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Transfer of Mand Topographies to Tact Relations and Vice Versa in Two Vocal-Verbal Children with Autism

Description: Skinner (1957) suggested that verbal responses learned as mands are not necessarily emitted in tact relations and vice versa. Previous empirical research has found that newly acquired mands and tacts can be functionally independent. The present study investigated 1) whether novel responses taught in mand relations would be emitted as tacts when opportunity for tacting was presented; 2) whether novel responses taught in tact relations would be emitted as mands when opportunity for manding was presented; and 3) whether the size of pre-experimental mand and tact repertoires affected the rate of acquisition and/or transfer. Two vocal-verbal children with autism were taught three novel responses as mands and three other responses as tacts. Mand topographies transferred to tact relations and tact topographies transferred to mand relations for both participants. Overall acquisition as well as transfer of mands and tacts was faster for the participant with an entering repertoire of approximately 175 mands and 175 tacts than for the participant with a repertoire of approximately 100 mands and 100 tacts.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Castellani, Jill E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Contingent Money Withdrawal on Three Response Classes of Verbal Behavior

Description: This study attempted to reduce three response classes in the verbal behavior of a forty-three-year-old female graduate student. Consequences were placed on interruptions, illogical statements, and total time talking. Specifically, a response rate was taken on the three response classes, and contingent money withdrawal for exceeding defined limits was used as punishment. The treatment was generally effective in reducing interruptions, illogical statements, and total time talking to one half the baseline level, but the follow-up phase suggests that some form of maintainance procedure would be needed to maintain the rate at the lower level.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Spencer, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Relationship Between Counselor Self-incongruence and Quality of Verbal Behavior in Counseling

Description: The problem of this study is to assess the relationship between counselor self-incongruence (operationally defined in terms of cardiac arousal), the therapeutic quality of his verbal behavior, and level of client self-exploration in a counseling setting.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Means, Bobby Leon
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Film-Mediated Models on the Verbal Behavior and Selected Attitudinal Variables of Participants in Group Counseling

Description: The main objective was to determine the effect of film-mediated models on the frequency of a specific quality of verbal responses which have been found to be indicative of high- levels of therapeutic movement in group counseling. Secondly, this study examined the effect of models on selected attitudes of group counseling participants toward interpersonal interactions reflective of the intense interaction involved in therapeutic movement in group counseling.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Goff, Larry Vernon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Correspondence Between Verbal Behavior About Reinforcers and Performance Under Schedules of Reinforcement.

Description: Important advancements have been made in the identification of reinforcers over the past decade. The use of preference assessments has become a systematic way to identify preferred events that may function as reinforcers for an individual's behavior. Typically, preference assessments require participants to select stimuli through verbal surveys or engagement with stimuli as preferred or non-preferred. Not all studies go on to directly test the effects of the preferred stimuli, and even fewer studies directly test for the effects of the non- preferred stimuli. The present study systematically identified preferred and non-preferred stimuli in adult human subjects by verbal report and then proceeded to test the effects of both verbally reported preferred and non preferred events on single and concurrent schedules of reinforcement. The results are discussed in terms of contemporary concerns regarding preference and reinforcer assessments.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Bekker-Pace, Ruthie
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Sign Language on the Vocal Responses of a Child with Autism.

Description: Sign language is an effective form of alternative communication for persons with autism and other developmental disabilities. Only a few studies have systematically measured the effects of sign language on the vocal responses of its users. This study employed a multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects of sign language on the vocal responses of a four-year-old boy with autism. Results indicate that a reinforcement contingency placed only on sign responses is inadequate for maintaining vocal responses. When a reinforcement contingency is placed on sign responses as well as vocal responses that the user is capable of emitting in verbal imitation, both sign and vocal responses are maintained. Results are discussed in terms of the need for a reinforcement contingency placed on vocal and sign responses, the effects of teaching procedures on response variability, and the need for future research to examine procedures utilized to teach sign language to persons within the developmental disabilities population.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Scarbro-McLaury, Jill
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Concept and Verbal Behavior in a Small-Group Social Situation

Description: The problem addressed in this exploratory research study was whether any correlational relationship existed between a selection of personality and demographic variables (considered as aspects of the self-concept construct) and selected subjective and objective measurements of verbal behavior. The purpose of the study was to achieve a better understanding of the dynamic monitoring process of the self-concept and the possible relationship that may exist between it and certain quantifiable verbal behaviors. The conclusion of this study is that the self-concept construct does appear to be an influencing factor upon verbal behavior. It is considered that individuals are consistently interacting with their social environment to obtain feedback in order to test the self's perceptions of the social environment and its relationship to its environment.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Fain, Thomas Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Transfer of Stimulus Control Or Multiple Control on the Acquisition of Verbal Operants in Young Children with Autism: an Extension

