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Flight measurements of the velocity distribution and persistence of the trailing vortices of an airplane

Description: Report regarding the measurement of velocity distribution and persistence of the trailing vortices of a propeller-driven fighter-type airplane. Vortex strength did not decrease appreciably up to 35 seconds after the vortices had been shed. When flying in the trailing wake of another airplane, the pilot reported that it was difficult to maintain a precise course and that the disturbance was similar to severe turbulence.
Date: March 1955
Creator: Kraft, Christopher C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charts and tables for use in calculations of downwash of wings of arbitrary plan form

Description: From Summary: "Values of the downwash of a horseshoe vortex in compressible flow are presented in the form of charts and tables. The use of the charts and tables in the calculations of the downwash of wings of arbitrary plan form is discussed. The results of a few calculations are compared with experimental results."
Date: May 1951
Creator: Diederich, Franklin W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Towards a string formulation of vortex dynamics

Description: We derive an exact equation of motion for a non-relativistic vortex in two- and three-dimensional models with a complex field. The velocity is given in terms of gradients of the complex field at the vortex position. We discuss the problem of reducing the field dynamics to a closed dynamical system with non-locally interacting strings as the fundamental degrees of freedom.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Inst.], Elsebeth Schroeder & Toernkvist, Ola
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flux Flow, Pinning, and Resistive Behavior in Superconducting Networks

Description: Numerical simulators are used to study the behavior of interacting quantized vortices and vortex lines in superconducting networks, films, and three dimensional bulk samples. An emphasis is on the explanation of the phenomenological behavior of the ''high-Tc'' copper-oxide superconductors and related model systems.
Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Teitel, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of the relationship between environmental forcing and the structure and dynamics of tornado-like vortices

Description: Axisymmetric numerical simulations continue to provide insight into how the structure, dynamics, and maximum wind speeds of tornadoes, and other convectively-maintained vortices, are influenced by the surrounding environment. This work is continued with a new numerical model of axisymmetric incompressible flow that incorporates adaptive mesh refinement. The model dynamically increases or decreases the resolution in regions of interest as determined by a specified refinement criterion. Here, the criterion used is based on the cell Reynolds number dx dv / nu, so that the flow is guaranteed to be laminar on the scale of the local grid spacing. The model is used to investigate how the altitude and shape of the convective forcing, the size of the domain, and the effective Reynolds number (based on the choice of the eddy viscosity nu) influence the structure and dynamics of the vortex. Over a wide variety of domain and forcing geometries,the vortex Reynolds number Gamma / nu (the ratio of the far-field circulation to the eddy viscosity) is shown to be the most important parameter for determining vortex structure and behavior. Furthermore,it is found that the vertical scale of the convective forcing only affects the vortex inasmuch as this vertical scale contributes to the total strength of the convective forcing. The horizontal scale of the convective forcing, however, is found to be the fundamental length scale in the problem, in that it can determine both the circulation of the fluid that is drawn into the vortex core, and also influences the depth of the swirling boundary layer. Higher mean wind speeds are sustained as the eddy viscosity is decreased; however, it is observed that the highest wind speeds are found in the high-swirl, two-celled vortex regime rather than in the low-swirl, one-celled regime, which is in contrast with some previous results. The conclusions ...
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Nolan, David S.; Almgren, Ann S. & Bell, John B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct observation of imprinted antiferromagnetic vortex state in CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks

Description: In magnetic thin films, a magnetic vortex is a state in which the magnetization vector curls around the center of a confined structure. A vortex state in a thin film disk, for example, is a topological object characterized by the vortex polarity and the winding number. In ferromagnetic (FM) disks, these parameters govern many fundamental properties of the vortex such as its gyroscopic rotation, polarity reversal, core motion, and vortex pair excitation. However, in antiferromagnetic (AFM) disks, though there has been indirect evidence of the vortex state through observations of the induced FM-ordered spins in the AFM disk, they have never been observed directly in experiment. By fabricating single crystalline NiO/Fe/Ag(001) and CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks and using X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD), we show direct observation of the vortex state in an AFM disk of AFM/FM bilayer system. We observe that there are two types of AFM vortices, one of which has no analog in FM structures. Finally, we show that a frozen AFM vortex can bias a FM vortex at low temperature.
Date: December 21, 2010
Creator: Wu, J.; Carlton, D.; Park, J. S.; Meng, Y.; Arenholz, E.; Doran, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport anisotropy as a probe of the interstitial vortex state in superconductors with artificial pinning arrays

