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The Vapor Pressure of Arsenic Trioxide

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of vapor pressure. The methods and equipment used for the investigations are presented. The results are discussed. This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: March 1915
Creator: Welch, H. V. & Duschak, L. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic and Related Properties of Parahydrogen From the Triple Point to 100 K at Pressures to 340 Atmospheres

Description: From Introduction: "In the present report, therefore, polynomials representing isotherms and isochores are combined with numerical methods of computation for the purpose of improving accuracy, in particular for the derivatives of the P-p-T surface."
Date: August 10, 1965
Creator: Roder, H. M.; Weber, L. A. & Goodwin, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Vapor Pressure of Beryllium Fluoride

Description: Abstract: "Vapor pressures of BeF2 were measured over the temperature range of 746-968 using the transpiration method. The extrapolated boiling point is shown to be 1159[degrees]. The melting point is about 803[degrees]."
Date: 1953
Creator: Sense, K. A.; Snyder, M. J. & Clegg, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic Petroleum Reserve equation of state model development : current performance against measured data.

Description: This report documents the progression of crude oil phase behavior modeling within the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve vapor pressure program during the period 2004-2009. Improvements in quality control on phase behavior measurements in 2006 coupled with a growing body of degasification plant operations data have created a solid measurement baseline that has served to inform and significantly improve project understanding on phase behavior of SPR oils. Systematic tuning of the model based on proven practices from the technical literature have shown to reduce model bias and match observed data very well, though this model tuning effort is currently in process at SPR and based on preliminary data. The current report addresses many of the steps that have helped to build a strong baseline of data coupled with sufficient understanding of model features so that calibration is possible.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Lord, David L. & Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics group progress report, May 1--31, 1948

Description: Various studies conducted at Mound Laboratory concerning physical properties of postum (Polonium 210) are described. Some studies are entitled Purity of Postum (Vacuum Balance Method); Vapor Pressure of Postum; X-ray Studies; Vapor Pressure by Effusion; Molecular Weigh of Postum; and Weighing Procedures for Macroassay.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Knauss, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Properties of Diphenyl

Description: Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory discussing engineering properties of diphenyl. As stated in the abstract, "data collected from the literature on the vapor pressure, enthalpy, liquid density, and vapor density of pure diphenyl are presented. A Mollier diagram, a temperature entropy diagram, and data on viscosity of diphenyl as a function of temperature are also presented" (p. 5). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: August 11, 1953
Creator: Anderson, Kermit
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Vapor Pressure and Heat of Vaporization of Bromine Triflouride

Description: The vapor pressure of bromine trifluoride has been measured over the range 39 to 155 C. and the following equation was derived by methods of least squares to represent the experimental data. log{sub 10}P{sub mm} = 7.74853 - l685.8/(t + 220.57). The heat of vaporization was estimated from the following equation which is based upon the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. {Delta}H{sub cal/mole} = 7714 [(t + 273.16)/(t + 220.57)]{sup 2}. In continuation of the program to measure the physical properties of interhalogens, the vapor pressure of bromine trifluoride has been determined. Ruff and Braida (4) measured some of the physical and chemical properties including the vapor pressure over a limited range, 4 to 136 mm. The present investigation extends the vapor pressure data to 2 l/2 atmospheres on material of high purity.
Date: June 8, 1951
Creator: G.D., Grisard J.W. and Oliver
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Degas II performance at the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill site.

Description: Crude oil stored at the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) requires mitigation procedures to maintain oil vapor pressure within program delivery standards. Crude oil degasification is one effective method for lowering crude oil vapor pressure, and was implemented at the Big Hill SPR site from 2004-2006. Performance monitoring during and after degasification revealed a range of outcomes for caverns that had similar inventory and geometry. This report analyzed data from SPR degasification and developed a simple degas mixing (SDM) model to assist in the analysis. Cavern-scale oil mixing during degassing and existing oil heterogeneity in the caverns were identified as likely causes for the range of behaviors seen. Apparent cavern mixing patterns ranged from near complete mixing to near plug flow, with more mixing leading to less efficient degassing due to degassed oil re-entering the plant before 100% of the cavern oil volume was processed. The report suggests that the new cavern bubble point and vapor pressure regain rate after degassing be based on direct in-cavern measurements after degassing as opposed to using the plant outlet stream properties as a starting point, which understates starting bubble point and overstates vapor pressure regain. Several means to estimate the cavern bubble point after degas in the absence of direct measurement are presented and discussed.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Rudeen, David K. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM) & Lord, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 1 Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

