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U.S.S.R., Military Professionalism and Political Integration: A Case Study

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned addresses the question of the proper role of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union in the Soviet state. The political leadership has two alternatives in seeking a remedy to this civil-military question. They may either control the military establishment by granting strict professional autonomy or by integrating the armed forces into the civil structure.
Date: May 1970
Creator: Henderson, Bernard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cloud cover and type over the former USSR, 1936-83; trends derived from the RIHMI-WDC 223-station 6- and 3-hourly meteorological database

Description: This paper presents trends analyses of sky cover data from the former U.S.S.R. for the period 1936-83. Observations of total cloud amount, low cloud amount, and low-, middle-, and high-cloud type from 223 stations were obtained from a database of 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations compiled at the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre in Obninsk, Russia. Station data were averaged over various-sized grid boxes and linear trends in seasonal mean total cloud amount, low cloud amount, frequency of occurrence of cirrus clouds, cirrus amount, and frequency of clear sky were computed for the period 1936-83.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Kaiser, D. P. & Razuvaev, V. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response

Description: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses.
Date: May 2, 1980
Creator: Library of Congress. Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Soviet data on the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

Description: Over the last several years through a series of international meetings sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and a number of publications, the Soviet union has disclosed that they have a very active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE) in their rational economy. They have described the results of 14 experimental and industrial explosions designed to develop nine different applications in the petroleum, gas, and minerals industries as well as for water resources development. However, when one considers large number of large unidentified seismic events that have been reported over the last seven years in areas of the Soviet Union outside the normal nuclear-weapon test areas, it is obvious that they have an even more active program than they have publicly described, one that must be approaching a routine industrial technology in some areas. The PNE program that the Soviets have publicly discussed in various reports and at various meetings is summarized and, when appropriate, compared to data from the US Plowshare Program. (auth)
Date: June 28, 1973
Creator: Nordyke, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology and Soviet Energy Availability

Description: A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA0 that "addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy" (p. iii).
Date: November 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Governmental structure of the Russian Federation with respect to environmental and energy programs

Description: An investigation was conducted by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., to provide an overview of the structure of government environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. The investigation was undertaken to provide a baseline of information to the US Department of Energy (DOE), so that technologies applicable to DOE environmental restoration and monitoring programs can be identified, tested, and transferred. Data for the report were collected through a network of Russian and American sources knowledgeable about environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. Sources of information included both US and Russian government personnel, nongovernmental organizations, private consultants, and experts from the academic and scientific communities. The peculiarities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) remain prevalent in the structure of the Newly Independent States, especially in Russia. The legacy of communism is visible in all aspects of society, most particularly in the extreme environmental degradation that has resulted from careless central planning and policies of forced industrialization. Reforms initiated under Mikhail Gorbachev during the period of Perestroika were aimed at shifting power from the party to the respective government organs. In 1992 the Commonwealth of Independent States was created, joining 11 of the 15 republics into a loose federation. The investigation undertaken by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., focused on the executive organs of the present Russian government in an effort to define key ministries with environmental and energy responsibilities. The structure of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Minpriroda) and the Ministry of Atomic Power (Minatom) are presented. The Academy of Sciences and other ministries that have relevance to the transfer of technologies are discussed, as well as research institutions in which technologies appropriate to DOE programs are likely to reside.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Colangelo, R. V.; Reistroffer, E. L. & Edgar, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Six- and three-hourly meteorological observations from 223 USSR stations

Description: This document describes a database containing 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations from a 223-station network of the former Soviet Union. These data have been made available through cooperation between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and Russia: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information -- World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) in Obninsk. Station records consist of 6- and 3-hourly observations of some 24 meteorological variables including temperature, weather type, precipitation amount, cloud amount and type, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed. The 6-hourly observations extend from 1936 to 1965; the 3-hourly observations extend from 1966 through the mid-1980s (1983, 1984, 1985, or 1986; depending on the station). These data have undergone extensive quality assurance checks by RIHMI-WDC, NCDC, and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The database represents a wealth of meteorological information for a large and climatologically important portion of the earth`s land area, and should prove extremely useful for a wide variety of regional climate change studies. These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and 40 data files that are available via the Internet or on 8mm tape. The total size of the database is {approximately}2.6 gigabytes.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.B.; Martuganov, R.A. & Kaiser, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing indigenous safeguards capabilities within the MPC&A program: A transition from near-term upgrades to long-term sustainability

