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Technology transfer in hazardous waste management

Description: Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Drucker, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of transient history of underground excavations for radioactive waste isolation

Description: The constraints and phenomena which must be modeled in realizing a rational prediction of temperature history in a radioactive waste repository are presented. The effects of conductive and radiative heat transfer between the waste package and host rock are presented. Results of numerical investigations are utilized to present specific situations wherein analytical approximations to the waste canister geometry may be utilized. The paper also presents the results of approximations to the mean underground repository temperatures. The reliability of both methods of predicting temperatures is assessed through the comparison of predicted temperatures with measured temperatures from the Project Salt Vault field experiment. The design of experiments for model verification is discussed and a specific heater experiment which has been proposed is presented.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Ratigan, J. & Van Sambeek, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues

Description: This document is a collection of executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues. Most of the briefings discuss differences between the US repository design bases presented in US Working Draft on Repository Physical Descriptions in a Salt Formation, prepared in support of INFCE discussions of May 1978 and the FRG-Netherlands design bases, presented in Design Study of a Radioactive Waste Repository to be Mined in a Medium-Size Salt Dome by Hamstra and Velzeboer, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, January 1978. Advantages and disadvantages of the two sets of design bases are discussed, and the impacts of adopting either of these bases on the other's programs and positions are identified.
Date: June 2, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early in-situ measurements program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: The technical basis and description of measurements for the early in-situ measurements program at the WIPP are described and a proposed organizational structure is presented. Measurements are needed for verification of design predictions and also for a prelude to the main experiment program. The design verification measurements will be concentrated in the first shaft and the underground support and access areas. Early experiments will be concentrated in the test drifts on the storage horizons. Recommendations are made to DOE for appropriate division of responsibility among Bechtel, the technical support contractor, the instrumentation contractor, and Sandia.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Wowak, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the regional characteristic of the Devonian shales for the storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

Description: Devonian-age shales underlie a large portion of the northeastern quadrant of the country and are abundantly thick and relatively near to the land surface within the Appalachian, Illinois and Michigan basins of that area. Although these thick accumulations of argillaceous sediments are best-known for their natural gas production and potential, they would also appear to be good candidate rocks for radioactive waste repositories as the shale is generally impermeable, and therefore, relatively free of circulating ground waters to disperse any waste emplacements.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Lomenick, T.F. & Laughon, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

Description: The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Anderson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of the thermomechanical response of Project Salt Vault. Final report

Description: The feasibility of economically and accurately applying Lagrangian explicit finite-difference (EFD) techniques to the analysis of the thermomechanical response of radioactive wastes placed in salt repositories is demonstrated. Three numerical simulations of the Project Salt Vault (PSV) experiment were carried out, using STEALTH 2D, a two-dimensional EFD code. One calculation did not include a model for creep, while the other two calculations used a general model in which creep was included. As expected, when creep was included, it resulted in significantly more pillar shortening and room convergence than when it was not included. The first of the creep simulations (as well as the non-creep simulation) was designed to demonstrate the applicability of the EFD method.The second creep simulation was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of certain numerical parameters, such as zone size and boundary nearness. Numerical data are presented that compare the results of the three simulations to the results of the Project Salt Vault experiment. In the simulations which included creep, the room closure data are in excellent agreement with the shape and magnitude of the experimentally measured floor and roof closures. Temperature histories were also compared at several locations and these data were also in agreement with the experimental values.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Wahi, K.K.; Maxwell, D.E. & Hofmann, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of proposed formats for safety analysis reports for radioactive waste repositories in deep geologic formations. Final report

Description: Two proposed Safety Analysis Report format outlines for submission to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for approval of federal repositories for terminal storage of radioactive wastes were reviewed and comments developed in light of past nuclear licensing experiences and current Regulatory Guides. It was concluded that an SAR format and content guide can be developed within the fundamental framework of Regulatory Guide 3.26 by the incorporation of some additional salient features. Further revision and/or development are needed for ''Site Characteristics,'' ''Facility Description,'' and ''Process Systems.'' Close coordination of the parallel activities contained in the proposed SAR development schedule will be required. Two additional SAR support effects are recommended. (JSR)
Date: September 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mid-plate, mid-gyre seabed assessment program for nuclear waste disposal. Final report

Description: Status of the following tasks is reported: acoustic experiments for lateral and vertical consistency determinations; design, fabricate, and interface core launch and recovery system for C. S. LONG LINES; field test Giant Piston Core (GPC) on Bermuda Rise with LONG LINES, summer of 1976; GPC cruise to MPG-1 in October 1976; core sample analysis and data synthesis for vertical consistency; and acoustic mapping of MPG-1 for horizontal consistency. (LK)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Hollister, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal convection at low Rayleigh number from concentrated sources in porous media

