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Feasibility study of high-performance pulsed power technology for supporting Hanford Site single-shell tank waste retrieval, March 29, 1996

Description: Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed databases on retrieval methods that include more than 155 companies that have technologies potentially applicable to DSST waste retrieval, including the High Performance Pulsed Power Technology (HPT). This report summarizes the feasibility of the technology for supporting retrieval of SST waste. Other potential applications such as unblocking plugs in waste transfer pipelines are described in Appendix C. The feasibility study addresses issues of implementation, operation, and safety with a focus on strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls of the technology. The feasibility study was based on information acquired from TZN GmbH, a German company that developed and manufactures HPT systems for a wide-range of applications. Marketing partners of TZN for this technology are the German company Telerob and R.J. International, the U.S. representative of both companies. An HPT system is capable of fracturing brittle materials into 100-microm particles using electrothermally-generated shock waves. Until now, the technology has been used only to separate glass, metal, ceramic, and plastic components. One primary application of the technology has been in foundries for removing ceramic molds from metal castings. Metals, except for those that are very brittle, are not impacted by the shock wave. The HPT system is highly effective in fracturing and mobilizing ceramic mold materials contained in the crevices of castings that are normally difficult to remove. The HPT system has also been shown to be effective in separating glass in windshields from their protective layers of plastic; concrete from reinforcing rods; ceramic, plastic, and metal materials in computer chips; and ceramic insulation from spark plugs and high-voltage insulators. The HP`T system has been used successfully to bore a 7-in. diameter hole into hard rock at a rate of 33 ft/hr. The HPT system has also been demonstrated successfully in mining applications.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WRAP process area development control work plan

Description: This work plan defines the manner in which the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module I Process Area will be maintained under development control status. This status permits resolution of identified design discrepancies, control system changes, as-building of equipment, and perform modifications to increase process operability and maintainability as parallel efforts. This work plan maintains configuration control as these efforts are undertaken. This task will end with system testing and reissue of field verified design drawings.
Date: February 27, 1997
Creator: Leist, K.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

Description: Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).
Date: November 20, 1998
Creator: Smith, DE; Piepel, GF; Veazey, GW; Vienna, JD; Elliott, ML; Nakaoka, RK et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion Testing of Low-Activity Waste Glasses Fiscal Year 1998 Summary Report

Description: Analytical results are presented on the chemical composition and other physical properties of a glass, given the identification BNFL-A-S98, made at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory' that is representative of the low-activity waste glass composition proposed by BNFL, Inc.* for immobilization of envelope A double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site. This glass was prepared for use in a testing program to be conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Argonne National Laboratory for the purpose of characterizing its long-term corrosion behavior. Detailed examination of the glass microstructure using transmission electron microscopy showed structural features indicative of amorphous phase separation. A remelt was performed on a smaller batch (100 g) to ensure rapid cooling. The glass microstructure was reexamined and showed no evidence of phase separation. Selected long-term (some to 860 d) product consistency tests were terminated, and the leachates were analyzed on tests with three other representative low-activity waste glass formulations (L8- 1, L8-3, and L8-7). The results showed no evidence of corrosion rate acceleration at three times the duration of tests where another well-studied glass, LD6-5412, had been completely altered under identical test conditions. These tests (and others not discussed in this report) provide clear evidence that low-activity waste glasses with at least 20 mass% Na20 can be made that have excellent long-term corrosion resistance. However, glass composition has a large impact on long-term behavior and so careful experiments with several different techniques are essential to ensuring that a particular glass will have good long-term corrosion resistance.
Date: November 25, 1998
Creator: McGrail, BP; Lindenmeier, CW; Schaef, HT & Martin, PF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal--a Bibliography of Unclassified Literature, Part 2

Description: This bibliography of the unclassified literature on radioactive waste treatment and disposal has been compiled from references published in the Nuclear Science Abstracts Volume 11, No. 11 (June 15, 1957), through Volume 12, No. 12 (June 30, 1958). The bibliography brings up to date a previous bibliography published as CF 57-8-138. (auth)
Date: July 22, 1958
Creator: Blomeke, J. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

Description: This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.
Date: February 28, 2007
Creator: Horner, Jake A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes

Description: An aspect of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's nuclear waste management R and D programs has been to develop an evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes. This report describes the process evaluation method. Process worth is expressed as a numerical index called the Figure-of-Merit (FOM), which is computed using a hierarchial, linear, additive, scoring model with constant criteria weights and nonlinear value functions. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the procedure and to point out some of its strengths and weaknesses. Potential modifications and extensions are discussed, and an extensive reference list is included.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Whitty, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maintenance Implementation Plan for the Grout Facility

Description: The objective of the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is to describe how the Grout Treatment Facility will implement the requirements established by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 2.0 Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1990). The plan provides a blueprint for a disciplined approach to implementation and compliance. Each element of the order is prioritized, categorized, and then placed into one of three phases for implementation.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Yoakum, A. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical analysis of DWPF reference canister dimensions

Description: Twenty dimensional measurements were conducted on seven empty Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference canisters. These measurements were repeated after the canisters were filled with simulated nuclear waste glass. An in-depth statistical analysis of the results indicated that changes do occur as a result of filling the steel canisters with glass poured at 1150{degree}C for four of the parameters. While small, these changes were statistically significant. The analysis indicates the maximum dimensional change found to occur after the filling for each variable. Statistical tests were used to determine if canister dimensions do significantly change, and corresponding variance information is presented. The results showed that the four measured parameters affected by filling are bottom diameter, bottom end diameter flange tilt, and lower head mismatch. Significant variability also existed for height, upper weld, ID label, lower head mismatch, and lower head ovality due to the measurements coming from different canisters. Finally, lower head mismatch showed variability caused by the data being taken at different locations on the canister. This location effect did not affect any of the other variables in this way.
Date: September 10, 1992
Creator: Pickett, M. A. & Brown, K. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste management safeguards project: History of and recommendations for development activities in support of safeguards of final disposal of spent fuel