Description: Some conclusions are: (1) Increased flow rates can lower chromia activity in alloys with Ti and Mn - (a) Reduced chromia activity reduces equilibrium CrO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) vapor pressures; (2) Model is very sensitive to small decreases in chromia activity at the HP turbine - (a) Upstream partial saturation of the gas phase with CrO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) can become nearly or fully saturated at the HP turbine, (b) Can radically change breakaway oxidation times from less than a year to never happening; and (3) Thus even small chromia activity reductions from Ti and Mn additions can make evaporation issues self-correcting.
Date: April 28, 2011
Creator: Holcomb, G. R.; Tylczak, J. & R. Hu,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth and structure of water on SiO2 films on Si investigated byKelvin probe microscopy and in situ X-ray Spectroscopies

Description: The growth of water on thin SiO{sub 2} films on Si wafers at vapor pressures between 1.5 and 4 torr and temperatures between -10 and 21 C has been studied in situ using Kelvin Probe Microscopy and X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies. From 0 to 75% relative humidity (RH) water adsorbs forming a uniform film 4-5 layers thick. The surface potential increases in that RH range by about 400 mV and remains constant upon further increase of the RH. Above 75% RH the water film grows rapidly, reaching 6-7 monolayers at around 90% RH and forming a macroscopic drop near 100%. The O K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption spectrum around 75% RH is similar to that of liquid water (imperfect H-bonding coordination) at temperatures above 0 C and ice-like below 0 C.
Date: June 14, 2007
Creator: Verdaguer, A.; Weis, C.; Oncins, G.; Ketteler, G.; Bluhm, H. & Salmeron, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from New Carpets

Description: A simple model is proposed to account for observed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new carpets. The model assumes that the VOCs originate predominantly in a uniform slab of polymer backing material. Parameters for the model (the initial concentration of a VOC in the polymer, a diffusion coefficient and an equilibrium polymer/air partition coefficient) are obtained from experimental data produced by a previous chamber study. The diffusion coefficients generally decrease as the molecular weight of the VOCs increase, while the polymer/air partition coefficients generally increase as the vapor pressure of the compounds decrease. In addition, for two of the study carpets that have a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) backing, the diffusion and partition coefficients are similar to independently reported values for SBR. The results suggest that predictions of VOCs emissions from new carpets may be possible based solely on a knowledge of the physical properties of the relevant compounds and the carpet backing material. However, a more rigorous validation of the model is desirable.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Little, J.C.; Hodgson, A.T. & Gadgil, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

Description: The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.
Date: September 28, 2005
Creator: Denham, Miles E. & Looney, Brian B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bevatron Research Meeting I - Bevatron as a Research Instrument

Description: The Bevatron status is: (1) Physical structure of magnet now assembled and being tested. Initial pulsing to rated field currents indicate that magnet is performing as designed. Currents of the order of 8500 amps peak have already been rendered. (About 15,000 gauss). (2) Pumpdown time to approximately 10{sup -5} mm Hg is of the order of 24 hours at present but is expected to improve to 12-15 hours as the high vapor pressure solvents are removed. Lofgren and Brobeck expect that it will be possible to make interval target, etc., changes between operating shifts without excessive loss of experimental time. (3) Injector and linear accelerator are now operating stably. Injected currents to Linac are approximately 3 x 10{sup -3} peak at 450 kev. Linac output is approximately 5% or 70 x 10{sup -6} amps peak with an angular divergence of 10{sup -3} rad. and a maximum energy spread of less than 0.8% at 9.8 kev. (4) Inflector and induction electrodes are to be installed after December 15, 1953. (5) Complete machine, both mechanical and electrical, will be ready for testing and 'de-bugging' approximately December 15; 1953. Initial operation as a research instrument should begin after the first of the year, perhaps January 15, 1954 to January 30, 1954. (6) Magnetic testing started October 2 and will continue for approximately 6 weeks (until about November 15). (7) Concrete shielding will be installed around the southwest quadrant of the machine and at the south and west straight sections before research operations begin.
Date: October 6, 1953
Creator: Lofgren, Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CC Cryostat Vapor Pressure Thermometers