Description: We show using simulations that when interstitial vortices are present in superconductors with periodic pinning arrays, the transport in two perpendicular directions can be anisotropic. The degree of the anisotropy varies as a function of field due to the fact that the interstitial vortex lattice has distinct orderings at different matching fields. The anisotropy is most pronounced at the matching fields but persists at incommensurate fields, and it is most prominent for triangular, honeycomb, and kagome pinning arrays. Square pinning arrays can also show anisotropic transport at certain fields in spite of the fact that the perpendicular directions of the square pinning array are identical. We show that the anisotropy results from distinct vortex dynamical states and that although the critical depinning force may be lower in one direction, the vortex velocity above depinning may also be lower in the same direction for ranges of external drives where both directions are depinned. For honeycomb and kagome pinning arrays, the anisotropy can show multiple reversals as a function of field. We argue that when the pinning sites can be multiply occupied such that no interstitial vortices are present, the anisotropy is strongly reduced or absent.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Reichhardt, Charles & Reichhardt, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The time evolution of a vortex-flame interaction observed via planar imaging of CH and OH

Description: Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging diagnostics of OH and CH are used to examine a premixed laminar flame subjected to a strong line-vortex pair. Results are reported for a fuel-rcih lamiar CH{sub 4}-air-N{sub 2} rod-stabilized flame. The flow studied was highly reproducible, which enabled the use of phase-sampled imaging to provide time-resolved image sequences. Image sequences are shown for a condition sufficient to produce localized extinction of the primary flame. Results indicate that a breakage in the CH front is not preceded by any distinct change in the OH front. The structure of the CH and OH profiles during the transient leading up to, and through the breakage of the CH front do not appear to be consistent with the concept of a strained laminar flame.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Nguyen, Quang-Viet & Paul, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metastable states and intermittent switching of small populations of confined point vortices

Description: We have found that small populations of point vortices confined in a box exhibit a variety of new and interesting metastable collective motions, ranging from rigid body rotation to complete chaos. These motions are induced by simulated heating and cooling of the vortices; they do not appear in adiabatic systems. By judicious choice of vortex circulations, heating and cooling rates, and box size, we have produced systems that switch intermittently between several metastable states, that oscillate quasi-periodically, and that show a variety of interesting collective behaviors that in some cases are suggestive of biological organisms.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Schmieder, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elliptical vortices in shear: Hamiltonian moment formulation and Melnikov analysis

Description: The equations of motion for interacting, elliptical vortices in a background shear flow are derived using a Hamiltonian moment formulation. The equations reduce to the 6th order system of Melander et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 167, 95 (1986)] when a pair of vortices is considered and shear is neglected. The equations for a pair of identical vortices axe analyzed with a number of methods, with particular emphasis on the basic interactions and on the implications for vortex merger. The splitting distance between the stable and unstable manifolds connecting the hyperbolic fixed points of the intercentroidal motion-the separatrix splitting-is estimated with a Melnikov analysis. This analysis differs from the standard time-periodic Melnikov analysis on two counts: (a) the ``periodic`` perturbation arises from a second degree of freedom in the system which is not wholly independent of the first degree of freedom, the intercentroidal motion; (b) this perturbation has a faster time scale than the intercentroidal motion. The resulting Melnikov integral appears to be exponentially small in the perturbation as the latter goes to zero. Numerical simulations, notably Poincare sections, provide a global view of the dynamics and indicate that there are two modes of merger. The effect of the shear on chaotic motion and on chaotic scattering is also discussed.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Ngan, K.; Meacham, S. & Morrison, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise Properties of Rectifying Nanopores

