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WRAP process area development control work plan

Description: This work plan defines the manner in which the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module I Process Area will be maintained under development control status. This status permits resolution of identified design discrepancies, control system changes, as-building of equipment, and perform modifications to increase process operability and maintainability as parallel efforts. This work plan maintains configuration control as these efforts are undertaken. This task will end with system testing and reissue of field verified design drawings.
Date: February 27, 1997
Creator: Leist, K.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote telerobotic replacement for master-slave manipulator

Description: A remotely replaceable telerobotic manipulator (TRM) has been developed and deployed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in support of its radioactive operation. The TRM replaces a Master-Slave Manipulator (MSM). The TRM is in use for both routine and recovery operations for the radioactive waste vitrification melter, the primary production device within the DWPF. The arm was designed for deployment and operation using an existing MSM penetration. This replacement of an existing MSM with a high power robotic device demonstrates the capability to perform similar replacement in other operating facilities. The MSM`s were originally deployed in the DWPF to perform routine light capacity tasks. During the testing phase of the DWPF, prior to its radioactive startup in 5/96, the need to remove glass deposits that can form at the melter discharge during filling of glass containment canisters was identified. The combination of high radiation and contamination in the DWPF melter cell during radioactive operation eliminated personnel entry as a recovery option. Therefore remote cleaning methods had to be devised. The MSM`s had neither the reach nor the strength required for this task. It became apparent that a robust manipulator arm would be required for recovery from these potential melter discharge pluggage events. The existing wall penetrations, used for the MSM`s, could not be altered for seismic and radiological reasons. The new manipulator was required to be of considerable reach, due to existing physical layout, and strength, due to the glass removal requirement. Additionally, the device would have to compatible with high radiation and remote crane installation. The physical size of the manipulator and the weight of components must be consistent with the existing facilities. It was recognized early-on that a manipulator of sufficient strength to recover from a pluggage event would require robotic functions to constrain undesirable motions.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Heckendorn, F.M.; Iverson, D.C. & LaValle, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

Description: The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. 38 39 Information provided in this Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 40 200 ...
Date: August 15, 1997
Creator: Coenenberg, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Casting LCOs as adminstrative controls: benefits, drawbacks, and implementation

Description: Most of the facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can be classified as Hazard Category 3, or less, according to the U.S. Department of Energy Standard 1027- 92. Because of the limited amount of radioactive material stored within it, a Category 3 facility is defined as being capable of only localized significant consequences; thus, the safety of the facility and its operating personnel can be ensured with operational controls that are less strict and rigid than would be the case with facilities requiring limiting conditions for operations (LCOs). Therefore, during a recent upgrade of safety analysis reports (SARS) for Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities and the Materials Management Area (MMA), the LCOs prepared for the technical safety requirements (TSRS) were rewritten as administrative controls. This paper presents the results, and some of the lessons learned, of this rewriting endeavor.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Kimura, C.Y.; Wan Wannerdam, C.; Brumburgh, G.P. & Chung, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dezincing Technology

Description: Half of the steel produced in the US is derived from scrap. With zinc-coated prompt scrap increasing fivefold since 1980, steel-makers are feeling the effect of increased contaminant loads on their operations. The greatest concern is the cost of treatment before disposal of waste dusts and water that arise from remelting zinc-coated scrap. An economic process is needed to strip and recover the zinc from scrap to provide a low residual scrap for steel- and iron-making. Metal Recovery Technologies, Inc., with the assistance of Argonne National Laboratory, have been developing a caustic leach dezincing process for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tons/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. & Morgan, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for the Central Mercury Treatment System in Building 9623 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: This document discusses the construction of the Central Mercury Treatment System (CMTS) in Building 9623 at the Y-12 Plant, the remediation activities involved, waste generated from the project, and the monitoring schedule of the CMTS. As part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent Program, the project treats groundwater contaminated with mercury from Buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4 at the Y-12 Plant to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits for discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek. The CMTS, located in Building 9623, will treat water from the sumps of buildings in which mercury was used in operations and which have been shown to be significant contributors to the overall levels of mercury in plant effluents. This project was anticipated when the NPDES Permit was issued, and the contamination limits and frequency of monitoring for the system discharge are detailed in the permit as Outfall 551. This project was performed as an Incentive Task Order and included the advance procurement of the carbon columns, removal of existing equipment in Building 9623, and system installation and checkout. Construction activities for installing the system started in January 1996 after the area in Building 9623 had been cleared of existing, obsolete equipment. The CMTS became operational on November 26, 1996, well ahead of the permit start date of January 1, 1998. The early completion date allows Hg concentrations in EFPC to be evaluated to determine whether further actions are required to meet NPDES permit limits for reduced Hg loading to the creek.
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y. & Brown, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blue print for building a risk assessment