Description: Vapor pressure thermometers will be used to measure the temperature or the liquid argon in the cryostat at two different levels. One bulb will be positioned near the top of the vessel, and a second bulb will be located near the bottom of the vessel. The volume of the bulbs is dependent upon the charge temperature and pressure chosen, the temperature range of the thermometer desired, the size and length of tubing used, and the warm volume involved.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Kurita, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

Description: Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.
Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Chukwu, Godwin A.; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish & Dandekar, Abhijit
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Miscellaneous Studies of Fluorocarbons and Fluorocarbon-Uranium Hexafluoride Systems

Description: During the exploration of the possible use of an extraction process for the separation of gaseous cascade impurities from uranium hexafluoride, a number of short exploratory studies were carried out. These included (1) experimental determination of the vapor pressure and liquid density of perfluorodibutylcylicether, (2) calculation of the liquid vapor-equilibria of the systes perfluoro-n-pentane-uranium hexafluoride and 1,2-dichlorohexafluoropropane-uranium hexafluoride, and (3) derivation of equations for the estimation of activity coefficients in ternary systems from the properties of the pure components. The results of these studies are summarized in this report.
Date: December 28, 1953
Creator: Posey, J. C. & Barber, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

Description: As the world continues to deplete its petroleum reserves, then heavy crude oil, coal liquids, and other heavy fossil fuels may be required to meet the world energy needs. Heavy fossil fuels contain molecules that are large and more aromatic and that contain more heteroatoms than those found in liquid crude oil. There is also significant current interest in general area of coal pyrolysis, particularly with respect to comprehensive models of this complicated phenomenon. This interest derives from central role of pyrolysis in all thermally driven coal conversion processes - gasification, combustion, liquefaction, mild gasification, or thermal beneficiation. There remain several key data needs in these application areas. Among them is a need for a more reliable correlation for prediction of the vapor pressures of heavy, primary coal tars. Such information is important in design of all coal conversion processes, in which the volatility of tarry products is of major concern. This paper presents work on the vapor pressures of coal tars using the continuous knudsen effusion technique.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Suuberg, E.M.; Oja, V. & Lilly, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries

Description: Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A. & Crawford, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Magnus` form approximation of saturation vapor pressure

Description: Relative humidity is usually measured in aerological observations and dew point depression is usually reported in upper-air reports. These variables must frequently be converted to other moisture variables in meteorological analysis. If relative humidity is converted to vapor pressure, most humidity variables can then be determined. Elliott and Gaffen reviewed the practices and procedures of the US radiosonde system. In their paper, a comparison of the relative errors was made between the saturation vapor pressure formulations of Tetens (1930), Goff-Gratch (1946), Wexler (1976), and Buck (1981). In this paper, the authors will expand the analysis of Elliott and Gaffen by deriving several new saturation vapor pressure formulas, and reviewing the various errors in these formulations. They will show that two of the new formulations of vapor pressure over water and ice are superior to existing formulas. Upper air temperature data are found to vary from about +50 C to {minus}80 C. This large variation requires a saturation vapor pressure equation to be accurate over a large temperature range. While the errors introduced by the use of relatively inaccurate conversion equations are smaller than the errors due to the instruments, dewpoint coding errors, and dewpoint conversion algorithms (Elliott and Gaffen, 1993); they introduce additional systematic errors in humidity data. The most precise formulation of vapor pressure over a plane surface of water was given by Wexler (1976). The relative errors of Tetens` (1930) formula and one due to Buck (1981) (Buck`s equation is recommended in the Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 3, 1991) are shown. The relative errors in this table are the predicted value minus the Wexler value divided by the Wexler value.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Alduchov, O. A. & Eskridge, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

Description: Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.
Date: October 22, 1999
Creator: Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W. & McAlister, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department