer code for transportation consequence and risk analysis (Reference 1). RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the consequences and risks associated with the transport of radioactive materials.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S. & Kanipe, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines

Description: Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.
Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data quality objectives for the initial K West fuel examinations

Description: The Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were established for the examinations of the first group of fuel samples shipped from the K West Basin to the Hanford 327 Building hot cells for examinations to support the Path Forward recommended to solve the safety and environmental concerns associated with the deteriorating fuel in the K Basins. A separate DQO will be prepared for each future shipment of samples to the hot cells. The material stored in the K West Basin must ultimately be removed from the basin and placed in a stable storage configuration until it can be disposed of in a repository. The condition of the fuel in the closed canisters is a major uncertainty for any of the proposed actions. The major question to answer is what are the conditions of the materials in the closed canisters? The data to be gathered during the canister opening, handling, transport, associated hot cell handling, and examinations will also support decisions related to the Path Forward primarily in areas of transportation and the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) design.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Lawrence, L.A.; Thornton, T.A. & Abrefah, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

Description: The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids
Date: September 11, 1995
Creator: Smith, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project specific quality assurance plan project W-058 replacement cross-site transfer system

Description: This is part of the Tank Waste Projects (TWP) Quality Assurance Program Plan. This document and the Tank Waste Projects QAPP describe the program and the planned actions which WHC will implement, demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of 10 CFR 830.120. Purpose of Project W058, Replacement Cross-Site Transfer System, is to replace the existing cross-site transfer system for transferring waste (via pipeline) in support of the Hanford Site clean-up mission. The transfers will be made from 200 East and 200 West tank farms to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities in the 200 East Area. The new system will consist of a pipe-in-pipe connecting the 241-SY A and B valve pits in the 200 West Area with the 244-A Lift Station in the 200 East Area. The work to be accomplished by W-058 and covered by this QAPP includes diversion box, vent station, piping, booster pump, backup flush system, power lines.
Date: February 5, 1996
Creator: Hall, L. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

Description: This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G. & Tyacke, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Parks, M.B. & Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System certification progress in concept recognition in IAEA regulation

Description: System Certification is a regulatory concept which is intended to expand the scope of radioactive material transport regulations by allowing alternative means for proving compliance with the requisite standards of safety set out in transport regulations. In practice it may allow more stringent requirements in one aspect of the regulations to be substituted for less stringent application in other areas so long as the safety standard provided by regulation is preserved. The concept is widely perceived as the imposition of operational controls in exchange for relaxation of packaging standards, but that is only one possibility in the spectrum of potential actions under a System Certification provision in IAEA or national regulations.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Luna, R.E. & Pollog, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality assurance program plan for cesium legacy project

Description: This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the Cesium Legacy Project. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of cask transportation, project related operations within the 324 Building, and waste management as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations, Central Waste Complex Operations, etc.) are covered in other appropriate QAPPs. The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents.
Date: May 22, 1997
Creator: Tanke, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for cesium chloride capsules with type W overpacks

Description: This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) documents the evaluation of a new basket design and overpacked cesium chloride capsule payload for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask in accordance with the onsite transportation requirements of the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping manual, WHC-CM-2-14. This design supports the one-time onsite shipment of 16 cesium chloride capsules with Type W overpacks from the 324 Building to the 224T Building at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The SEP is valid for a one-time onsite shipment or until August 1, 1998, whichever occurs first.
Date: September 15, 1997
Creator: McCoy, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural safety evaluation of the K Basin railcar and truck applications

Description: There are two rail spurs in the storage/transfer areas of both the K East and K West fuel storage basins. These rail spurs both end at the west edge of the basins. To avoid accidental entry of a railcar into a basin, administrative procedures and rail control hardware have been provided. Based upon a combination of historical documentation and existing adminstrative controls, a maximum credible impact accident was established. Using this design basis accident, the existing rail control hardware was evaluated for structural adequacy. The K Basin rail spurs are embedded in concrete, which permits truck/trailer entry into the same area. Safety issues for truck applications are also addressed.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Winkel, B. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-Site Transfer System at Hanford: long-term strategy for waste acceptance

Description: This report summarizes results of a technical panel review of the current methodology for accepting waste for transport through the Hanford Replacement Cross-Site Transfer System (RCSTS), which was constructed to replace the existing pipelines that hydraulically connect the 200 West and 200 East areas. This report is a complement to an existing document (Hudson 1996); the methodology proposed in that document was refined based on panel recommendations. The refinements were focused around predicting and preventing the 3 main modes suspected of plugging the existing CSTS: precipitation, gelation, particle dropout/settling. The proposed analysis will require integration of computer modeling and laboratory experiments to build a defensible case for transportability of a proposed slurry composition for a given tank. This will be validated by recirculating actual tank waste, in-tank and in-farm, prior to transport. The panel`s recommendation was that the probability of success of waste transfer would be greatly improved by integrating the predictive analysis with real-time control during RCSTS operation. The methodology will be optimized.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Shekarriz, A; Onishi, Y.; Smith, P.A.; Sterner, M.; Rector, D.R. & Virden, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

Description: This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.
Date: August 27, 1997
Creator: McCormick, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

Description: The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.
Date: January 19, 1996
Creator: Mercado, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and Development Program for transportation packagings at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: This document contains information about the research and development programs dealing with waste transport at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper discusses topics such as: Why new packaging is needed; analytical methodologies and design codes;evaluation of packaging components; materials characterization; creative packaging concepts; packaging engineering and analysis; testing; and certification support.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Hohnstreiter, G.F. & Sorenson, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department