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Feasibility study of high-performance pulsed power technology for supporting Hanford Site single-shell tank waste retrieval, March 29, 1996

Description: Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed databases on retrieval methods that include more than 155 companies that have technologies potentially applicable to DSST waste retrieval, including the High Performance Pulsed Power Technology (HPT). This report summarizes the feasibility of the technology for supporting retrieval of SST waste. Other potential applications such as unblocking plugs in waste transfer pipelines are described in Appendix C. The feasibility study addresses issues of implementation, operation, and safety with a focus on strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls of the technology. The feasibility study was based on information acquired from TZN GmbH, a German company that developed and manufactures HPT systems for a wide-range of applications. Marketing partners of TZN for this technology are the German company Telerob and R.J. International, the U.S. representative of both companies. An HPT system is capable of fracturing brittle materials into 100-microm particles using electrothermally-generated shock waves. Until now, the technology has been used only to separate glass, metal, ceramic, and plastic components. One primary application of the technology has been in foundries for removing ceramic molds from metal castings. Metals, except for those that are very brittle, are not impacted by the shock wave. The HPT system is highly effective in fracturing and mobilizing ceramic mold materials contained in the crevices of castings that are normally difficult to remove. The HPT system has also been shown to be effective in separating glass in windshields from their protective layers of plastic; concrete from reinforcing rods; ceramic, plastic, and metal materials in computer chips; and ceramic insulation from spark plugs and high-voltage insulators. The HP`T system has been used successfully to bore a 7-in. diameter hole into hard rock at a rate of 33 ft/hr. The HPT system has also been demonstrated successfully in mining applications.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WRAP process area development control work plan

Description: This work plan defines the manner in which the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module I Process Area will be maintained under development control status. This status permits resolution of identified design discrepancies, control system changes, as-building of equipment, and perform modifications to increase process operability and maintainability as parallel efforts. This work plan maintains configuration control as these efforts are undertaken. This task will end with system testing and reissue of field verified design drawings.
Date: February 27, 1997
Creator: Leist, K.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

Description: Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).
Date: November 20, 1998
Creator: Smith, DE; Piepel, GF; Veazey, GW; Vienna, JD; Elliott, ML; Nakaoka, RK et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

Description: This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.
Date: February 28, 2007
Creator: Horner, Jake A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion Testing of Low-Activity Waste Glasses Fiscal Year 1998 Summary Report

Description: Analytical results are presented on the chemical composition and other physical properties of a glass, given the identification BNFL-A-S98, made at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory' that is representative of the low-activity waste glass composition proposed by BNFL, Inc.* for immobilization of envelope A double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site. This glass was prepared for use in a testing program to be conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Argonne National Laboratory for the purpose of characterizing its long-term corrosion behavior. Detailed examination of the glass microstructure using transmission electron microscopy showed structural features indicative of amorphous phase separation. A remelt was performed on a smaller batch (100 g) to ensure rapid cooling. The glass microstructure was reexamined and showed no evidence of phase separation. Selected long-term (some to 860 d) product consistency tests were terminated, and the leachates were analyzed on tests with three other representative low-activity waste glass formulations (L8- 1, L8-3, and L8-7). The results showed no evidence of corrosion rate acceleration at three times the duration of tests where another well-studied glass, LD6-5412, had been completely altered under identical test conditions. These tests (and others not discussed in this report) provide clear evidence that low-activity waste glasses with at least 20 mass% Na20 can be made that have excellent long-term corrosion resistance. However, glass composition has a large impact on long-term behavior and so careful experiments with several different techniques are essential to ensuring that a particular glass will have good long-term corrosion resistance.
Date: November 25, 1998
Creator: McGrail, BP; Lindenmeier, CW; Schaef, HT & Martin, PF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal--a Bibliography of Unclassified Literature, Part 2

Description: This bibliography of the unclassified literature on radioactive waste treatment and disposal has been compiled from references published in the Nuclear Science Abstracts Volume 11, No. 11 (June 15, 1957), through Volume 12, No. 12 (June 30, 1958). The bibliography brings up to date a previous bibliography published as CF 57-8-138. (auth)
Date: July 22, 1958
Creator: Blomeke, J. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste management safeguards project: History of and recommendations for development activities in support of safeguards of final disposal of spent fuel