Description: A simple mathematical theory is proposed for the analysis of natural convective motion, at low Rayleigh number, from a concentrated source of heat in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The theory consists of retaining only the leading terms of series expansions of the dependent variables in terms of the Rayleigh number, is thus linear, and is valid only in the limit of small Rayleigh number. Based on fundamental results for a variety of isolated sources, superposition is used to provide solutions for situations of practical interest. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of sub-seabed disposal of nuclear waste. 8 figures.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Hickox, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermoelastic capabilities for the SANDIA--BMINES program

Description: The capability for simulating the thermoelastic behavior of geologic media has been added to the SANDIA-BMINES finite element code. The equations governing the response of a continuum to a known temperature field are delineated in this report. In addition, the specifics of the implementation of the continuum equations into the existing finite element program are described. Finally, the results of validation studies performed to assess the accuracy of the modified program are presentd along with recommendations concerning future research and development efforts in this field.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Tillerson, J.R. & Madsen, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground radioactive materials in 100-H and F plants

Description: At 100-H Area there are 13 locations and at 100-F Area 16 locations where radioactive material was deposited underground. Five of these locations, 2 at 100-H and 3 at 100-F, have been permanently terminated as burial sites in compliance with Radiation Control Standards. They contain solid waste with significant quantities of long-life radionuclides. Burial locations within the 105 Building exclusion fences were not marked with permanent posts as the exclusion fences are sufficient marking for such sites. Other locations not permanently marked were the components of the effluent systems, including the 107 retention basins, 1904 outfall structures and associated piping. Control objectives for these locations were to prevent contamination spreads and limit personnel access for several years. Similar objectives applied to locations where small quantities of liquid waste were released to ground, or small amounts of surface-contaminated materials were buried. At these locations, existing fences and radiation zone signs were left in place. The permanently posted burial grounds contain two general types of radioactive waste: neutron-activated reactor components, and surface-contaminated material and equipment. The activated components consist almost entirely of steel and aluminum. The most significant radionuclide contained in these materials is 5-year /sup 60/Co. The surface contaminants are primarily corrosion and activation products of the reactor cooling water effluent, of which the long-life emitter is the 245-day /sup 65/Zn. The activity at the radiation zoned sites should be measured at the end of 5 years, or before all control is relinquished, to ascertain if the locations are releasable.
Date: October 29, 1965
Creator: Herman, G. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Index of hazard for radioactive waste (revised). Interim technical report PR 78-10-80R

Description: This is an interim report of a study to establish a risk measure for radioactive waste repositories and to generate radiological performance objectives. The problem of regulating radioactive waste repositories is reviewed, and the difficulties associated with this activity are discussed. Risk-benefit analysis as a tool for regulation has been suggested, and its contribution is assessed. Decision analysis as a development of risk-benefit analysis is suggested as an alternative approach, in particular, employing the concept of expected utility. A utility function which describes the possible consequences of a radioactive waste repository is discussed in some detail, paying particular attention to the public concerns which must be addressable through such a function and how it is recommended to capture them. A specific utility function is developed, and its elicitation from a particular subject is described. The representation of public values in a decision-analytic approach presents some problems and these are fully discussed; recommendations are made as to appropriate methods to carry this out. The vexed question of determining an acceptable safety limit is studied and recommendations are made concerning the most suitable way to determine ''how safe is safe enough.'' Finally a brief discussion is given of how these concepts may be employed to generate radiological performance objectives.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Watson, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-dimensional simulation of the thermomechanical response of project salt vault including the excavation sequence. Final report

Description: Based on comparisons of the present four-room sequential excavation calculational results with previous two-room simultaneous excavation results and the experimental results, the following may be concluded: (1) The sequence of excavation plays no role in overall deformation response of rooms and pillars, provided that sufficient time (approx. 6 months) lapse exists between the last excavation and the start of the heat source. (2) The assumption of a symmetry plane between Rooms 2 and 3 is valid in modeling the Project Salt Vault experiment. (3) In a realistic simulation, one should allow the creep deformations to occur on real time scale even during the period when no thermal source is active (e.g., between standard day 540 and standard day 806). In particular, reference is made to the two-room sensitivity calculation which was started at standard day 806. In that calculation the creep stain rates at day 806, and cumulative strains until day 806 were erroneous. However, the overall thermomechanical response was still in fairly good agreement with the experimental data. 7 figures.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Wahi, H.K.; Maxwell, D.E. & Hofmann, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Buoyant movement of nuclear waste canisters in marine sediments