Description: Ion currents through three types of rectifying nanoporous structures are studied and compared for the first time: conically shaped polymer nanopores, glass nanopipettes, and silicon nitride nanopores. Time signals of ion currents are analyzed by power spectrum. We focus on the low-frequency range where the power spectrum magnitude scales with frequency, f, as 1/f. Glass nanopipettes and polymer nanopores exhibit non-equilibrium 1/f noise, thus the normalized power spectrum depends on the voltage polarity and magnitude. In contrast, 1/f noise in rectifying silicon nitride nanopores is of equilibrium character. Various mechanisms underlying the voltage-dependent 1/f noise are explored and discussed, including intrinsic pore wall dynamics, and formation of vortices and non-linear flow patterns in the pore. Experimental data are supported by modeling of ion currents based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier Stokes equations. We conclude that the voltage-dependent 1/f noise observed in polymer and glass asymmetric nanopores might result from high and asymmetric electric fields inducing secondary effects in the pore such as enhanced water dissociation.
Date: February 18, 2011
Creator: Powell, M R; Sa, N; Davenport, M; Healy, K; Vlassiouk, I; Letant, S E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vortices wiggled and dragged

Description: When a sufficiently strong magnetic field is applied to a superconductor, some of the field can pierce it through the generation of magnetic vortices, each of which contains a quantized amount of magnetic flux. Although the superconducting state of the material outside each vortex is maintained (and destroyed within each vortex), the interaction of vortices with a current passing through the material can cause them to move, dissipating energy and thereby generating a source of electrical resistance. The ability to manipulate an individual superconducting vortex represents a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of vortices and the superconductors that support them. It could also lead to the development of a new class of fluxon-based electronics.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Reichhardt, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of noise in disordered systems

Description: We use particle dynamics simulations to probe the correlations between noise and dynamics in a variety of disordered systems, including super conducting vortices, 2D electron liquid crystals, colloids, domain walls, and granular media. The noise measurements offer an experimentally accessible link to the microscopic dynamics, such as plastic versus elastic flow during transport, and can provide a signature of dynamical reordering transitions in the system. We consider broad and narrow band noise in transport systems, as well as the fluctuations of dislocation density in a system near the melting transition.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Reichhardt, C. (Charles) & Reichhardt, C. J. (Cynthia J.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Note on Cosmic (p,q,r) Strings

Description: The spectrum of (p, q) bound states of F- and D-strings has a distinctive square-root tension formula that is hoped to be a hallmark of fundamental cosmic strings. We point out that the BPS bound for vortices in N = 2 supersymmetric Abelian-Higgs models also takes the square-root form. In contrast to string theory, the most general supersymmetric field theoretic model allows for (p, q, r) strings, with three classes of strings rather than two. Unfortunately, we find that there do not exist BPS solutions except in the trivial case. The issue of whether there exist non-BPS solutions which may closely resemble the square-root form is left as an open question.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Jackson, Mark G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vortices in dense self-assembled hole arrays.

Description: We present a study of the upper critical field and pinning strength from the resistivity and magnetization of a Nb film containing a dense array of 45 nm diameter holes on a hexagonal lattice with a spacing of 101 nm. The holes were formed by self-assembly in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) using an electrochemical procedure. Confinement effects and Little-Parks oscillations are seen above 6 K, and strong pinning with matching field effects is seen below 6 K. Above the first matching field interstitial vortices coexist with vortices trapped in the hole array. Pinning in the Nb films with hole arrays is enhanced by two orders of magnitude over that in continuous Nb films. At low temperature, flux avalanches are observed and imaged using the magneto-optical Faraday effect.
Date: October 9, 2002
Creator: Crabtree, G. W.; Welp, U.; Xiao, Z. L.; Jiang, J. S.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Bader, S. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of pitch oscillation and roughness on airfoils used for horizontal axis wind turbines

Description: Under subcontract XF-1-11009-3 the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an extensive database of empirical aerodynamic data. These data will assist in the development of analytical models and in the design of new airfoils for wind turbines. To accomplish the main objective, airfoil models were designed, built and wind tunnel tested with and without model leading edge grit roughness (LEGR). LEGR simulates surface irregularities due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. This report is a summary of project project activity for Phase III, which encompasses the time period from September 17, 1 993 to September 6, 1 994.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Gregorek, G.M.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ramsay, R.R. & Janiszewska, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wavy Taylor vortices in plane Couette flow

Description: Path-following techniques applied to a spectral approximation of the solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations have revealed the existence of a new class of solutions to the plane Couette flow problem.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Conley, A. J. & Keller, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure and evolution of the stabilization point of a lifted reacting jet

