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Passive Detection of Narrowband Sources Using a Sensor Array

Description: In this report we derive a model for a highly scattering medium, implemented as a set of MATLAB functions. This model is used to analyze an approach for using time-reversal to enhance the detection of a single frequency source in a highly scattering medium. The basic approach is to apply the singular value decomposition to the multistatic response matrix for a time-reversal array system. We then use the array in a purely passive mode, measuring the response to the presence of a source. The measured response is projected onto the singular vectors, creating a time-reversal pseudo-spectrum. We can then apply standard detection techniques to the pseudo-spectrum to determine the presence of a source. If the source is close to a particular scatterer in the medium, then we would expect an enhancement of the inner product between the array response to the source with the singular vector associated with that scatterer. In this note we begin by deriving the Foldy-Lax model of a highly scattering medium, calculate both the field emitted by the source and the multistatic response matrix of a time-reversal array system in the medium, then describe the initial analysis approach.
Date: October 24, 2007
Creator: Chambers, D H; Candy, J V & Guidry, B L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Horizons and plane waves: A review

Description: We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.
Date: November 6, 2003
Creator: Hubeny, Veronika E. & Rangamani, Mukund
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BASIS AND DIMENSION IN ABSTRACT MODULE THEORY

Description: A classical linear vector space is a unitary DELTA module, where DELTA is a division ring. Properties of linear spaces are given. The approach used is a module theoretic one, that is, a sequence of progressively stronger impositions on the module structure of a unitary Rmodule M is studied, without regard to the nature of the operator ring R. (W.D.M.)
Date: August 1, 1959
Creator: Chichester, R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Book Review Geostatistical Analysis of Compositional Data

Description: Compositional data are represented as vector variables with individual vector components ranging between zero and a positive maximum value representing a constant sum constraint, usually unity (or 100 percent). The earth sciences are flooded with spatial distributions of compositional data, such as concentrations of major ion constituents in natural waters (e.g. mole, mass, or volume fractions), mineral percentages, ore grades, or proportions of mutually exclusive categories (e.g. a water-oil-rock system). While geostatistical techniques have become popular in earth science applications since the 1970s, very little attention has been paid to the unique mathematical properties of geostatistical formulations involving compositional variables. The book 'Geostatistical Analysis of Compositional Data' by Vera Pawlowsky-Glahn and Ricardo Olea (Oxford University Press, 2004), unlike any previous book on geostatistics, directly confronts the mathematical difficulties inherent to applying geostatistics to compositional variables. The book righteously justifies itself with prodigious referencing to previous work addressing nonsensical ranges of estimated values and error, spurious correlation, and singular cross-covariance matrices.
Date: March 26, 2007
Creator: Carle, S F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subspace Detectors: Theory

Description: Broadband subspace detectors are introduced for seismological applications that require the detection of repetitive sources that produce similar, yet significantly variable seismic signals. Like correlation detectors, of which they are a generalization, subspace detectors often permit remarkably sensitive detection of small events. The subspace detector derives its name from the fact that it projects a sliding window of data drawn from a continuous stream onto a vector signal subspace spanning the collection of signals expected to be generated by a particular source. Empirical procedures are presented for designing subspaces from clusters of events characterizing a source. Furthermore, a solution is presented for the problem of selecting the dimension of the subspace to maximize the probability of detecting repetitive events at a fixed false alarm rate. An example illustrates subspace design and detection using events in the 2002 San Ramon, California earthquake swarm.
Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Harris, D B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Training SVMs without offset

Description: We develop, analyze, and test a training algorithm for support vector machine cla.'>sifiers without offset. Key features of this algorithm are a new stopping criterion and a set of working set selection strategies that, although inexpensive, do not lead to substantially more iterations than the optimal working set selection strategy. For these working set strategies, we establish convergence rates that coincide with the best known rates for SYMs with offset. We further conduct various experiments that investigate both the run time behavior and the performed iterations of the new training algorithm. It turns out, that the new algorithm needs less iterations and run-time than standard training algorithms for SYMs with offset.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Steinwart, Ingo; Hush, Don & Scovel, Clint
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge statecalculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

Description: We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations.
Date: May 10, 2006
Creator: Vomel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques,Osni A. & Dongarra, Jack J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Marmousi-2: An Updated Model for the Investigation of AVO in Structurally Complex Areas