Description: Coupled creep and heat transfer calculations have been performed to assess the potential for large movements of waste canisters buried in marine sediments. Results using a creep constitutive model established from data reported in published literature indicate that, although upward movement is predicted, the effective deviatoric stress levels are sufficiently low that creep rates would eventually diminish to zero.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Dawson, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revised concept for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: The quantities of remotely handled wastes that must be handled at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have been reduced from 250 x 10/sup 3/ ft/sup 3//y to 10 x 10/sup 3/ ft/sup 3//y; the capital cost of the facility will be reduced from 534 to 428 million dollars. Changes in the facility design due to the reduction in the amount of remote-handled waste are discussed. If DOE should exercise its option to construct a high-level waste repository concurrently with the construction of the revised design, with both facilities receiving waste in 1985, the combined cost would be about 580 million dollars. However, it is unlikely that significant quantities of high-level waste in a form suitable for geologic disposal would be available until after 1990. (13 figures, 5 tables) (DLC)
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Dennis, A.W.; Milloy, J.A.; Scully, L.W.; Shefelbine, H.C.; Stinebaugh, R.E. & Wowak, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site selection report basalt waste isolation program near-surface test facility

Description: A site selection committee was established to review the information gathered on potential sites and to select a site for the Near-Surface Test Facility Phase I. A decision was made to use a site on the north face of Gable Mountain located on the Hanford Site. This site provided convenient access to the Pomona Basalt Flow. This flow was selected for use at this site because it exhibited the characteristics established in the primary criteria. These criteria were: the flows thickness; its dryness; its nearness to the surface; and, its similarities to basalt units which are candidates for the repository. After the selection of the Near-Surface Test Facility Phase I Site, the need arose for an additional facility to demonstrate safe handling, storage techniques, and the physical effects of radioactive materials on an in situ basalt formation. The committee reviewed the sites selected for Phase I and chose the same site for locating Phase II of the Near-Surface Test Facility.
Date: December 4, 1978
Creator: Sharpe, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 4. Supplement 1: Cost estimate

Description: The costs for injecting 3 million gallons of waste/grout mix in 200,000-gallon batches over 2 years are estimated to be 9.75 million dollars (including direct, indirect, operational, and decommissioning costs). (DLC)
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Burgess, A.S. & Thompson, S.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive waste isolation

Description: This paper has considered some of the concepts involved in the design of underground radioactive waste repositories. Obviously, the final designs must be tailored to the conditions that exist at a particular site. Work is in progress on site selection, conceptual designs of facilities and underground workings, and the more basic research work needed to provide a firm basis for successful repository design and operation.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: McClain, W.C. & Russell, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WIPP facility design

Description: In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility there will be one waste-handling building, divided into two areas, one for contract-handled transuranic contaminated waste (CH/ TRU), and the other for remote-handled transuranic contaminated waste (RH TRU), and experiments. Between the two sections of the building will be the shaft to lower the waste to the storage horizons. The CH facility is being designed to handle 500,000 ft/sup 3/ per year of CH TRU waste on a one-shift-per-day basis. On a three-shifts-per-day basis the rate would be approximately 1,200,000 ft/sup 3/ per year. Only solid waste forms will be received and will be packaged in boxes and 55-gallon drums. The RH facility will accommodate approximately two canisters per day of remote-handled solid waste. The canisters will be aproximately 1 to 2 feet in diameter and 10 to 16 feet long. Access to the underground will be through four shafts: (1) men and materials and fresh air (16 feet diameter), (2) construction air exhaust and salt removal (14 feet diameter), (3) storage air exhaust (14 feet diameter), and (4) waste-handling (19 feet diameter). The storage area will be on two levels--the upper level, at approximately 2100 feet, will be for CH TRU waste, and the lower level, at approximately 2700 feet, will be for RH TRU and experiments. If there is a demonstration of spent fuel disposal, as proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE), it will also be on the lower horizon. The storage rooms on the upper horizon will be approximately 16 feet high, 45 feet wide, and 1800 feet long. The rooms on the lower horizon will be smaller, approximately 24 feet high, 14 feet wide, and 500 feet long. On both horizons the storage rooms are developed off of a four-entry system, one for construction equipment and fresh air, ...
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Scully, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field evaluation of a tensiometer data acquisition system for hydrologic studies of waste disposal site design. [Shallow land burial]

Description: Commercially available differential pressure transducers, tensiometers and a data acquisition system were combined to study soil water tension changes with time within two trench cap designs used for the shallow land burial of waste materials. Apparent diurnal variations in soil water tension measured with this system are evaluated relative to field variations in temperature, atmospheric pressure and soil water content. Ongoing research is described which should improve the reliability of future soil water tension data collected in the field. 10 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J. & Gaylor, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

Description: The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in-situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Brunton, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department