Description: Coordinated safeguards assessment and development activities in support of the U.S. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) and international safeguards objectives were initiated in Fiscal Year 1987. Initial technical support activities were performed at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); however, as the priority of support activities changed, direction for the support tasks was transferred to the U.S. Department of State (State), the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE/IS-40), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The direction for technical support activities was established at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA`s) advisory group meeting and subsequent consultants` meetings on safeguards related to the final disposal of nuclear material contained in waste and spent fuel. Task directions for the development of international safeguards in support of the final disposal of spent fuel are currently being provided by DOE/IS-40. A summary of safeguards activities performed by the Waste Management Safeguards Project is provided. Systems for design information verification for spent fuel consolidation and conditioning operations are needed immediately. Safeguards approaches for maintaining continuity of knowledge of spent fuel processed at the conditioning facility and for verification of the final disposal package will be needed within three years. Systems for design information verification of the repository facilities will be needed by the end of the decade.
Date: February 16, 1994
Creator: Moran, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

Description: Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings, designated as K-65 wastes, at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The glass formula developed in this study for the FEMP wastes is a lithia substituted soda-lime-lithia-silica (SLLS) composition which melts at 1050 degrees Celsius. Low melting formulations minimize volatilization of hazardous species such as arsenic, selenium, chromium, and lead during vitrification. Formulation in the SLLS system avoids problematic phase separation known to occur in the MO-B2O3-SiO2 glass forming system (where MO = CaO, MgO, BaO, and PbO which are all constituents of the FEMP wastes). The SLLS glass passed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) for all the hazardous constituents of concern under the current regulations. The SLLS glass is as durable as the high melting soda-lime-silica glasses and is more durable than the borosilicate glasses previously developed for the K-65 wastes. Optimization of glass formulations in the SLLS glass forming system should provide glasses which will pass the newly promulgated Universal Treatment Standards which take effect of August 28, 1998.
Date: July 7, 1998
Creator: Jantzen, C.M. & Pickett, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

Description: The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

Description: This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

Description: (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

Description: This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.
Date: October 28, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

Description: The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.
Date: April 6, 1999
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual update for the Nevada Test Site site treatment plan

Description: This document describes the purpose and scope of the Draft Annual Update for the Nevada Test Site Treatment Plan, the framework for developing the Annual Update, and the current inventory of mixed waste covered under the Site Treatment Plan and the Federal Facility Compliance Act Consent Order and stored at the Nevada Test Site. No Site Treatment Plan milestones or Federal Facility Cleanup Act Consent Order deadlines have been missed for fiscal year 1996. The Shipping Cask, a portion of the solvent sludge waste stream, and eight B-25 boxes from the lead-contaminated soil waste stream have been deleted from the Site Treatment Plan and the Federal Facility Cleanup Act Consent Order, in accordance with Part XI of the Federal Facility Cleanup Act Consent Order.
Date: April 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY98 final report for the expedited technology demonstration project: demonstration test results for the integrated MSO waste treatment system

Description: Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility in which an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MSO vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and a ceramic final waste forms immobilization system. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on operational experience with an engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. The MSO/off-gas system has been operational since December 1997. The salt recycle system and the ceramic final forms immobilization became operational in May and August, 1998, respectively. We have tested the MSO facility with various organic feeds, including chlorinated solvents, tributyl phosphate/kerosene, PCB-contaminated waste oils & solvents, booties, plastic pellets, ion exchanged resins, activated carbon, radioactive-spiked organics, and well-characterized low-level liquid mixed wastes. MSO is shown to be a versatile technology for hazardous waste treatment and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems in DOE sites. This report presents the results obtained from operation of the integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system through September 1998, and therefore represents a final report for fiscal year 1998 activities.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Adamson, M G; Hipple, D L; Hopper, R W & Hsu, P C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transition metal catalysts for the ambient temperature destruction of organic wastes using peroxydisulfate

Description: Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB� s.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Balazs, G B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department