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The Coulometric Titration of 8-Hydroxyquinoline

Description: Abstract: "A new method of determining 8-hydroxyquinoline by titration with electrolytucally-generated bromine has been developed. Results show good precision in the range 0.4 mg. to 1.6 mg. total 8-hydroxyquinoline, with 99% confidence limits of less than +/- 2%. An electronically-regulated constant current source, required by the method, is described. A new indicator system with high sensitivity to free bromine is discussed."
Date: June 16, 1949
Creator: Carson, W. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Coulometric Determination of Acid

Description: Introduction: "The need for a method of acid determination which could be used for small samples and easily adapted to remote control led to the investigation of the use of electrolytically generated base for the titration of acid in certain solutions. The use of electrolytically generated base for the titration of acetic acid in the presence of nitric acid has been reported (1)."
Date: March 1, 1950
Creator: Carson, W. N. & Ko, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Coulometric Determination of Acetic Acid

Description: Abstract: "Small amounts of acetic acid, equivalent to 400 ul. of 0.3 to 0.13 g/L. can be titrated coulonatrically in the presence of a 10 to 25-fold excess of HN03 in 70%, isopropanol. An accuracy of +/- 0.1% and a precision of +/- 8.5% (99% limite) are obtained.
Date: August 16, 1949
Creator: Carson, W. N. & Ko, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

Description: The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2.
Date: October 29, 1999
Creator: Green, D.W.; McCune, D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

Description: The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) Identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2.
Date: November 3, 1999
Creator: Green, Don W.; McCune, A.D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New geothermal site identification and qualification. Final report

Description: This study identifies remaining undeveloped geothermal resources in California and western Nevada, and it estimates the development costs of each. It has relied on public-domain information and such additional data as geothermal developers have chosen to make available. Reserve estimation has been performed by volumetric analysis with a probabilistic approach to uncertain input parameters. Incremental geothermal reserves in the California/Nevada study area have a minimum value of 2,800 grosss MW and a most-likely value of 4,300 gross MW. For the state of California alone, these values are 2,000 and 3,000 gross MW, respectively. These estimates may be conservative to the extent that they do not take into account resources about which little or no public-domain information is available. The average capital cost of incremental generation capacity is estimated to average $3,100/kW for the California/Nevada study area, and $2,950/kW for the state of California alone. These cost estimates include exploration, confirmation drilling, development drilling, plant construction, and transmission-line costs. For the purposes of this study, a capital cost of $2,400/kW is considered competitive with other renewable resources. The amount of incremental geothermal capacity available at or below $2,400/kW is about 1,700 gross MW for the California/Nevada study area, and the same amount (within 50-MW rounding) for the state of California alone. The capital cost estimates are only approximate, because each developer would bring its own experience, bias, and opportunities to the development process. Nonetheless, the overall costs per project estimated in this study are believed to be reasonable.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of entrained CSSX solvent from caustic aqueous raffinate using coalescers.

Description: A solvent was developed at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) for a caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) process that removes cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste. After treatment, a small fraction of the solvent is entrained in the caustic raffinate at a level of 100-300 ppm, well above the solubilities for the various solvent components. Recovery of this solvent can produce a potential cost saving in excess of $5M per annum based on a processing rate of 20 gpm. In this study we examined the issues associated with the use of a coalescer for solvent recovery and measured the physical properties of the solvent and simulant. The density, surface, and interfacial tension, and viscosity of the optimized solvent and a full-component SRS waste simulant were determined as a function of temperature. The entrainment of the solvent components in the SRS waste simulant during the operation of a four-stage 4-cm contactor unit was quantified based on chemical and volumetric analysis. The chemical stabilities of several candidate commercial coalescing media in the caustic simulant were examined. Stainless steel media showed little degradation over a 30-day test; polymer media tended to be coated by the organic. A laboratory-scale coalescer was operated in tandem with a four stage 4-cm contactor unit. Results indicate that a 90% recovery of the entrained solvent can be achieved using a commercial coalescer equipped with appropriate media and at appropriate operating conditions. Finally, several commercial coalescer options are discussed.
Date: December 13, 2002
Creator: Pereira, C.; Arafat, H. A.; Falkenberg, J. R.; Regalbuto, M. C. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimentally determined volumetric properties of CO{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} + N{sub 2} mixtures at 20-100 MPa and 323-573 K. Chapter 3