Description: One language intervention approach for individuals with autism involves teaching one response topography under multiple sources of control and then establishing that response under individual controlling variable. Another approach involves establishing one response topography under singular control and then using that response to establish the response topography under different controlling variables. The study sought to extend previous research by investigating the impact of each approach on the acquisition of verbal responses. Three of the eight participants acquired all target responses for at least one response topography. The results of previous research were not replicated directly and the findings were discussed in terms of preexperimental verbal repertoires and restricted interests.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Pasat, Irina V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Response-Contingent Positive Stimulation of the Frequency of Intervals of Specified Fluent Verbal Behavior of Stutterers

Description: Intervals of specified fluent verbal behavior of two stutterers received response-contingent positive stimulation in the form of an accumulating points system, Assessment was made o the effect of experimental manipulation on the frequency of fluent speech intervals as well as on the frequency of subject-identified stuttering behaviors observed during the experimental session. The results indicated significant change in fluent interval frequency in the spontaneous speech of one subject. Effect of the experimental contingency was not demonstrated in the oral reading of a second subject. Stuttering. behavior data indicated that an indirect effect of the positive stimulation can change the frequency of behavior not being contingently stimulated.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Scarborough, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a Communication Training Workshop on the Verbal Behavior of Caregivers

Description: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a workshop designed to train adults to use supportive verbal behavior during distressful situations. Participants were trained to provide descriptive, empathetic and hopeful statements using instructions, rationales, modeling, role-play, feedback, and rehearsal. A pre-post design was used to analyze the effects of the training on verbal and non-verbal behaviors of four females during simulation scenarios. Results indicate all four participants provided maximum support statements above pre-training levels during post-training simulation and written assessments.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Blell, Zainab D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Second-Order Conditional Control of Members of an Equivalence Class

Description: The conditional control of equivalence has received much attention in the analysis of verbal behavior. While previous research identified conditional control of relational responding and conditional control of equivalence class formation, this study investigated the possibility of conditional control of members of an equivalence class. Following baseline conditional discrimination training and equivalence testing, subjects were taught to select a particular member in the presence of a Green background screen and another member in the presence of a Red background screen.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Cammilleri, Anthony Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries

Teaching Children with Autism to Vocally Mand for Others to Perform an Action

Description: Mand training is a very logical and natural procedure to begin teaching communication skills to individuals with autism. Existing research has documented strategies for teaching children with autism to mand for preferred items, although there are fewer high quality studies on teaching children to mand for other people to perform an action. In addition to improving the general mand repertoire, teaching children to mand for others to perform an action is important because it allows children with autism to communicate ways in which another person could improve their environment by performing a simple action. The purpose of this study was to document a functional relation between mand training and acquisition and generalization of unprompted mands for another person to perform an action. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, four children with autism were taught to mand for an adult to perform a variety of actions (e.g., to open a container so the child could obtain a preferred item). Results showed that the intervention produced an increase in unprompted mands for actions for all participants. Additionally, all participants demonstrated unprompted mands at or above mastery criteria during all generalization sessions in a different setting and different interventionist. The magnitude of effect was also large for all participants. This study extends the research on mand training by demonstrating a procedure that can be used to teach children with autism specific mands for actions. Additionally, this study will contribute to a body of strong and adequate studies that will eventually lead to mand training being considered an evidence-based practice.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Terry, Callie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Creating a Verbal Community for Describing Emotional Responses within a Contingency Lens: The Effects of a Brief Training Workshop

Description: Observing emotional responses is recognized as a valuable clinical skill in a variety of professions, including applied behavior analysis. Emotional responses can flag possible contingencies thereby guiding a behavior analyst to better select valid measures, goals, and procedures. Additionally, emotional responses can be goals in and of themselves. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a workshop on the observation and description of emotional responses by behavior analysts-in-training. The procedures included instructions, modeling, practice, discussion and feedback. The workshop included a blend of trainer presentation and interteaching strategies. The effects of the workshop were evaluated using a single-subject A-B design with multiple probe measures across four students. During probe assessments participants watched short video clips of family interactions and wrote a descriptive narrative in response to several questions. This created a permanent record for quantitative evaluation and analysis. The study resulted in an increase in the number of descriptions of emotional responses among all participants. The participants also increased responses tying the emotional response to external environmental events more often in the post-workshop assessment than the pre-workshop assessment. Results are discussed within the context of training applied behavior analysts, the analysis of verbal behavior, and the role of emotions in clinical practice.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Garden, Regan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Effect of the Cooperating Teacher on the Verbal Classroom Interaction of Student Teachers in Secondary English

