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Jigging, Classification, Tabling, and Flotation Tests of Coals Presenting Difficult Washing Problems, with Particular Reference to Coals from Pierce County, Washington

Description: From Content and Arrangement of Report: "For the convenience of the reader the bulletin has been divided into two parts. Part I describes the investigation and summarizes the most important results. Part II gives the detailed data of the best of the washing tests by each process."
Date: 1931
Creator: Bird, B. M. & Marshall, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-Washing Investigations: Methods and Tests

Description: From Introduction: "The investigations described in this bulletin are confined to a study of the washing characteristics of bituminous coals. The washing characteristics of coals from many of the most important coal-producing fields of the Eastern and Central States were examined."
Date: 1929
Creator: Yancey, H. F. & Fraser, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium wash station operational testing report

Description: This document provides the test report for the Operability Test Procedure (OTP) performed on the Westinghouse Hanford Company developed Sodium Wash Station. The purpose of the Sodium Wash Station is to provide the capability to control and monitor the water vapor nitrogen reaction of sodium remaining in drained tanks and other components.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Knotek, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE MODIFIED DESIGN OF THE 25-DISK ROTARY MICROFILTER

Description: This report details redesign of a commercially available rotary microfilter to meet the operational and maintenance requirements for radioactive service. Personnel developed the design and coordinated procurement of two filters followed by testing of one unit. System testing examined the ability to rinse soluble material from the system, filtration performance using several insoluble solids loadings, effectiveness in washing sludge, amount of wear to parts and maintenance of the system including the insertion and removal of the filter stack, and the ability to flush solids from the system. The test program examined flushing the filter for soluble material by filling the system with a Rhodamine WT dye solution. Results showed that draining the system and rinsing with 50 gallons of water resulted in grater than 100X reduction of the dye concentration. Personnel determined filter performance using various amounts of insoluble sludge solids ranging from 0.06 to 15 weight percent (wt%) insoluble solids in a 3 molar (M) sodium simulated supernate. Through approximately 120 hours of start-and-stop (i.e., day shift) operation and various insoluble solids loadings, the filter produced filtration rates between 3 and 7 gallons per minute (gpm) (0.12-0.29 gpm/ft{sup 2}) for a 25-disk filter. Personnel washed approximately 80 gallons of simulated sludge using 207 gallons of inhibited water. Washing occurred at constant volume with wash water fed to a well mixed tank at the same rate as filtrate removal. Performance measurement involved collecting and analyzing samples throughout the washing for density and sodium content. Results showed an effective washing, mimicking a predicted dilution calculation for a well mixed tank and reducing the sodium concentration from 3.2 M to less than 0.3 M. Filtration rates during the washing process ranged between 3 and 4.3 gpm for one filter unit. The filter system then concentrated the washed 15 wt% insoluble solids slurry ...
Date: September 29, 2006
Creator: Herman, D; Michael Poirier, M & Samuel Fink, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Washing Machine]

Description: Photograph of a girl doing laundry on the porch. In the image, a young boy can be seen playing with a dog while another little girl looks.
Date: unknown
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER

Description: Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.
Date: March 31, 1998
Creator: LIN, C.L.; LUTTRELL, G.H.; ADEL, G.T. & MILLER, JAN D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Home Laundering

Description: Report giving recommendations for easing the burden on housekeepers of washing and ironing laundry at home. Among the most important labor-saving devices for housekeepers is the establishment of a separate room in the home for laundry. The laundry room should be furnished with equipment such as tubs, wringers, washboards, boilers, and irons. Laundering methods are also discussed as well as community and commercial laundries.
Date: 1920
Creator: Balderston, Lydia Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular conformation changes in alkylthiols ligands as afunction of size in gold nanoparticles

Description: The bonding of hexanethiols to gold nanoparticles of 1.5, 2.0 and 3 nm was studied using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The XANES spectra revealed that a substantial fraction of hexanethiol molecules were weakly bound, in addition to the molecules forming covalent bonds with Au surface atoms. The weakly bound molecules could be easily removed by washing in dichloromethane. After removal of the weakly bound molecules the S K-edge XANES spectrum reveals peaks due to S-Au and S-C bonds with intensities that change as a function of particle size. We explain this as the result of distortions occurring in the molecules adsorbed on the smaller particles. The distortions arise from the poor packing due to the high curvature of the particles. In addition, EXAFS results show that the smaller particles bind more molecules per Au atom than the larger ones, which is again interpreted as a result of the curved nature of the surface.
Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Ramallo-Lopez, J.M.; Giovanetti, L.J.; Requejo, F.G.; Isaacs,S.R.; Shon, Y.S. & Salmeron, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent problems in first PUREX cycle