Description: The densities of C0{sub 2}+CH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} mixtures were measured at 20--100 MPa, 323--573 K using a custom-designed high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating-tube densimeter. Molar volumes and excess molar volumes (V{sub m}{sup E}) were calculated from the experimental data. Although (V{sub m}{sup E}) is generally positive, negative deviations are observed in ternary mixtures with compositions close to those of binary mixtures that exhibit negative deviations. (V{sub m}{sup E}) generally decreases as pressure increases from 20 to 100 MPa. As temperature increases, (V{sub m}{sup E}) increases until it reaches a maximum around 473 K, and then it decreases moderately as temperature is further increased. (V{sub m}{sup E}) is typically between 0 and 4 per cent of the total volume of the mixture. Predictions of (V{sub m}{sup E}) for ternary mixtures may be made from experimental data for the binary subsystems. Comparison with experimental data indicates that these methods are reasonably accurate for predicting the volumetric properties of ternary gas mixtures.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Seitz, J. C.; Blencoe, J. G. & Bodnar, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Volumetric properties of CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} fluids at 200{degree}C and 1000 bars: A comparison of equations of state and experimental data. Chapter 4

Description: Predictions of molar volume, excess molar volume, and isochoric P-T trajectories from 13 published equations of state are compared with one another and with preliminary volumetric data for CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} fluids at 200{degrees}C and 1000 bars. The equations of state investigated represent a wide variety of empirical and semi-empirical approaches to the modeling of fluids. The experimental data indicate that excess volumes of CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} mixtures are small (<3% of the total volume of the mixture, except near the critical point of CO{sub 2}). The NIST software package DDMIX yields volumetric properties that are most consistent with our experimental results. Differences in the calculated volumetric properties of mixtures from the different equations of state are significant For example, estimates of the equilibrium trapping temperature of a fluid inclusion (2000 bars, 60% CO{sub 2}-20% CH{sub 4}20% N{sub 2}mixture, V=59.10 cm{sup 3}/mole) calculated from various equations of state range from 462-570{degrees}C. The major source of error in calculated volumetric properties of fluid mixtures is the inability of equations of state to accurately predict the volumetric properties of the pure components.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Seitz, J.C.; Blencoe, J.G.; Joyce, D.B. & Bodnar, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of three options for geologic sequestration of CO2 - a case study for California

Description: Options for sequestration of CO{sub 2} are best viewed in light of the regional distribution of CO{sub 2} sources and potential sequestration sites. This study examines the distribution of carbon emissions from fossil fuel power plants in California and their proximity to three types of reservoirs that may be suitable for sequestration: (1) active or depleted oil fields, (2) active or depleted gas fields, and (3) brine formations. This paper also presents a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of sequestering CO{sub 2} generated from large fossil-fuel fired power plants in California and discusses the comparative advantages of three different types of reservoirs for this purpose. Based on a volumetric analysis of sequestration capacity and current CO{sub 2} emission rates from oil/gas fired power plants, this analysis suggests that oil reservoirs, gas fields and brine formations can all contribute significantly to sequestration in California. Together they could offer the opportunity to meet both short and long term needs. In the near term, oil and gas reservoirs are the most promising because the trapping structures have already stood the test of time and opportunities for offsetting the cost of sequestration with revenues from enhanced oil and gas production. In the long term, if the trapping mechanisms are adequately understood and deemed adequate, brine formations may provide an even larger capacity for geologic sequestration over much of California.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Benson, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

Description: This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The ...
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Kelkar, Mohan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CO2 SEPARATION AND STORAGE PROPERTIES OF COAL GAS RESERVOIRS

Description: An attractive alternative of sequestering CO{sub 2} is to inject it into coalbed methane reservoirs, particularly since it has been shown to enhance the production of methane during near depletion stages. The basis for enhanced coalbed methane recovery and simultaneous sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep coals is the preferential sorption property of coal, with its affinity for carbon dioxide being significantly higher than that for methane. Yet, the sorption behavior of coal under competitive sorptive environment is not fully understood. Hence, the original objective of this research study was to carry out a laboratory study to investigate the effect of studying the sorption behavior of coal in the presence of multiple gases, primarily methane, CO{sub 2} and nitrogen, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in displacement of methane and its movement in coal. This had to be modified slightly since the PVT property of gas mixtures is still not well understood, and any laboratory work in the area of sorption of gases requires a definite equation of state to calculate the volumes of different gases in free and adsorbed forms. This research study started with establishing gas adsorption isotherms for pure methane and CO{sub 2}. The standard gas expansion technique based on volumetric analysis was used for the experimental work with the additional feature of incorporating a gas chromatograph for analysis of gas composition. The results were analyzed first using the Langmuir theory. As expected, the Langmuir analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} is more than three times as sorptive as methane. This was followed by carrying out a partial desorption isotherm for methane, and then injecting CO{sub 2} to displace methane. The results indicated that CO{sub 2} injection at low pressure displaced all of the sorbed methane, even when the total pressure continued to be high. However, the ...
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Kemeny, John & Harpalani, Satya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MASFLO: a computer code to calculate mass flow rates in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). Technical report

