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Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

Description: The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Newman, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectra over complex terrain in the surface layer

Description: For design and control of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS), the spectral distribution of wind speeds over frequencies needs to be known as well as velocity variances. Velocity spectra and other velocity statistics are estimated over three types of complex terrain: on tops of hills or escarpments; on land a short distance downwind from a water body; and over rolling farm land. The most important characteristics of turbulence models over uniform terrain are summarized briefly. Theoretical aspects of spectral characteristics over complex terrain are discussed, followed by detailed observations over complex terrain and procedures for their estimation. A theory is presented for calculation of response of engineering systems to wind fluctuations. (LEW)
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Panofsky, H.A.; Dutton, J.A.; Larko, D.; Lipschutz, R. & Stone, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Candidate wind turbine generator site: annual data summary, January 1981-December 1981

Description: Summarized hourly meteorological data for 34 candidate and wind turbine generator sites for calendar year 1981 are presented. These data are collected for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, wind speed, direction, and distribution data are given in eight tables. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L. & Abbey, O.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program

Description: This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).
Date: February 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

Description: Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cordova, F.A. & Mason, K.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia National Laboratories ASCOT (atmospheric studies in complex terrain) field experiment, September 1980

Description: During the period September 8 through September 25, 1980, Sandia National Laboratories, Division 4774, participated in a series of experiments held in the Geysers area of California. These experiments, aimed at providing data on nighttime drainage flow in complex terrain, were intended to provide a reliable basis for mathematical flow modeling. Tracers were released at several points on a valley rim and sampled by a large number of stations at ground level. Sandia's contribution was to make it possible to derive vertical tracer profiles. This was done by taking air samples from a captive balloon at chosen altitudes between the surface and 450 meters above ground.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Woods, R.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 7, for Newman Power Station, El Paso, TX

Description: Performance data are given for the month of December, 1981 for a photovoltaic power supply at a Texas power station. Data include: monthly and daily electric energy produced; monthly and daily solar energy received; monthly and daily array efficiency; plots of energy produced as a function of power level, voltage, cell temperature, and hour of the day; monthly and daily electrical energy supplied by the photovoltaic system to the load; daily system availability; monthly and hourly insolation; monthly and hourly ambient temperature; monthly and hourly wind speed; wind direction distribution; heating and cooling degree days; number of freeze/thaw cycles; hourly cell temperature; and a plot of daily data acquisition mode and recording interval. Also included are brief summaries of three site events. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 4, for Beverly High School, Beverly, MA

Description: Performance data are presented for the months of November and December, 1981 for a photovoltaic power supply at a Massachusetts school building. The data include: monthly and daily electrical energy produced; monthly and daily solar energy received; monthly and daily array efficiency; energy produced as a function of power level, voltage, cell temperature, and hour of the day; input, output, and efficiency of two power conditioner units and for the total power conditioning system; energy supplied by the photovoltaic system to the load during each day and month; photovoltaic system efficiency; capacity factor; daily system availability; monthly and hourly insolation; heating and cooling degree days; number of freeze/thaw cycles per month; monthly and hourly ambient temperature; monthly and hourly wind speed; wind direction distribution; hourly cell temperature; and data acquisition mode and recording interval plot. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculations of increased solar UV fluxes and DUV doses due to stratospheric-ozone depletions

Description: Accurate radiative transfer calculations are performed in the middle ultraviolet spectral region for aerosol-loaded atmospheres with the goal of determining the solar irradiance at the ground and quantifying the irradiance perturbations due to the presence of aerosols and various ozone depletions. The extent of the increase of UV-B radiation as a function of wave-length and solar zenith angle is calculated for five model atmospheres. In addition, the damaging ultraviolet dose rates and radiation amplification factors are evaluated at different latitudes and seasons for erythemal and DNA action spectra.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Zardecki, A. & Gerstl, S.A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BLM biological assessment for T and E species for the WyCoalGas project. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project; Converse County, Wyoming]

Description: This volume considers the water requirements of the proposed plant and possible sources of water supply. The water requirements are 7900 acre-feet per year at full production (1720 acre-feet would be supplied by the moisture in the coal). Surface and ground water sources are described and a private reservoir would be built to store water. The priority of use from each source is considered. Also, in some cases other present water rights come first. In almost every year little or no water would be available during August and September. Endangered species in the area are considered, in particular, the effect of the increased water usage on them. (LTN)
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 13. For Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas

Description: Presented are the data accumulated during June at the intermediate photovoltaic project at Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.
Date: September 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulations of mesoscale precipitation systems. Final progress report, 1 April-30 June 1981

Description: A numerical model designed for the study of mesoscale weather phenomena is presented. It is a three-dimensional, time-dependent model based upon a mesoscale primitive-equation system, and it includes parameterizations of cloud and precipitation processes, boundary-layer transfers, and ground surface energy and moisture budgets. This model was used to simulate the lake-effect convergence over and in the lee of Lake Michigan in late fall and early winter. The lake-effect convergence is created in advected cold air as it moves first from cold land to the warm constant-temperature lake surface, and then on to cold land. A numerical experiment with a prevailing northwesterly wind is conducted for a period of twelve hours. Two local maxima of the total precipitation are observed along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. The results in this hypothetical case correspond quite well to the observed precipitation produced by a real event in which the hypothetical conditions are approximately fulfilled.
Date: May 12, 1982
Creator: Dingle, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of research to develop cost effective biomonitoring at oil shale lease tracts. Phase I. Fall sampling report

Description: This report presents the results of censuses conducted during October 1981 to estimate the fall abundance of small mammals and avifauna on replicate plots in the vicinity of Federal Tract C-a (Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company). The objectives of the fall censuses were to evaluate alternative census techniques, test assumptions vital to the use of indices and abundance estimators, determine cost-functions associated with monitoring efforts, and estimate variance components needed to devise optimal monitoring designs. Analyses of the fall census data on small mammal abundance were performed.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Skalski, J.R.; Fitzner, R.E. & Gano, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of model predicted to observed winds in the coastal zone

Description: Predictions of near-surface (10 to 100 m) wind velocities made by a mesoscale numerical model on a 10 km grid over and near the coastline are checked against observations. Two comparisons are made. The first is between observed and model-estimated mean annual wind power density at locations where surface observations exist in three coastal areas: the Chesapeake Bay, the Apalachee Bay and the South Texas coastal area. The second comparison is made between model predictions over the Delmarva Peninsula and adjacent ocean and observations made over a 120 x 30 km rectangle extending across the peninsula and out to sea. It is concluded that the unbiased error analysis skill ratings of 81% and 76% are attained for two days of prediction-observation comparisons. In the meantime, the skill of the model in duplicating individual coastal wind fields is taken as 78%. In addition, a qualitative comparison is made between the predicted fields of wind and the observed wind field. The predicted wind field unquestionably reproduces the observed field.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Garstang, M.; Pielke, R. A. & Snow, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive test cell data for the solar laboratory, Winter 1980-81

Description: Testing was done during the 1980-81 winter in 400 ft/sup 3/ test cells at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Solar Lab. This testing was done primarily to determine the relative efficiency of various passive solar heating concepts and to obtain data that could be used to validate computer simulation programs. The passive solar systems tested were Trombe wall with and without selective absorber, water wall, phase-change wall, direct gain, a heat-pipe collector, and two sunspace geometries. The heating load coefficient of these cells was roughly 26 Btu/h /sup 0/F and the collector area was 23.4 ft/sup 2/, giving a load collector ratio of approximately 27 Btu//sup 0/F day ft/sup 2/. The test cell configurations and instrumentation are detailed herein, and the resulting data and cell efficiencies are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: McFarland, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

March 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

Description: Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coastal zone wind energy. Part III: a procedure to determine the wind power potential of the coastal zone

Description: A stepwise procedure is presented for determining the seasonal and/or annual mean potential wind power density for any location on the East and Gulf coasts of the United States. The steps include reference to the dominant wind regimes and mean power densities already obtained to estimate the wind power potential of the location under consideration; methods to calculate the potential wind power distributions and steps to be taken to locate the best site in the area of interest. The method can be best applied where the atmospheric systems which produce most of the wind energy at the surface are relatively persistent. The method is least successful in areas where the wind field is highly variable. Application of the complete method requires the use of an existing two- or three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Garstang, M.; Pielke, R. & Snow, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions. Progress report for FY 82

