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Technology transfer in hazardous waste management

Description: Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Drucker, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of transient history of underground excavations for radioactive waste isolation

Description: The constraints and phenomena which must be modeled in realizing a rational prediction of temperature history in a radioactive waste repository are presented. The effects of conductive and radiative heat transfer between the waste package and host rock are presented. Results of numerical investigations are utilized to present specific situations wherein analytical approximations to the waste canister geometry may be utilized. The paper also presents the results of approximations to the mean underground repository temperatures. The reliability of both methods of predicting temperatures is assessed through the comparison of predicted temperatures with measured temperatures from the Project Salt Vault field experiment. The design of experiments for model verification is discussed and a specific heater experiment which has been proposed is presented.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Ratigan, J. & Van Sambeek, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues

Description: This document is a collection of executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues. Most of the briefings discuss differences between the US repository design bases presented in US Working Draft on Repository Physical Descriptions in a Salt Formation, prepared in support of INFCE discussions of May 1978 and the FRG-Netherlands design bases, presented in Design Study of a Radioactive Waste Repository to be Mined in a Medium-Size Salt Dome by Hamstra and Velzeboer, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, January 1978. Advantages and disadvantages of the two sets of design bases are discussed, and the impacts of adopting either of these bases on the other's programs and positions are identified.
Date: June 2, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early in-situ measurements program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: The technical basis and description of measurements for the early in-situ measurements program at the WIPP are described and a proposed organizational structure is presented. Measurements are needed for verification of design predictions and also for a prelude to the main experiment program. The design verification measurements will be concentrated in the first shaft and the underground support and access areas. Early experiments will be concentrated in the test drifts on the storage horizons. Recommendations are made to DOE for appropriate division of responsibility among Bechtel, the technical support contractor, the instrumentation contractor, and Sandia.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Wowak, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the regional characteristic of the Devonian shales for the storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

Description: Devonian-age shales underlie a large portion of the northeastern quadrant of the country and are abundantly thick and relatively near to the land surface within the Appalachian, Illinois and Michigan basins of that area. Although these thick accumulations of argillaceous sediments are best-known for their natural gas production and potential, they would also appear to be good candidate rocks for radioactive waste repositories as the shale is generally impermeable, and therefore, relatively free of circulating ground waters to disperse any waste emplacements.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Lomenick, T.F. & Laughon, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

Description: The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Anderson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of the thermomechanical response of Project Salt Vault. Final report

Description: The feasibility of economically and accurately applying Lagrangian explicit finite-difference (EFD) techniques to the analysis of the thermomechanical response of radioactive wastes placed in salt repositories is demonstrated. Three numerical simulations of the Project Salt Vault (PSV) experiment were carried out, using STEALTH 2D, a two-dimensional EFD code. One calculation did not include a model for creep, while the other two calculations used a general model in which creep was included. As expected, when creep was included, it resulted in significantly more pillar shortening and room convergence than when it was not included. The first of the creep simulations (as well as the non-creep simulation) was designed to demonstrate the applicability of the EFD method.The second creep simulation was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of certain numerical parameters, such as zone size and boundary nearness. Numerical data are presented that compare the results of the three simulations to the results of the Project Salt Vault experiment. In the simulations which included creep, the room closure data are in excellent agreement with the shape and magnitude of the experimentally measured floor and roof closures. Temperature histories were also compared at several locations and these data were also in agreement with the experimental values.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Wahi, K.K.; Maxwell, D.E. & Hofmann, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of proposed formats for safety analysis reports for radioactive waste repositories in deep geologic formations. Final report

Description: Two proposed Safety Analysis Report format outlines for submission to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for approval of federal repositories for terminal storage of radioactive wastes were reviewed and comments developed in light of past nuclear licensing experiences and current Regulatory Guides. It was concluded that an SAR format and content guide can be developed within the fundamental framework of Regulatory Guide 3.26 by the incorporation of some additional salient features. Further revision and/or development are needed for ''Site Characteristics,'' ''Facility Description,'' and ''Process Systems.'' Close coordination of the parallel activities contained in the proposed SAR development schedule will be required. Two additional SAR support effects are recommended. (JSR)
Date: September 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mid-plate, mid-gyre seabed assessment program for nuclear waste disposal. Final report

Description: Status of the following tasks is reported: acoustic experiments for lateral and vertical consistency determinations; design, fabricate, and interface core launch and recovery system for C. S. LONG LINES; field test Giant Piston Core (GPC) on Bermuda Rise with LONG LINES, summer of 1976; GPC cruise to MPG-1 in October 1976; core sample analysis and data synthesis for vertical consistency; and acoustic mapping of MPG-1 for horizontal consistency. (LK)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Hollister, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal convection at low Rayleigh number from concentrated sources in porous media

