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Engineering Factors in the Ventilation of Metal Mines

Description: From Introduction Purpose and Scope of Report: "In the belief that the quickest and cheapest method of obtaining effective ventilation of metal mines with regard to air conditions that promote efficiency, health, and safety is through more general application of the engineering factors involved rather than by trial and error and this method of attacking ventilation problems will be facilitated by a simple, concise statement of these factors and the methods of using them, an attempt is made in this bulletin to present the subject of metal-mine ventilation to mine operators in a practical way."
Date: 1935
Creator: McElroy, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resistance of Metal-Mine Airways

Description: From Introduction: "This report describes the methods used and the results obtained in a series of experiments on the resistance that metal-mine airways offer to the flow of air."
Date: 1927
Creator: McElroy, G. E. & Richardson, A. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ventilation of the Large Copper Mines of Arizona

Description: Introduction: "This bulletin discusses ventilation methods, practices, and costs at 11 large copper mines in Arizona, as obtained by brief personal studies and from supplementary information furnished by the mine managements. These mines were visited from December, 1928, to November, 1929, and the methods and practices in use when visited are described in some detail."
Date: 1930
Creator: McElroy, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

Description: The objectives for this workshop were to bring together those with different viewpoints on the implementation of energy efficient ventilation in homes to share their perspectives. The primary benefit of the workshop is to allow the participants to get a broader understanding of the issues involved and thereby make themselves more able to achieve their own goals in this area. In order to achieve this objective each participant was asked to address four objectives from their point of view: (1) Drivers for energy efficient residential ventilation: Why is this an important issue? Who cares about it? Where is the demand: occupants, utilities, regulation, programs, etc? What does sustainability mean in this context? (2) Markets & Technologies: What products, services and systems are out there? What kinds of things are in the pipeline? What is being installed now? Are there regional or other trends? What are the technology interactions with other equipment and the envelope? (3) Barriers to Implementation: What is stopping decision makers from implementing energy-efficient residential ventilation systems? What kind of barriers are there: technological, cost, informational, structural, etc. What is the critical path? (4) Solutions: What can be done to overcome the barriers and how can/should we do it? What is the role of public vs. private institutions? Where can investments be made to save energy while improving the indoor environment? Ten participants prepared presentations for the workshop. Those presentations are included in sections at the end of this workshop report. These presentations provided the principal context for the discussions that happened during the workshop. Critical path issues were raised and potential solutions discussed during the workshop. As a secondary objective they have listed key issues and some potential consensus items which resulted from the discussions.
Date: January 10, 2008
Creator: Sherman, Max & Sherman, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Factors in Construction and Ventilation, Wawona Vehicular Tunnel, Yosemite National Park, California

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the safety and ventilation hazards presented during the construction of the Wawona tunnel in Yosemite National Park. Safety precautions and procedures used during the construction are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1940
Creator: Ash, S. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground Ventilation at Butte

Description: From Introduction: "The officials of the North Butte mine we engage in making a study of ventilation problems before the coming of the investigators, so that opportunity was given to work with those officials for several months. This bulletin is a result of studies made from the data collected during the two and one-half years of study and observation above outlined."
Date: 1923
Creator: Harrington, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Experimental Hydrodynamic Investigation of the Inception of Vortex Ventilation

Description: Results are presented from a hydrodynamic investigation of the inception of vortex ventilation on modified-flat-plate rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratio 0.25 differing in scale and thickness ratio. Two types of bubble-formation processes are described. Inception speeds were correlated for bubble formation in the high angle-of-attack range by using the Froude number and for that in the low angle-of-attack range by expressing the speed as a function of the thickness ratio.
Date: April 1957
Creator: Ramsen, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Air Jets Simulating Chines or Multiple Steps on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Streamline Fuselage

Description: Memorandum presenting preliminary tests in order to determine the effect of forced ventilation on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a scale model of a streamline fuselage of a hypothetical transonic airplane. The forced ventilation consisted of air ejected at about 300 feet per second through small orifices distributed over the fuselage bottom in a series of patterns simulating chines or multiple steps. Results regarding resistance, effective hydrodynamic lift, trim, spray, and air flow are provided.
Date: January 7, 1949
Creator: Weinflash, Bernard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