Description: In March, 1988, the first PUREX cycle suffered uranium contamination of the solvent, 30% TBP in n-paraffin. Initial indication of maloperation was uranium contamination of the plutonium product stream, 1BP. Uranium in relatively large quantities, 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}4} g/L, was found in the solvent in Tank 14.7. This tank contains first cycle solvent that has been through the solvent washing system and is destined for return back to the cycle. Solvent, contained in Tank 14.7 under normal operating conditions, has <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g U/L following the carbonate-acid-carbonate washing sequence. Work at SRL showed that the interfacial tension of the contaminated solvent, as sampled, was 2.5, indicating that substances, possibly long chain acids, were present that could affect disengaging times for the solvent. Virgin 30% TBP in n-paraffin has a interfacial tension of around 10 or better, for example. Tests conducted by Reif also showed that the contaminated solvent picked up significantly more fission products, Ru{sup 106} and Zr{sup 95}, than did virgin solvent. The contaminated solvent, following contact with alumina, had a greatly improved interfacial tension of 9.5 and exhibited much less pickup of both Ru{sup 106} and Zr{sup 95}. In a H-Area process testing, contact of process solvent with alumina produced improved interfacial tension values and reduced Zr{sup 95} pickup by the 7.5% TBP used there. From these tests, it is concluded that the contaminated solvent resulted from inefficient washing in the solvent washing system for first PUREX cycle. Nominal solvent chemistry should result if the solvent is properly washed in the carbonate-acid-carbonate process cycle. However, attention and study should be given to this solvent system because of the decline of its interfacial tension values. Such deterioration in solvent quality could be a portent of problems to come. Treatment with alumina, as was done with ...
Date: March 30, 1988
Creator: Holcomb, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A modified release analysis procedure using advanced froth flotation mechanisms: Technical report, March 1, 1996-May 31, 1996

Description: Recent studies indicate that the optimum separation performances achieved by multiple stage cleaning using various column flotation technologies and single stage cleaning using a Packed-Flotation Column are superior to the performance achieved by the traditional release procedure, especially in terms of pyritic sulfur rejection. This superior performance is believed to be the result of the advanced flotation mechanisms provided by column flotation technologies. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a suitable process utilizing the advanced froth flotation mechanisms to characterize the true flotation response of a coal sample. Work in this reporting period concentrated on developing a modified coal flotation characterization procedure, termed as Advanced Flotation Washability (AFW) technique. The new apparatus used for this procedure is essentially a batch operated packed-column device equipped with a controlled wash water system. Several experiments were conducted using the AFW technique on a relatively high sulfur, -100 mesh Illinois No. 5 run-of-mine coal sample collected from a local coal preparation plant. Similar coal characterization experiments were also conducted using the traditional release and tree analysis procedures. The best performance curve generated using the AFW technique was found to be superior to the optimum curve produced by the traditional procedures. For example, at a combustible recovery of 80%, a 19% improvement in the reduction of the pyritic sulfur content was achieved by the AFW method while the ash reduction was also enhanced by 4%. Several tests are on-going to solidify the AFW procedure and verify the above finding by conducting Anova analyses to evaluate the repeatability of the AFW method and the statistical significance of the difference in the performance achieved from the traditional and modified coal characterization procedures.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Honaker, R.Q., Mohanty, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical process parameters for UCO kernel production

Description: UCO kernel fabrication was previously demonstrated at 2 kg per batch. The limiting factors were the size of the sintering furnace and the UCO drop columns. The former UCO drop columns also showed considerable variability in the quality of gelled microspheres. A larger-size sintering furnace and a set of drop columns with an improved design were installed in 1987. The new set of drop columns and sintering furnace, in conjunction with other modular-sized equipment, were designed to produce the reference batch size of 5.5 kg of UCO kernels containing 5 kg of heavy metal (HM). The new equipment was utilized in the manufacture of several 2 kg batches of UCO kernels and ran well. In the process development reported here, the batch size was scaled-up to 5.5 kg. While the equipment is performing as expected, some of the process parameters still need to be optimized. In the body of this document is a description of the process to make UCO kernels via Gel Supported Precipitation (GSP) technology and the critical parameters that were changed to scale-up the kernel batch size to 5.5 kg, while meeting product specifications.
Date: September 20, 1988
Creator: DeVelasco, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

Description: The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C. & Vandegrift, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pretreatment applied engineering, corrosion assessment for tank materials: 1995 final report