Description: The problem of this study was the extent of the relationship between the classroom verbal behavior of the cooperating teacher and that of the student teacher. The purpose of this study was to determine if the student teacher tends to imitate the verbal classroom behavior of the cooperating teacher.
Date: August 1969
Creator: Mitchell, James Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Physiological Control of Verbal Behavior

Description: The current study sought to investigate whether physiological responses, such as the electrodermographic response (EDG) and/or the frontalis muscle electrical potential (EMG) could be developed as a source of control over verbal responses. Discrimination training procedures using points exchangeable for money were employed to condition verbal responses occasioned by minute interoceptive events with 2 adult human subjects. Specific verbal responses were reinforced in the presence of changes in EDG with Sl and EDG and EMG with S2. Stimulus control over differentiated verbal responses was demonstrated with both subjects. The results suggest that minute interoceptive events can enter into controlling relations with verbal responses and that this control is partially a function of the size or range of physiological responses as well as conditioning history.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Field, Douglas Preston
Partner: UNT Libraries

Organized Semantic Fluency and Executive Functioning in an Adult Clinical Sample and a Community Sample

Description: The study investigated an organized semantic fluency task, (the Controlled Animal Fluency Task - CAFT) as a measure of executive functioning (EF) in adults, and the relationship with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Participants (N = 266) consisted of a clinical sample (n = 142) utilizing neuropsychological assessment data collected at an outpatient psychological center, and a community sample (n = 124). The clinical sample was a heterogeneous mixed neurological group including a variety of health conditions and comorbid anxiety and depression. The CAFT Animals by Size demonstrated a significant positive correlation with Category Fluency (r = .71, n = 142, p < .001) , Animal Fluency (r = .70, n = 142, p < .001), and with other, established neuropsychological measures. The CAFT Animals by Size condition demonstrated a significant moderate negative correlation with IADL for the sample as a whole (r = -.46, n = 248, p < .001), and for the clinical sample (r = -.38, n = 129, p < .001), but not for the community sample. In a hierarchical regression analysis, CAFT Animal by Size explained additional variance in IADL (&#916;R2 = .15). In a hierarchical regression analysis predicting IADL with the control variables entered first, followed by Category Fluency, with CAFT Animal by Size entered last, CAFT Animals by Size did not make a significant additional contribution. A stepwise forward regression indicated Category Fluency, education, and Category Switching are better predictors of IADL than CAFT Animals by Size. Normative data for the CAFT were calculated separately for age groups and education levels. Simple logistic regression indicated CAFT Animal by Size was a significant predictor of clinical or community group membership. A second logistic regression analysis indicated the CAFT Animal by Size condition improved the prediction of membership in the clinical versus the community ...
Date: August 2010
Creator: Chlipala, M. Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of a Brief Acceptance-Based Protocol on Health Related Relational Framing

Description: Behavior analysts who study verbal behavior theorize that people derive relationships between stimuli - forming stimulus classes such that psychological functions transfer among stimuli and therefore affect behavior. Verbal processes are thought to play a role in cancer patients' behavioral flexibility. The current study examined if an analogue intervention produced changes in relations between health-relevant stimuli from pre- to post-test in patient and student samples. A matching-to-sample (MTS) task required participants to form three 4-member classes that included health, treatment, or neutral terms. Participants next listened to either an acceptance-based or a control-based rationale and therapy exercise, or a distracter task. Then, they were re-exposed to the MTS task. Latencies and accuracies for learning each class as well as between condition differences were examined. Finally, changes in ratings of stimuli from pre to post analogues were measured. Differences in stimuli ratings were seen in the student sample, reflecting transfer of function and some reduction in responsiveness to stimuli following intervention, but overall no learning performances are found. Discussion explores the consistency of the findings with acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) theory in light of the seemingly lack of findings.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Madrigal-Bauguss, Jessica A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Tests and Praise on Children's Hear-write and See-say Responses.

Description: Four elementary school children were tested on 120 words containing the short e (e.g., ten, pen) and short a (e.g., tan, pan) sounds. Words were tested in the hear-write (H/W) and see-say (S/S) channels. No programmed consequences were scheduled during baseline (BL) tests 1-3. After BL, an error analysis categorized words based on channel error and topography of error. Praise was delivered during tests 4-6 for correct responses. Children's responses were variable within channel and across channels for a majority of words. By the end of the praise phase, there was a decrease in the number of words with errors, for all children in their error word group. Error topographies began to stabilize for some words during praise.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Edwards, Bobbie
Partner: UNT Libraries