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Line Parameters and Computed Spectra for Water Vapor Bands at 2.7 mu

Description: From Foreword: "This Monograph is one of a series intended to provide fundamental information required for the estimation and interpretation of atmospheric transmittance at infrared frequencies. Part I of this Monograph presents the fundamental properties of the 2.7m water vapor band in terms of line absorptions and the integrated transmittance at any frequency for infinite resolution. Part II presents examples of the "degraded" transmittance for finite resolution, as a function of the spectral slit width, concentration, and pressure with which direct observations may be compared."
Date: August 3, 1964
Creator: Gates, David M.; Calfee, Robert F.; Hansen, David W. & Benedict, W. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Survey of Vapors in the Headspaces of Single-Shell Waste Tanks

Description: This report summarizes data on the organic vapors in the single-shell high level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford site to support a forthcoming toxicological study. All data were obtained from the Tank Characterization Database (PNNL 1999). The TCD contains virtually all the available tank headspace characterization data from 1992 to the present, and includes data for 109 different single-shell waste tanks. Each single-shell tank farm and all major waste types are represented. Descriptions of the sampling and analysis methods have been given elsewhere (Huckaby et al. 1995, Huckaby et al. 1996), and references for specific data are available in the TCD. This is a revision of a report with the same title issued on March 1, 2000 (Stock and Huckaby 2000).
Date: October 31, 2000
Creator: Stock, Leon M. & Huckaby, James L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Removal of Linseed Oil Vapors by Biodegradation

Description: Linseed oil is very important in industry but its use is limited due to noxious vapors produced by oxidation on exposure to air. Since some of the products are toxic, release of linseed oil vapors to the environment is normally prohibited. In order to remove the odorous compounds, a biofilter system based on bacterial metabolism was designed and the major premises of bioremediation were studied. A total of five bacterial strains capable of using linseed oil vapors as their sources of carbon and energy were isolated from soil. The individual organisms were also mixed to form a bacterial consortium. The mixed population was able to degrade linseed oil vapors with more than 99 per cent efficiency. According to this research, a successful biodegradation system was designed and, theoretically, this system could be applied to the removal of linseed oil vapors in any industrial plant air stream.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Sukplang, Patamaporn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Gas Masks for Gasoline and Petroleum Vapors

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over gas masks developed for gasoline and petroleum vapors. Descriptions of different types of gas masks developed are presented. This paper includes tables, photographs, and illustrations.
Date: August 1924
Creator: Katz, Sidney H. & Bloomfield, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limits of Inflammability of Gases and Vapors

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on the inflammability of the gases found in mines. As stated in the introduction, "it is the object of this paper to present the results of a critical review of all figures published on the limits of inflammability of combustible gases and vapors when in admixture with air, oxygen, or other "atmosphere" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1928
Creator: Coward, H. F. & Jones, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid-Liquid Contact in Vapor Explosion

Description: The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture).
Date: August 1978
Creator: Segev, Aryeh
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Condensation of Metal Vapors: Mercury and the Kinetic Theory of Condensation

Description: Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory discussing condensation theories of metal vapors. As stated in the introduction, "the objectives of this research then are critical analysis of condensation theories and data for metal vapors and experimental evaluation of the resistance to condensation for a representative metal such as mercury" (p. 18). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: October 1964
Creator: Wilhelm, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE MOLECULAR AND VISCOUS EFFUSION OF SATURATED VAPORS (thesis)

Description: An investigation of the effusive behavior of saturated vapors over a range of source pressures from 10/sup -6/ atm in the molecular flow region to 1 atm is reported. The purposes of the investigation were to clarify the situation regarding the upper pressure limit to effusive flow, to examine the transition of effusive flow from molecular to viscous behavior, and to clarify some limited aspects concerning the question of vapor saturation within an effusion cell. Mass flow rates of mercury vapor effusing through a thin-edged orifice or long channels into a vacuum from a region of nearly saturated vapor were obtained. (W.D.M.)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Carlson, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Explosion Hazards in Storage-Battery Rooms

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the safety and explosion hazards present in storage-battery rooms. Descriptions of storage-battery rooms and methods of ventilation are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1940
Creator: Jones, G. W.; Campbell, John; Dillon, R. E. & Benson, O. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow of Gases Through Beds of Broken Solids

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on the effects of vapor flow through beds of broken solids. Methods and results of the studies are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1929
Creator: Furnas, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POWER REMOVAL FROM A BOILIGN REACTOR

Description: BS>This work is based on a rather specific and simplified model of the reactor core in which internal circulation exists. Because of the model simplicity, the influence varying some of the parameters appears more directly. In particular, calculation of the circulation factor, which is important in determining the need for vapor separators is included. On this basis it was felt desirable to make the results of this study available even though they have been largely superseded by the later work. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1952
Creator: Zmola, P. C. & Lawson, E. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CONCENTRATION AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN A STEFAN DIFFUSION TUBE