Description: In this work the authors study the stabilization point of a lifted, reacting jet of nitrogen diluted methane in co-flowing air. The jet flow is acoustically forced so as to organize the large scale vortical structures. The validation of the numerical results is possible through a concurrent experimental investigation of a similar planar jet. The use of an acoustically forced planar jet allows for significant savings by the restriction of the computation to two dimensions; the model is otherwise applicable in three dimensions. The authors based their study on the following parameters, which are derived from the experimental setup: a jet width of 1.16 cm, a mean jet velocity of 0.8 m/s, and a coflow velocity of 0.1 m/s. The acoustical forcing is studied at frequencies of 7.5 MHz and 90 MHz, which have been established experimentally as being characteristic of two broad behavioral modes. The authors restrict themselves to five species and the single step, irreversible, global reaction: CH{sub 4} + 2O{sub 2} {R_arrow} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O (with passive N{sub 2}). This global chemistry is sufficient to establish the characteristics of the flow and the flame structure.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Milne, B.; Devine, K.; Kempka, S. & Najm, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stochastic Vortex Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Easy Plane Ferromagnets: Multiplicative Versus Additive Noise

Description: We study how thermal fluctuations affect the dynamics of vortices in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model depending on their additive or multiplicative character. Using a collective coordinate theory, we analytically show that multiplicative noise, arising from fluctuations in the local field term of the Landau-Lifshitz equations, and Langevin-like additive noise have the same effect on vortex dynamics (within a very plausible assumption consistent with the collective coordinate approach). This is a highly non-trivial result as multiplicative and additive noises usually modify the dynamics in very different ways. We also carry out numerical simulations of both versions of the model finding that they indeed give rise to very similar vortex dynamics.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Kamppeter, T.; Mertens, F.G.; Moro, E.; Sanchez, A. & Bishop, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vortex dynamics and correlated disorder in high-{Tc} superconductors

Description: We develop a theory for the vortex motion in the presence of correlated disorder in the form of the twin boundaries and columnar defects. Mapping vortex trajectories onto boson world lines enables us to establish the duality of the vortex transport in the systems with correlated disorder and hopping conductivity of charged particles in 2D systems. A glassy-like dynamics of the vortex lines with zero linear-resistivity and strongly nonlinear current-voltage behavior as V {proportional_to} exp[{minus} const/J{sup {mu}}] in a Bose glass state is predicted.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Vinokur, V.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods

Description: A `user tracer gas test` was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. The ability of these variables and other tests, such as smoke challenges or tracer gas tests performed with a manikin at the hood, to predict the results of the user tracer gas test is evaluated. All of the laboratory hoods tested in this study were identical bench top bypass hoods with horizontally sliding sashes. A face velocity traverse, cross draft measurements, a pitot traverse to measure exhaust flow, a smoke test, a manikin tracer gas test, and a user tracer gas test were performed on each hood in several different sash positions. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its distribution and variability, and the magnitude of cross drafts relative to face velocity are important variables in determining hood leakage. `Unblocked` vortices, formed such that no physical barrier exists between the vortex and room air or a person in front of the hood, are identified as important sites of leakage. For the hoods evaluated in this study, unblocked vortices were observed along the beveled side edges. The data support the hypothesis that in the presence of a person standing in front of the hood, leakage is more likely to occur if unblocked vortices are formed than if all vortices are blocked. Evidence suggests that cross drafts are more likely to cause leakage when flowing in a direction that may cause separated flow along a beveled edge of the hood and thereby augment the unblocked vortices along the edge. Results indicate that smoke tests, manikin tracer gas tests, and average face velocity all serve as useful monitoring techniques. Face velocity measurements ...
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Altemose, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of separated flow on heat and mass transfer. Final report

Description: An investigation of the effect of flow separation on heat and mass transfer has been completed. This research provided enhanced understanding of fundamental mechanisms governing important heat and mass transfer flow processes. This report summarizes the work conducted under the project. This research has provided considerable new knowledge on flow and heat transfer situations of great interest in a number of energy conversion devices, including heat exchangers, gas turbines, solar energy systems and general heat transfer systems.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Goldstein, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department