Description: The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Sherman, Max H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

Description: The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Sherman, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

Description: Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Sherman, Max H. & Walker, Iain S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

Description: The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H. & Walker, Iain S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance

Description: This pilot scale study evaluated the counting accuracy of two people counting systems that could be used in demand controlled ventilation systems to provide control signals for modulating outdoor air ventilation rates. The evaluations included controlled challenges of the people counting systems using pre-planned movements of occupants through doorways and evaluations of counting accuracies when naive occupants (i.e., occupants unaware of the counting systems) passed through the entrance doors of the building or room. The two people counting systems had high counting accuracy accuracies, with errors typically less than 10percent, for typical non-demanding counting events. However, counting errors were high in some highly challenging situations, such as multiple people passing simultaneously through a door. Counting errors, for at least one system, can be very high if people stand in the field of view of the sensor. Both counting system have limitations and would need to be used only at appropriate sites and where the demanding situations that led to counting errors were rare.
Date: December 26, 2009
Creator: Fisk, William J. & Sullivan, Douglas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperatures in Cabs of Freight Locomotives Passing Through Tunnels of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on experiments conducted to improve the cab conditions of freight engines. The temperature, gas content, and other properties are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Date: July 1924
Creator: Katz, S. H. & Meiter, Edward George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Derivation of Equivalent Continuous Dilution for Cyclic, Unsteady Driving Forces

Description: This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilution is defined as a weighted average concentration. This derivation has direct applications to the ventilation of indoor spaces where indoor air quality and energy consumption cannot in general be simultaneously optimized. By solving the equation we can specify how much air we need to use in one ventilation pattern compared to another to obtain same indoor air quality. Because energy consumption is related to the amount of air exchanged by a ventilation system, the equation can be used as a first step to evaluate different ventilation patterns effect on the energy consumption. The use of the derived equation is demonstrated by representative cases of interest in both residential and non-residential buildings.
Date: December 15, 2010
Creator: Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering; Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S. & Sherman, Max H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

Description: In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.
Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P. & Lee, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

Description: The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Scientist, Staff; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max & Dickerhoff, Darryl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetrationand deposition in the indoor environment

Description: Continuous, size resolved particle measurements were performed in two houses in order to determine size-dependent particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment. The experiments consisted of three parts: (1) measurement of the particle loss rate following artificial elevation of indoor particle concentrations, (2) rapid reduction in particle concentration through induced ventilation by pressurization of the houses with HEPA-filtered air, and (3) measurement of the particle concentration rebound after house pressurization stopped. During the particle concentration decay period, when indoor concentrations are very high, losses due to deposition are large compared to gains due to particle infiltration. During the concentration rebound period, the opposite is true. The large variation in indoor concentration allows the effects of penetration and deposition losses to be separated by the transient, two-parameter model we employed to analyze the data. We found penetration factors between 0.3 and 1 and deposition loss rates between 0.1 and 5 h{sup -1}, for particles between 0.1 and 10 {micro}m.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: tlthatcher@lbl.gov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multizone Age-of-Air Analysis

Description: Age of air is a technique for evaluating ventilation that has been actively used for over 20 years. Age of air quantifies the time it takes for outdoor air to reach a particular location or zone within then indoor environment. Age of air is often also used to quantify the ventilation effectiveness with respect to indoor air quality. In a purely single zone situation this use of age of air is straightforward, but application of age of air techniques in the general multizone environment has not been fully developed. This article looks at expanding those single-zone techniques to the more complicated environment of multizone buildings and in doing so develops further the general concept of age of air. The results of this analysis shows that the nominal age of air as often used cannot be directly used for determining ventilation effectiveness unless specific assumptions are made regarding source distributions.
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Sherman, Max H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Vapor Space Monitoring of Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks

Description: This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, released rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.
Date: September 27, 2000
Creator: MCCAIN, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department