Description: Coordinated safeguards assessment and development activities in support of the U.S. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) and international safeguards objectives were initiated in Fiscal Year 1987. Initial technical support activities were performed at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); however, as the priority of support activities changed, direction for the support tasks was transferred to the U.S. Department of State (State), the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE/IS-40), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The direction for technical support activities was established at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA`s) advisory group meeting and subsequent consultants` meetings on safeguards related to the final disposal of nuclear material contained in waste and spent fuel. Task directions for the development of international safeguards in support of the final disposal of spent fuel are currently being provided by DOE/IS-40. A summary of safeguards activities performed by the Waste Management Safeguards Project is provided. Systems for design information verification for spent fuel consolidation and conditioning operations are needed immediately. Safeguards approaches for maintaining continuity of knowledge of spent fuel processed at the conditioning facility and for verification of the final disposal package will be needed within three years. Systems for design information verification of the repository facilities will be needed by the end of the decade.
Date: February 16, 1994
Creator: Moran, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hanford spent nuclear metal fuel multi-canister overpack and vacuum drying {ampersand} hot conditioning process

Description: Nuclear production reactors operated at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site from 1944 until 1988 to produce plutonium. Most of the irradiated fuel from these reactors was processed onsite to separate and recover the plutonium. When the processing facilities were closed in 1992, about 1,900 metric tons of unprocessed irradiated fuel remained in storage. Additional fuel was irradiated for research purposes or was shipped to the Hanford Site from offsite reactor facilities for storage or recovery of nuclear materials. The fuel inventory now in storage at the Hanford Site is predominantly N Reactor irradiated fuel, a metallic uranium alloy that is coextruded into zircaloy-2 cladding. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has rommitted to an accelerated schedule for removing spent nuclear fuel from the Hanford Site K Basins to a new interim storage facility in the 200 Area. Under the current proposed accelerated schedule, retrieval of spent nuclear fuel stored in the K East and West Basins must begin by December 1997 and be completed by December 1999. A key part of this action is retrieving fuel canisters from the water-filled K Basin storage pools and transferring them into multi@ister overpacks (MCOS) that will be used to handle and process the fuel, then store it after conditioning. The Westinghouse Hanford Company has developed an integrated process to deal with the K Basin spent fuel inventory. The process consists of cleaning the fuel, packaging it into MCOS, vacuum drying it at the K Basins, then transporting it to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) for staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage. This presentation dekribes the MCO function, design, and life-cycle, including an overview of the vacuum drying and hot conditioning processes.
Date: May 15, 1996
Creator: Irwin, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY98 final report for the expedited technology demonstration project: demonstration test results for the integrated MSO waste treatment system

Description: Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility in which an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MSO vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and a ceramic final waste forms immobilization system. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on operational experience with an engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. The MSO/off-gas system has been operational since December 1997. The salt recycle system and the ceramic final forms immobilization became operational in May and August, 1998, respectively. We have tested the MSO facility with various organic feeds, including chlorinated solvents, tributyl phosphate/kerosene, PCB-contaminated waste oils & solvents, booties, plastic pellets, ion exchanged resins, activated carbon, radioactive-spiked organics, and well-characterized low-level liquid mixed wastes. MSO is shown to be a versatile technology for hazardous waste treatment and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems in DOE sites. This report presents the results obtained from operation of the integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system through September 1998, and therefore represents a final report for fiscal year 1998 activities.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Adamson, M G; Hipple, D L; Hopper, R W & Hsu, P C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transition metal catalysts for the ambient temperature destruction of organic wastes using peroxydisulfate

Description: Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB� s.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Balazs, G B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

Description: This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.
Date: January 17, 1997
Creator: Wagner, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

Description: This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Hatch, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

Description: (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

Description: The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).
Date: August 12, 1997
Creator: Engelmann, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

Description: Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings, designated as K-65 wastes, at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The glass formula developed in this study for the FEMP wastes is a lithia substituted soda-lime-lithia-silica (SLLS) composition which melts at 1050 degrees Celsius. Low melting formulations minimize volatilization of hazardous species such as arsenic, selenium, chromium, and lead during vitrification. Formulation in the SLLS system avoids problematic phase separation known to occur in the MO-B2O3-SiO2 glass forming system (where MO = CaO, MgO, BaO, and PbO which are all constituents of the FEMP wastes). The SLLS glass passed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) for all the hazardous constituents of concern under the current regulations. The SLLS glass is as durable as the high melting soda-lime-silica glasses and is more durable than the borosilicate glasses previously developed for the K-65 wastes. Optimization of glass formulations in the SLLS glass forming system should provide glasses which will pass the newly promulgated Universal Treatment Standards which take effect of August 28, 1998.
Date: July 7, 1998
Creator: Jantzen, C.M. & Pickett, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering study TWRS privatization phase I roads and rail system modifications

Description: The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called privatization and includes design, permitting , construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project is part of the first phase of the initiative. It consists of several sub-projects which will provide key physical interfaces and services needed to support the privatization mission. One sub-project is to establish transport system changes needed to support the privatization initiative. Specifically, this study identifies the road and rail system modifications needed to service the privatization site in 2OOE; an area previously developed and characterized for Grout Disposal.
Date: September 30, 1996
Creator: Ackerman, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department