Description: This report documents a modular data interpretation computer code. The MASFLO code is a Fortran code used in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Blowdown Heat Transfer Program to convert measured quantities of density, volumetric flow, and momentum flux into a calculated quantity: mass flow rate. The code performs both homogeneous and two-velocity calculations. The homogeneous models incorporate various combinations of the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility instrumented spool piece turbine flow meter, gamma densitometer, and drag disk readings. The two-velocity calculations also incorporate these instruments, but in models developed by Aya, Rouhani, and Popper. Each subroutine is described briefly, and input instructions are provided in the appendix along with a sample of the code output.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: White, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

Description: In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to established and qualified standards. Working with industry, academia, and the U.S. government, SwRI set out to develop an accepted set of evaluation standards and analytical methodologies. Critical ...
Date: July 30, 2012
Creator: Miller, Michael A. & Page, Richard A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineralogy, petrology and whole-rock chemistry of selected mechanical test samples of Yucca Mountain tuffs; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

Description: Petrologic, bulk chemical and mineralogic data are presented for 19 samples of tuffaceous rocks from core holes UE-25a{number_sign}1, USW G-1, USW GU-3, and USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The suite of samples contains a wide variety of petrologic types, including zeolitized, glassy, and devitrified tuffs. Data include hand sample and thin section descriptions (with modal analyses for which uncertainties are estimated), and major element analyses with uncertainty estimates. No uncertainties were estimated for qualitative mineral identifications by X-ray diffraction. 5 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Connolly, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical capabilities and services of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division. [Methods available at Lawrence Livermore]

Description: This comprehensive guide to the analytical capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division describes each analytical method in terms of its principle, field of application, and qualitative and quantitative uses. Also described are the state and quantity of sample required for analysis, processing time, available instrumentation, and responsible personnel.
Date: March 9, 1978
Creator: Gutmacher, R. & Crawford, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of the electrapette for possible use in the glovebox for pipetting plutonium solutions

Description: At the Los Alamos Laboratory Plutonium Facility, Solution Assay Instruments (SAIs) are used to provide real-time information on the plutonium (Pu) content of the process stream at various stages in the process. Much of the solution analysis must be carried and as a glovebox to protect the operator from radiation. In order to overcome some of the difficulties usually encountered when working in a glovebox, an electronic solution-volume measuring device called an Electrapette was ordered from Matrix Technologies Corporation. It is said to be highly accurate, simple to use, and can handle the 25 ml of solution required for SAI analyses. It is microprocessor-controlled and comes in two components connected by a detachable cable so that the electronic part can be installed outside the box, while the nosepiece is inside. The two pieces are connected through a plug-in on the glovebox wall. The Electrapette was tested in three sets of experiments: a cold'' lab set, a set run is a hood in a production building, and a third set run in a glovebox using a process solution whose density had been predetermined. The accuracy of the determination could not be determined because the samples had been mixed with other feed before being sent for analysis by the Electrapette. 2 refs., 5 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Hansbury, E.; Ortiz, B. & Roybal, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and evaluation of a microcomputer-controlled remote pipetter system

Description: A remote pipetter has been designed and evaluated. The system is suitable for use in either a hot-cell or a glove-box environment and, therefore, is applicable in any situation where operating personnel must be separated from hazardous materials. The principle of operation for the pipetter is the displacement of liquid via a calibrated, screw-driven plunger. Variably sized aliquots of 1 to 1000 ..mu..L can be delivered. A steppng motor is used to move the plunger, and its position is verified with a linear variable differential transformer. The unit is controlled by a microcomputer. Besides the required operation sequences and error checking, a self-calibration check has been designed into the software. Measured accuracies and precisions of aliquot delivery are 0.4 and 0.2%, respectively.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Goeringer, D.E. & Klatt, L.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioluminescent lighting technology

Description: The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department