Description: The Stefan diffusion tube was widely used as a means of determining vapor-phase diffusion coefficients. By this method the diffusion coefficient was calculated on the asaumption of plug-flow (flat) concentration and velocity profiles in the diffusion tube. These assumptions were examined theoretically and experimentaily in this study. The theoretical study and the experimental results indicated that the concentration profile is flat across the diffusion tubs. The veloctty profile was found to be developing from a ilat one near the liquid surface to a parabolic one at the other end of the tube. However, it was shown theoreticaily that the shape of the velocity profile does not affect the mass flux provided the concentration profile is flat. Thus diffusion data that were calculated from Stefan diffusion tube data with the plug flow approximation are correct. (auth)
Date: August 16, 1962
Creator: Heinzelmann, F.J.; Wasan, D.T. & Wilke, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Certain Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Water and Water Vapor in the Critical Region

Description: An accurate knowledge of thermodynamic and transport properties of water in the critical region is required in order to analyze future power cycles, nuclear reactor configurations, and other types of heat transfer apparatus. Preliminnry investigations showed that this was rot possible with presently existing tabulations. Experimentel data from volumetric viscosity and thermal conductivity studies were therefore selected and retabulated. Smoothings of these data are described and, for the first time, a tabulation at close intervals of pressure and temperature of the volumetric data is possible for steam in the critical region. A graphical presentation is given of volumetric data from 700 to 750 deg F. An important result of this study was that excellent agreement existed between the many P-V-T measurements for this substance even though some of the data was obtained many years ago. Differences occurring between the tabulated data of various steam tables were found to arise from the use of inexact equations of state or interpolation techniques rather than from faulty primary data. New P-V-T data were derived from measurements of other investigators, by a graphical technique and it is estimated that it yielded pressure values accurate to some five parts in ten thousand except in the subcooled liquid region (for specific volumes below 0.040 ftsup 3/lb), where the uncertainty may be some twenty parts in ten thousand. Study of the existing thermal conductivity and viscosity data suggests that the Russian work is the most consistent. However, it appears that the empirical equations proposed for interpolation do not adequately represent the data in the critical region. No attempt has been made to derive thermodynamic functions or to analyze the transport data. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1958
Creator: Nowak, E.S. & Grosh, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of organic constituents found in the condensed andvapor phases of tanks 241-BY-108, 241-BY-110, and 241-C-102

Description: Results from vapor and condensed-phase sampling of tanks 241-BY-108, 241-BY-110, and 241-C-102 were reviewed and compared in this report. Both vapor and condensed-phase samples from tanks 241-BY-108 and 241-C-102 indicate the presence of organic solvent. The organic solvent remaining in these tanks are predominantly the heavier fractions of normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPHS) (i.e., dodecane, tridecane, and tetradecane) and tributyl phosphate (TBP). As was found for the organic solvent in tank 241-C-103, the flash point for the 241-BY-108 and 241-C-102 organic solvent is well above current tank temperatures. Differences between the measured headspace organic vapor concentrations and the organic vapor concentrations estimated from condensed-phase data indicate that the tank headspaces are not in equilibrium with the organic solvent detected in the waste. Non-equilibrium is the result of air flow through these tanks from passive ventilation. This is important because an equilibrium difference allows calculation of effective organic pool size in the tanks. Calculations based on estimated tank ventilation rates and headspace characterization data indicate that tanks 241-BY-108 and 241-C-102 contain significant amounts of organic solvent (i. e., more than a 1 m{sup 2} pool). Tank 24 1 -BY- I I 0 core samples did not contain measurable quantities of NPHs or TBP, though the semivolatile NPHs were observed in tank headspace samples. The total effective surface area of organic solvent in tank 24 1 -BY- I 1 0 is estimated to be less than 1 m{sup 2}; consequently, this tank was not anticipated to contain a significant amount of solvent. An additional observation from the comparison of vapor and condensed-phase sample data is that headspace vapor sampling can detect the presence of organic solvent, even if a surface pool does not exist. Analyses of condensed-phase samples from tank 241-BY-108 show no organic solvent in the top 50 cm of waste. However, ...
Date: September 27, 1996
Creator: Stauffer, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of Gasoline From Uncondensed Still Vapors

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the possibilities of increasing fuel production from crude oil. Methods of recovering oil that is lost by remaining uncondensed are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Date: April 1922
Creator: Dow, Donald B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ON THE PROBLEM OF LIQUID ENTRAINMENT

Description: THe problem of liquid entrainmment by a gas phase is considered with the purpose of gathering, presentinf, and correlating available information which may be useful for predicting the liquid carry-over in a boiling water reactor at high pressure. Correlations which predict water carryover as a function of pressure, of the height of the vapor dome, and of the vapor mass flow rate are presented and discussed. Because entrainment depends upon the hydrodynamic conditions and upon the expansion of a two-phase bubbling mixture, the transportation 0f vapor through such mixtures is also discussed. Equations which relate the volumetric vapor fraction to the reduced (superficial) vapor velocity in bubbling at high pressures are presented, and some inconsistencies are noted. Experimental data and correlations which predict the location of the liquid-vapor interface in bubbling at high pressures are also givna. Experimental data on water carry-over at high pressures reported in the literature are summarized. The problems of drop formation for bursting bubbles and of drop ballistics are discussed together with some analytical formulations of the entrainment problem. The bibliography may prove useful as a source of additional information on the problems of carry- over, corrosion and on the purity of steam and of water at high pressures. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Yeh, G. C.K. & Zuber, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department