Description: For sludge washing to be conducted in existing Hanford carbon steel tanks, there must be an assurance that the tanks will be safe from failure by pitting, stress-corrosion cracking or other failure processes when the corrosion inhibitors present in the waste are diluted during the sludge washing operation. Testing has been conducted previously to define safe operating regimes in concentrated waste environments and moderately dilute waste environments. Due to identification of unsafe operating regimes for moderately dilute waste environments, testing was conducted in more dilute environments to adequately capture the range of possible chemistries during sludge washing operations.Additionally, a small scoping study was performed to identify the corrosion effects of high levels of chloride in the waste environments. Six month exposure coupon tests, slow strain rate tests, and potentiodynamic scans have been completed on a statistically designed test matrix of twenty-four tests.Stress- corrosion cracking was not found for the specimens in the static tests or the slow strain rate tests. Pitting and crevice corrosion was found for many of the solutions, but primarily in the vapor phase. Water line attack at the vapor space/solution interface was common for the range of solutions tested. Gross general attack was found for the specimens exposed to the vapor space of the high chloride solutions.
Date: August 9, 1996
Creator: Maclean, G.T., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals

Description: The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Killmeyer, R.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Ciocco, M.V.; Weldon, W.; West, T. & Petrunak, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decant pump assembly and controls qualification testing - test report

Description: This report summarizes the results of the qualification testing of the supernate decant pump and controls system to be used for in-tank sludge washing in aging waste tank AZ-101. The test was successful and all components are qualified for installation and use in the tank.
Date: May 2, 1996
Creator: Staehr, T.W., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

Description: Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination of matrices containing actinide oxides

Description: There is provided a method for removing actinides and actinide oxides, particularly fired actinides, from soil and other contaminated matrices, comprising: (a) contacting a contaminated material with a solution of at least one inhibited fluoride and an acid to form a mixture; (b) heating the mixture of contaminated material and solution to a temperature in the range from about 30 C to about 90 C while stirring; (c) separating the solution from any undissolved matrix material in the mixture; (d) washing the undissolved matrix material to remove any residual materials; and (e) drying and returning the treated matrix material to the environment.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Villarreal, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an On-Line Coal Washability Analyzer

Description: Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and Cyprus-Amax Coal Company have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project will involve development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from three coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.
Date: March 31, 1998
Creator: Lin, C. L.; Luttrell, G. H.; Adel, G. T. & Miller, Jan D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety evaluation of the ESP sludge washing baselines runs. Revision 2

Description: Purpose is to provide the technical basis for evaluation of unreviewed safety question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs, which are necessary to resolve technical questions associated with process control (sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, temperature control). The sludge is currently stored in below-ground tanks and will be prepared for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility as part of the Integrated Waste Removal Program for Savannah River Site.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Gupta, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boston Washer Study

Description: To help understand the relative performance gains of conventional and high-efficiency washers and to increase awareness of energy/water savings, the U.S. Department of Energy under its Emerging Technologies Program and in cooperation with Maytag Appliances conducted a field-evaluation of horizontal axis washers in a Boston, Massachusetts condo complex. Baseline washer and dryer performance and customer habits were established using 50 participants and their existing, instrumented washers and dryers for a 2 1/2-month period. After the baseline was established, the machines were replaced with high efficiency tumble action washers and moisture sensing dryers, and tested for the next 2 1/2 months. By information gathered, energy and water savings delivered by the h-axis washers as well as impacts on participants' washing habits and perceptions of cleaning performance were determined. Overall, participants saved 41% of the water and 50% of the energy that they would have used without a changeover to the new h-axis washer. The changeover also produced significant dryer energy savings due primarily to the high-speed final spin of the new washer. The Boston Washer Study report details the experiment including instrumentation, data collection and analysis procedures and discusses the impacts on energy, water and detergent consumption as well as customer satisfaction with the technology.
Date: August 6, 2002
Creator: Tomlinson, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges: Results of FY 1995 studies

Description: During the past few years, the primary mission at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has changed from producing plutonium to environmental restoration. Large volumes of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), generated during past Pu production and other operations, are stored in underground tanks on site. The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW immobilization and disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of borosilicate glass produced in processing the tank wastes. This document describes sludge washing and caustic leaching tests conducted in FY 1995 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. These tests were performed using sludges from seven Hanford waste tanks -- B-111, BX-107, C-103, S-104, SY-103, T-104, and T-111. The primary and secondary types of waste stored in each of these tanks are given in Table 1. 1. The data collected in this effort will be used to support the March 1998 Tri-Party Agreement decision on the extent of pretreatment to be performed on the Hanford tank sludges (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 1994).
Date: August 11, 1995
Creator: Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J. & Wagner, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department