Description: Federal and stet regulations require the operator of a miscellaneous waste treatment unit to demonstrate compliance with environmental performance standard. A sample risk assessment is demonstrated as a means of showing compliance for such a treatment unit. A new Open Burning and Open Detonation (OB/OD) facility for explosive wastes at LLNL experimental site is used. Simplified, the process of performing a risk assessment consists of characterization of the treatment operation and estimation of emission rates; evaluation of the emission dispersion to estimate acute exposure; and evaluation of human and environmental risks. Each step may require the environmental analysts to perform detained date gathering, modeling and calculations, and to negotiate with facility operations personnel and regulatory representatives. The Risk Assessment Protocol, which explains the assumptions, model selection and inputs, and data selection, must ultimately withstand the rigors of regulatory review and public scrutiny.s
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Otsuki, H.K. & Eagan-McNeill, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of Valuable Chlorosilane Intermediates by a Novel Waste Conversion Process, Phase IIIB (Progress)

Description: From June 1998 through September 1999, direct process residue (DPR, a waste byproduct) hydrogenolysis has been studied at a large pilot plant within Dow Corning's Carrollton, KY, facility. The system reacts filtered DPR with chlorosilane monomers at high temperature and pressure. The process routinely demonstrates DPR conversions from 59% to 89% on a monthly basis. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. An expansion of the current unit's capacity is planned to be on-line by the end of CY2000. Furthermore, a larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning's Barry, Wales, site.
Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: Anderson, Kurt E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sediment Decontamination Treatment Train: Commercial-Scale Demonstration for the Port of New York/New Jersey

Description: Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the operational results obtained from the demonstration facility. ...
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Jones, K. W.; Stern, E. A.; Donato, K. R. & Clesceri, N. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Sediment is accumulating in New York/New Jersey Harbor, and shipping channels are rapidly becoming too shallow for large ships. The Port Authority of New York/New Jersey has determined that dredging of the ship channels is essential to keep them navigable. About five million cubic yards of sediment must be removed per year to keep the channels open. Without dredging, the channels will soon become unusable, and the shoreside shipping and warehousing businesses that depend on them will fade away. The economic loss to the area would be devastating. But the deeper layers of sediment in the Harbor contain a broad range of pollutants that are hazardous to humans and the environment-a legacy of past discharges that are no longer permitted. These include heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins. As a result, there are several million cubic yards of sediments to be dredged per year that do not meet applicable criteria for ocean disposal and must be dealt with in some other way. A possible solution to the problem is to treat the dredged material to immobilize or destroy the contaminants and make the treated sediments suitable for disposal in the ocean or on land at acceptable cost. A variety of technologies can be used to achieve this goal. The simplest approach is to make manufactured soil from untreated sediment. The most complex approaches involve high-temperature destruction of organic contaminants and immobilization of inorganic contaminants. When any of these technologies are used, there is potential for risks to human health from process wastes and from the treated materials themselves. Also, disposal or beneficial use of treated materials may generate other risks to human health or the environment. A description of some of the technologies considered is given in Table 1. Success in removing or ...
Date: July 31, 1999
Creator: ROWE,M.D.; KLEIN,R.C. & JONES,K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

Description: Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides.
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D. & Chen, S.-Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

Description: This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D&D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS.
Date: January 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 15 -- Remediation of organically contaminated soil using hot/liquid (subcritical) water. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