Description: We have created an elastic version of the IFF Marmousi model for use in AVO analysis in the presence of complex structure. The model is larger, includes larger offsets, lies in deeper water, includes surface streamer, multicomponent OBC and VSP acquisition, and contains more hydrocarbons than its predecessor. In addition to AVO analysis, we believe these data will be suitable for calibrating emerging technologies including converted wave tomography and vector seismic processing.
Date: April 30, 2002
Creator: Martin, G.S.; Marfurt, K.J. & Larsen, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam diagnostics via model independent analysis of the turn-by-turn BPM data

Description: Model independent analysis (MIA) can be used to obtain all the eigen modes included in the turn-by-turn BPM data. Not only the synchrotron tune and betatron tune can be obtained from the fast Fourier transforms (FFT) of the temporal eigen vector of the corresponding mode, but also the error mode, which could be caused by the different gain of a BPM, can be observed in both the temporal and spatial eigen vectors of the error mode. It can be applied as a diagnostic tool for Booster.
Date: August 11, 2004
Creator: Yang, Xi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct observation of imprinted antiferromagnetic vortex state in CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks

Description: In magnetic thin films, a magnetic vortex is a state in which the magnetization vector curls around the center of a confined structure. A vortex state in a thin film disk, for example, is a topological object characterized by the vortex polarity and the winding number. In ferromagnetic (FM) disks, these parameters govern many fundamental properties of the vortex such as its gyroscopic rotation, polarity reversal, core motion, and vortex pair excitation. However, in antiferromagnetic (AFM) disks, though there has been indirect evidence of the vortex state through observations of the induced FM-ordered spins in the AFM disk, they have never been observed directly in experiment. By fabricating single crystalline NiO/Fe/Ag(001) and CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks and using X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD), we show direct observation of the vortex state in an AFM disk of AFM/FM bilayer system. We observe that there are two types of AFM vortices, one of which has no analog in FM structures. Finally, we show that a frozen AFM vortex can bias a FM vortex at low temperature.
Date: December 21, 2010
Creator: Wu, J.; Carlton, D.; Park, J. S.; Meng, Y.; Arenholz, E.; Doran, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terminator Detection by Support Vector Machine Utilizing aStochastic Context-Free Grammar

Description: A 2-stage detector was designed to find rho-independent transcription terminators in the Escherichia coli genome. The detector includes a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) component and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) component. To find terminators, the SCFG searches the intergenic regions of nucleotide sequence for local matches to a terminator grammar that was designed and trained utilizing examples of known terminators. The grammar selects sequences that are the best candidates for terminators and assigns them a prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure using the Cocke-Younger-Kasaami (CYK) algorithm, modified to incorporate energy affects of base pairing. The parameters from this inferred structure are passed to the SVM classifier, which distinguishes terminators from non-terminators that score high according to the terminator grammar. The SVM was trained with negative examples drawn from intergenic sequences that include both featureless and RNA gene regions (which were assigned prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure by the SCFG), so that it successfully distinguishes terminators from either of these. The classifier was found to be 96.4% successful during testing.
Date: December 30, 2006
Creator: Francis-Lyon, Patricia; Cristianini, Nello & Holbrook, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The HIBEAM Manual

Description: HIBEAM is a 2 1/2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code developed in the late 1990's in the Heavy-Ion Fusion research program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The major purpose of HIBEAM is to simulate the transverse (i.e., X-Y) dynamics of a space-charge-dominated, non-relativistic heavy-ion beam being transported in a static accelerator focusing lattice. HIBEAM has been used to study beam combining systems, effective dynamic apertures in electrostatic quadrupole lattices, and emittance growth due to transverse misalignments. At present, HIBEAM runs on the CRAY vector machines (C90 and J90's) at NERSC, although it would be relatively simple to port the code to UNIX workstations so long as IMSL math routines were available.
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Fawley, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin Rotation of Formalism for Spin Tracking

Description: The problem of which coefficients are adequate to correctly represent the spin rotation in vector spin tracking for polarized proton and deuteron beams in synchrotrons is here re-examined in the light of recent discussions. The main aim of this note is to show where some previous erroneous results originated and how to code spin rotation in a tracking code. Some analysis of a recent experiment is presented that confirm the correctness of the assumptions.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Luccio,A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE GENERALIZATION OF A CIRCULAR BOUNDARY CONDITION IN THE PROGRAM POISSON TO INCLUDE NO SYMMETRY AND AXIS-SYMMETRY OF REVOLUTION