Description: A simple mathematical theory is proposed for the analysis of natural convective motion, at low Rayleigh number, from a concentrated source of heat in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The theory consists of retaining only the leading terms of series expansions of the dependent variables in terms of the Rayleigh number, is thus linear, and is valid only in the limit of small Rayleigh number. Based on fundamental results for a variety of isolated sources, superposition is used to provide solutions for situations of practical interest. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of sub-seabed disposal of nuclear waste. 8 figures.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Hickox, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermoelastic capabilities for the SANDIA--BMINES program

Description: The capability for simulating the thermoelastic behavior of geologic media has been added to the SANDIA-BMINES finite element code. The equations governing the response of a continuum to a known temperature field are delineated in this report. In addition, the specifics of the implementation of the continuum equations into the existing finite element program are described. Finally, the results of validation studies performed to assess the accuracy of the modified program are presentd along with recommendations concerning future research and development efforts in this field.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Tillerson, J.R. & Madsen, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground radioactive materials in 100-H and F plants

Description: At 100-H Area there are 13 locations and at 100-F Area 16 locations where radioactive material was deposited underground. Five of these locations, 2 at 100-H and 3 at 100-F, have been permanently terminated as burial sites in compliance with Radiation Control Standards. They contain solid waste with significant quantities of long-life radionuclides. Burial locations within the 105 Building exclusion fences were not marked with permanent posts as the exclusion fences are sufficient marking for such sites. Other locations not permanently marked were the components of the effluent systems, including the 107 retention basins, 1904 outfall structures and associated piping. Control objectives for these locations were to prevent contamination spreads and limit personnel access for several years. Similar objectives applied to locations where small quantities of liquid waste were released to ground, or small amounts of surface-contaminated materials were buried. At these locations, existing fences and radiation zone signs were left in place. The permanently posted burial grounds contain two general types of radioactive waste: neutron-activated reactor components, and surface-contaminated material and equipment. The activated components consist almost entirely of steel and aluminum. The most significant radionuclide contained in these materials is 5-year /sup 60/Co. The surface contaminants are primarily corrosion and activation products of the reactor cooling water effluent, of which the long-life emitter is the 245-day /sup 65/Zn. The activity at the radiation zoned sites should be measured at the end of 5 years, or before all control is relinquished, to ascertain if the locations are releasable.
Date: October 29, 1965
Creator: Herman, G. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

Description: The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in-situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Brunton, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southern Piedmont

Description: A federal geologic repository is being considered for the disposal of radioactive waste. The geological literature on the Southern Piedmont was studied to identify rock bodies worthy of field exploration for site selection. The study was geotechnical in nature and no consideration was given to socioeconomic factors. There were 13 geotechnical criteria applied in this study of the Southern Piedmont to arrive at a recommendation for further studies on 29 rock bodies. In general, information from the literature included the geometry and depth of the rock body, the lithology and mineralogy of the body, mineral resources, and seismicity of the area. Some rock properties, such as physical, chemical, and thermal characteristics, can be inferred from the lithology and mineralogy of the rock. The subjects on which information from the literature was generally lacking were hydrology and in situ stress. This study was unable to infer the gross hydrologic characteristics from the abundant data in the literature on lithology and structure because few geologic studies report the hydrologic characteristics.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Marine, I W & Bledsoe, H W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of temperature, temperature gradients, stress, and irradiation on migration of brine inclusions in a salt repository

Description: Available experimental and theoretical information on brine migration in bedded salt are reviewed and analyzed. The effects of temperature, thermal gradients, stress, irradiation, and pressure in a salt repository are among the factors considered. The theoretical and experimental (with KCl) results of Anthony and Cline were used to correlate and explain the available data for rates of brine migration at temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C in naturally occurring crystals of bedded salt from Lyons and Hutchinson, Kansas. Considerations of the effects of stressing crystals of bedded salt on the migratin properties of brine inclusions within the crystals led to the conclusion that the most probable effects are a small fractional increase in the solubility of the salt within the liquid and a concomitant and equal fractional increase in the rate of the thermal gradient-induced migration of the brine. The greatest uncertainty relative to the prediction of rates of migration of brine into a waste emplacement cavity in bedded salt is associated with questions concerning the effects of the grain boundaries (within the aggregates of single crystals which comprise a bedded salt deposit) on brine migration through the deposit. The results of some of the estimates of rates and total amounts of brine inflow to HLW and SURF waste packages emplaced in bedded salt were included to illustrate the inflow volumes which might occur in a repository. The results of the brine inflow estimates for 10-year-old HLW emplaced at 150 kW/acre indicated inflow rates starting at 0.7 liter/year and totaling 12 liters at 30 years after emplacement. The results of the estimates for 10-year-old PWR SURF emplaced at 60 kW/acre indicated a constant inflow of 0.035 liter/year for the first 35 years after emplacement.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Jenks, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safeguards for long-term management of radioactive waste