Description: The objectives are to identify and quantify the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide in the polar regions. Results indicate the Arctic is a net annual sink of as much as 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, that natural sources and sinks within the Arcticc are the cause of up to 20 to 40% of the observed large annual excursions of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ there, that the Arcti is exchanging more than 2 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/ throughout the entire year, and that the porous annual sea ice will allow for the air-sea exchange of CO/sub 2/. (ACR)
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Gosink, T.A. & Kelly, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

Description: A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Belzer, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simple nocturnal slope-flow data from the Rattlesnake Mountain site

Description: Detailed vertical profiles of the wind and temperture structure of nocturnal slope flows were measured at a site that is uniform in the cross-slope direction. The upper part of the slope closely approximates a simple, tilted plane. These measurements were made from three towers at different distances from the ridge crest, each of which extended through the local depth of the katabatic flow. The tower wind and temperature data from the four best cases of slope flow observed in 1980 and 1981 are listed, as well as ambient wind and temperature profiles to a height of 300m from a Tethersonde flown at the experimental site and surface winds from a network of stations surrounding the site.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Horst, T.W. & Doran, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vertical extrapolations of wind speed

Description: The extrapolation of wind speeds and wind speed distributions from a lower to an upper level is examined, with particular emphasis on the power law approach. While the power laws are useful for representing the behavior of winds under a variety of conditions, they are shown to be inherently incorrect and misleading for extrapolations. The law's apparent simplicity nevertheless makes it attractive for certain purposes, and its performance at a number of windy sites is tested. The principal feature seems to be the large degree of scatter found from site to site, and even at a single site from one time to the next. Part of this is attributable to the effects of stability, as is seen by dividing the data into daytime and nighttime periods, but the scatter is by no means eliminated by this division. The behavior of the power law exponents is poorer still in complex terrain. While some general tendencies of these exponents can be found, their use cannot be recommended for anything more than a preliminary or rough estimate of wind speeds. Extrapolation formulas for Weibull distributions are also tested with the same data base. They are found to work reasonably well in the mean, but the uncertainties present make their use in any particular case somewhat risky. The use of kites to obtain estimates either of wind speed distributions or power law exponent distributions is simulated. As expected, there is a considerable degree of scatter associated with the results, but the use of kites seems to offer some small possibility of improvement compared to results obtained from the simple extrapolation formulas for Weibull distributions.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Doran, J. C.; Buck, J. W. & Heflick, S. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SHALO: a simple theoretical description of drainage flow

Description: A model for drainage flow has been developed using shallow fluid theory and considerations of entrainment of overlaying air and surface drage. Using explicit differencing techniques, a code was produced and applied to the nocturnal drainage flows in the complex valleys of the Geysers Geothermal Area of northern California.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Freeman, B.E.; Davis, C.G. & Bunker, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implications of a stochastic approach to air-quality regulations

Description: This study explores the viability of a stochastic approach to air quality regulations. The stochastic approach considered here is one which incorporates the variability which exists in sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from coal-fired power plants. Emission variability arises from a combination of many factors including variability in the composition of as-received coal such as sulfur content, moisture content, ash content, and heating value, as well as variability which is introduced in power plant operations. The stochastic approach as conceived in this study addresses variability by taking the SO/sub 2/ emission rate to be a random variable with specified statistics. Given the statistical description of the emission rate and known meteorological conditions, it is possible to predict the probability of a facility exceeding a specified emission limit or violating an established air quality standard. This study also investigates the implications of accounting for emissions variability by allowing compliance to be interpreted as an allowable probability of occurrence of given events. For example, compliance with an emission limit could be defined as the probability of exceeding a specified emission value, such as 1.2 lbs SO/sub 2//MMBtu, being less than 1%. In contrast, compliance is currently taken to mean that this limit shall never be exceeded, i.e., no exceedance probability is allowed. The focus of this study is on the economic benefits offered to facilities through the greater flexibility of the stochastic approach as compared with possible changes in air quality and health effects which could result.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Witten, A.J.; Kornegay, F.C.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Long, E.C. Jr.; Sharp, R.D.; Walsh, P.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

Description: Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L & Woodward, P W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department