Description: We have previously reported on the incorporation of a circular boundary condition into the program POISSON for two-dimensional problems (Incorporation of a Circular Boundary Condition into the Program POISSON, S. Caspi, M. Helm, and L.J. Laslett, LBID-887, SSC MAG Note-S, February 13, 1984). The least square method has now been generalized to accept any suitable set of orthogonal functions which can describe the vector potential function outside a circular boundary so located that no external sources are present. We have proceeded to incorporate the boundary condition into cartesian problems which involve no symmetry, and into axis-symmetry cylindrical problems that may have left-right symmetry, antisymmetry or no symmetry.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Caspi, S.; Helm, M. & Laslett, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 3D Vector Potential, Magnetic Field and Stored Energy in a Thin cos2 theta Coil Array

Description: The vector potential and the magnetic field have been derived for an arrays of quadrupole magnets with thin Cos(2{theta}) current sheet placed at r = R.{sup bc}. The field strength of each coil within the array, varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longidutinal coordinate z in proportion to {omega}{sub m}z, where {omega}{sub m} = (2m-1){pi}/L, L denotes the half-period, and m = 1,2,3 etc. The analysis is based on the expansion of the vector potential in the region external to the windings of a linear 3D quad, and a revision of that expansion by the application of the 'Addition Theorem' from that around the coil center to that around any arbitrary point in space.
Date: July 9, 1997
Creator: Caspi, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Generalized Eigensolver based on Smoothed Aggregation (GES-SA) for Initializing Smoothed Aggregation Multigrid (SA)

Description: Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.
Date: May 31, 2007
Creator: Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G & Vassilevski, P S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CBM.DIAGB.03.10.LLNL.007 Final Report

Description: The purpose of this project was to construct a system for characterizing the threat potential of genomic sequences, specifically assembled draft genomes. New genomes are characterized by initially comparing them against already-sequenced genomes. If the new genome is determined to be from a high-threat species, detailed (forensic-level) characterization is done based on gene and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) data comparisons with all other previously sequenced members of that high-threat species. New genomes are compared against a large set of known virulence and antibiotic-resistance genes and also compared against a large set of vectors that could be used for bacterial genetic engineering. Together, these analyses provide a comprehensive initial assessment of the most likely phylogenetic placement of a new genome, plus an assessment of the known-gene content and an indication of any possible bacterial genetic engineering utilizing vector-mediated techniques. This provides an initial threat potential summary based on high information content comparisons (e.g., thousands of genes, SNPs, and potential genetic engineering vectors) that can be used to guide subsequent operational response or more detailed laboratory characterization.
Date: March 30, 2011
Creator: Slezak, T & Torres, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prototype Vector Machine for Large Scale Semi-Supervised Learning

Description: Practicaldataminingrarelyfalls exactlyinto the supervisedlearning scenario. Rather, the growing amount of unlabeled data poses a big challenge to large-scale semi-supervised learning (SSL). We note that the computationalintensivenessofgraph-based SSLarises largely from the manifold or graph regularization, which in turn lead to large models that are dificult to handle. To alleviate this, we proposed the prototype vector machine (PVM), a highlyscalable,graph-based algorithm for large-scale SSL. Our key innovation is the use of"prototypes vectors" for effcient approximation on both the graph-based regularizer and model representation. The choice of prototypes are grounded upon two important criteria: they not only perform effective low-rank approximation of the kernel matrix, but also span a model suffering the minimum information loss compared with the complete model. We demonstrate encouraging performance and appealing scaling properties of the PVM on a number of machine learning benchmark data sets.
Date: April 29, 2009
Creator: Zhang, Kai; Kwok, James T. & Parvin, Bahram
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

Description: Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision ...
Date: April 3, 2009
Creator: Bailey, David H. & Borwein, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite Whitney element implicit time domain electromagnetic solvers for large timesteps

Description: Huge problems in the code stemmed from the fact Bossavit uses the notation vol(T) both for the non-negative volume of tet T, and the ordered volumes formed a triple product of three vectors. This notational confusion lead us to believe the ordered volume would be the same under interchange of nodes; this is clearly incorrect. We start then, by looking at the volume formed by cross products and those formed by integrals.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Brown, David J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department