Description: In nuclear material safeguards parlance radioactive wastes are measured discards.'' However, the accumulation of large amounts of fissile materials in wastes over a period of time can be a safeguards concern like waste inventories in the US, which may contain more than 10 Mt of fissile materials. In addition to conventional radioactive waste forms, such as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, and low-level wastes, spent nuclear fuel from commercial fuel cycles is now considered a radioactive waste form in the US. Spent nuclear fuels, placed in underground repositories, have the potential to become plutonium mines of the future and attractive targets for diversion or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. In the context of present strategies for the disposal of these radioactive waste forms, this paper identifies some of the domestic and international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for the long-term management and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. Present knowledge of inventories is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying special nuclear material contents of waste inventories in the US. Good materials management practices during the disposal phase of nuclear wastes should have elements to address issues that are identified here. 12 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Pillay, K.K.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

Description: Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion.
Date: September 7, 1979
Creator: Towse, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Claymax landfill cap

Description: A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.
Date: December 15, 1989
Creator: Selby, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report on uncertainties in the detection, measurement, and analysis of selected features pertinent to deep geologic repositories

Description: Uncertainties with regard to many facets of repository site characterization have not yet been quantified. This report summarizes the state of knowledge of uncertainties in the measurement of porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient; uncertainties associated with various geophysical field techniques; and uncertainties associated with the effects of exploration and exploitation activities in bedded salt basins. The potential for seepage through a depository in bedded salt or shale is reviewed and, based upon the available data, generic values for the hydraulic conductivity and porosity of bedded salt and shale are proposed.
Date: July 10, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental results from Stripa

Description: The results indicate that the temperature fields in a rock mass containing geologic discontinuities can be predicted accurately using the simple theory of heat conduction. Geologic discontinuities appear to introduce significant nonlinear thermomechanical deformation into the rock mass, as a result of which the thermally induced displacements are much less than those predicted by the simple theory of thermo-elasticity. In addition, the assumption that the rock properties are temperature independent appears to increase the values predicted for these displacements significantly. Therefore, it is important that the temperature dependence of these properties is known and that these values be used in the calculations. The onset of significant thermal spalling along the walls of the heater boreholes appears to be related to conditions where the maximum induced compressive stress exceeds the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock. 7 figures.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Hood, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trip report: workshop on risk analysis and geologic modeling in relation to the disposal of radioactive wastes into geological formations

Description: The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), with primary object being to promote international cooperation in developing and using risk assessment techniques for the long-term safety assessment of waste disposal. The attendance was restricted to specialists in the field and a few observers; 43 people were in attendance representing 14 different countries. Nothing particularly new or novel was presented nor any formal cooperation agreed upon. However, there was a feeling that continued informal cooperation was helpful and should be continued. Greater or lesser degrees of formality could be decided later. The U.S. program was definitely more advanced and larger in scope than the others that were discussed. Countries that seemed to have significant programs include the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada, Sweden, and the CEC. Abstracts of papers are presented together with consensus reports on containment failure modes and geosphere transport modeling.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Claiborne, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the Task 2 workshop Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program

Description: The reports from the workshop on waste form release rate analysis are presented. The workshop started with overview presentations on the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP), WISAP Task 2 (Waste Form Release Rate Analysis), and WISAP Task 4 (Sorption/Desorption Analysis). Technical presentations followed in these areas: leaching studies on spent fuels, leaching studies on high-level waste glass, waste form surface science experiments, radiation effects, and leach modeling. Separate abstracts were prepared for each.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Bradley, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety assessment of geologic repositories for nuclear waste

Description: Consideration of geologic isolation for final disposition of radioactive wastes has led to the need for evaluation of the safety of the concept. Such evaluations require consideration of factors not encountered in conventional risk analysis: consequences at times and places far removed from the repository site; indirect, complex, and alternative pathways between the waste and the point of potential consequences; a highly limited data base; and limited opportunity for experimental verification of results. R and D programs to provide technical safety evaluations are under way. Three methods are being considered for the probabilistic aspects of the evaluations: fault tree analysis, repository simulation analysis, and system stability analysis. Nuclide transport models, currently in a relatively advanced state of development, are used to evaluate consequences of postulated loss of geologic isolation. This paper outlines the safety assessment methods, unique features of the assessment problem that affect selection of methods and reliability of results, and available results. It also discusses potential directions for future work.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Bartlett, J W; Burkholder, H C & Winegardner, W K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department