Description: This activity involves a pilot-scale demonstration of the use of hot/liquid water for the removal of organic contaminants from soil at the pilot (20 to 40 kg) scale. Lab-scale studies are being performed to determine the optimum temperature, contact time, and flow rates for removal of the organic contaminants. Initial investigations into using carbon sorbents to clean the extractant water for recycle use and to concentrate the extracted contaminants in a small volume for disposal are also being performed. Liquid water is normally considered to be too polar a solvent to be effective for removal of organic contaminants from contaminated soils and sludges. However, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that the polarity of liquid water can be changed from that of a very polar solvent at ambient conditions to that of an organic solvent (e.g., ethanol or acetonitrile) by simply raising the temperature. The EERC has exploited this unique property of liquid water to obtain highly selective extractions of polar (at lower temperatures) to nonpolar (at 200 to 250 C) organics from contaminated soils and sludges. Only moderate pressures (a maximum of about 45 atm at 250 C and lower pressures at lower temperatures) are required. With this procedure, all detectable hazardous organics were removed from the sludge, thus making the remaining material (about 99% of the original mass) a nonhazardous material. The present understanding of hot/liquid water extraction for the removal of hazardous organics from contaminated soils and sludges is being used to develop the engineering parameters needed to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the remediation technology. Progress during the report period is summarized.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Hawthorne, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA contingency plans and emergency procedures

Description: RCRA requires that owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities develop and implement contingency plans defining effective actions to minimize unanticipated damage from any treatment, storage, or disposal of any hazardous waste. The plan sets out an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to be followed to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or unplanned sudden or non-sudden releases of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents. Contingency plans must be prepared and implemented by owners and operators of interim status and permitted hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.
Date: September 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of coagulant aids at high pH

Description: A series of tests was run on influent to the waste treatment facility, using various polyelectrolytes and organic polymeric coagulant aids. The influent wastewater originates in chemical process areas, janitorial sinks, process-area locker room showers, floor drains, and from the laundry. Previous tests on this waste had shown that Fe{sup +3} and Ca{sup +2} at pH 11.3 gave improved product quality. However, a suitable coagulant aid for use at high pH`s was needed to obtain a rapid settling rate in the flocculation/sedimentation process. Results of the tests showed that Nalco-C627 gave a good decontamination factor while yielding rapid settling rates. Betz-1175 gave the best decontamination factors; however, its settling rate needs to be improved. Test results revealed decontamination was greater at pH 11.3 than at pH 10.1. It is recommended at this time, that Nalco-C627 be used with the Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} high pH system, and that further tests be performed on the Betz-1175.
Date: April 30, 1976
Creator: Koenst, J.W. & Blane, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Monthly report, September 1994

Description: This document is a monthly report for September, 1994 of the significant developments that have taken place at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This report presents a project financial summary, describes the quality assurance programs, project management, and presents a monthly summary of activities for the various treatment operations.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Streit, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WHC-SD-W252-FHA-001, Rev. 0: Preliminary fire hazard analysis for Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility, Project W-252

Description: A Fire Hazards Analysis was performed to assess the risk from fire and other related perils and the capability of the facility to withstand these hazards. This analysis will be used to support design of the facility.
Date: May 11, 1995
Creator: Barilo, N.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope

Description: The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.
Date: April 7, 2000
Creator: WRIGHT, E.J. & STORDEUR, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceptance test procedure for C-018H, 242-A evaporator/PUREX plant process condensate treatment facility

Description: This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation system function as required for this facility. Each company or organization participating in this ATP will designate personnel to assume the responsibilities and duties as defined herein for their respective roles.
Date: August 16, 1994
Creator: Parrish, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory proposes to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) to treat explosive waste at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site, Site 300. It is also proposed to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life in accordance with the regulations. The facility would replace the existing Building 829 Open Burn Facility (B829) and would treat explosive waste generated at the LLNL Livermore Site and at Site 300 either by open burning or open detonation, depending on the type of waste. The alternatives addressed in the 1992 sitewide EIS/EIR are reexamined in this EA. These alternatives included: (1) the no-action alternative which would continue open burning operations at B829; (2) continuation of only open burning at a new facility (no open detonation); (3) termination of open burning operations with shipment of explosive waste offsite; and (4) the application of alternative treatment technologies. This EA examines the impact of construction, operation, and closure of the EWTF. Construction of the EWTF would result in the clearing of a small amount of previously disturbed ground. No adverse impact is expected to any state or federal special status plant or animal species (special status species are classified as threatened, endangered, or candidate species by either state or federal legislation). Operation of the EWTF is expected to result in a reduced threat to involved workers and the public because the proposed facility would relocate existing open burning operations to a more remote area and would incorporate design features to reduce the amount of potentially harmful emissions. No adverse impacts were identified for activities necessary to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

Description: The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

Description: Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.
Date: Spring 1988
Creator: Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E. & Hazen, T. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department