Description: Approximately five years ago, the United States and countries of & Former Soviet Union (FSU) started the Cooperative Threat Reduction program. The program`s purpose was to accelerate reduction of the risk of nuclear proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This goal would be accomplished through near-term upgrades to strengthen the nuclear material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. In addition to this near-term goal, a long-term goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program is to promote a new safeguards culture and to support the establishment of a sustaining MPC&A infrastructure in the FSU. This long-term goal is vital to assuring that the near-term upgrades remain effective for safeguarding nuclear material as these countries experience political and social changes. The MPC&A program is managed by DOE`s Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Materials Security Task Force. A coordinated effort is underway to promote and to help establish a new safeguards culture and a sustaining infrastructure. Elements being implemented at both the national and site levels include system operational performance evaluations, development of MPC&A training, operational procedures, national MPC&A regulations, and adaptation of modern MPC&A methodologies to suit the conditions in the FSU countries. This paper identifies current efforts in several countries that are undergoing transition from near-term upgrades to sustainable MPC&A systems.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Robinson, P.W.; Leutters, F.O.; Horton, R.D. & Soo Hoo, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Middle Urals` pollution prevention priorities assessment project

Description: The Middle Urals is an important Russian industrial region. The key industries are also the most environmentally damaging: mining, metallurgical and chemical industries. There are some 600 large-sized and medium-sized enterprises located within the Middle Urals` region. Their annual solid and gaseous chemical releases have led to exceeding some maximum permissible contaminant concentrations by factors of tens and hundreds. The environmental problems of the Middle Urals are of such magnitude, seriousness, and urgency that the limited available resources can be applied only to the problems of the highest priority in the most cost-effective way. By the combined efforts of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Institute of Industrial Ecology (Ekaterinburg, Russia) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Snezhinsk, Russia) the project on Environmental Priorities Assessment was initiated in 1993. Because the project will cut across a spectrum of Russian environmental, social, and political issues, it has been established as a genuine Russian effort led by Russian principals. Russian participants are the prime movers and decision-makers, and LLNL participants are advisors. A preliminary project has been completed to gather relevant environmental data and to develop a formal proposal for the full priorities assessment project for submittal to the International Science and Technology Center. The proposed priorities assessment methodology will be described in this paper. The specific objectives of this project are to develop and to implement a methodology to establish Russian priorities for future pollution prevention efforts in a limited geographic region of the Middle Urals (a part of Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Oblasts). This methodology will be developed on two geographic levels: local (town scale) and regional (region scale). Detailed environmental analysis will be performed on a local scale and extrapolated to the regional scale.
Date: September 13, 1995
Creator: Gonzalez, M.; Ott, R.L. & Chukanov, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computerized accounting methods. Final report

Description: This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

Description: The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

Description: From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D. & Zcikanovsky, V.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

Description: The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Newsmap. Monday, May 11, 1942 : week of May 1 to May 8

Description: Text describes action on various war fronts: Navy announces victory -- End for Corregidor -- Rationing moves closer -- Japs push into China -- Marblehead limps in -- Stark for new fronts -- Iceland has its first air fight -- Army of 6,000,000 -- Launch four destroyers -- Anti-Axis move in Spain -- Army camps inspected -- Germans strike convoy -- Malta downs 154 planes -- Madagascar tip seized -- U.S. aids Middle East -- Nazi drive predicted -- RAF attacks roar on. Large world map is keyed to text and illustrates time zones around the world. Inset maps: Corregidor -- Madagascar. Includes photographs: Lt. Gen. Wainwright -- Maj. Gen. Brereton -- Navy raid on Marshall Islands in February -- Under Sec. Patterson -- Kearney destroyer -- Bombs being readied for planes -- Four-engined bomber flying somewhere in Europe -- Cavalry regiment changes mounts to speedy steel.
Date: May 11, 1942
Creator: [United States]. Army Orientation Course
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Newsmap. Monday, October 11, 1943 : week of September 30 to October 7, 213th week of the war, 95th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Aegean Sea, Italy, Corsica, Russia, Norway, Southwest Pacific, Air offensive. Maps show Greece and Turkey, Eastern front, Central Italy. Includes photographs: Soldier killed by booby-trap, "Battleship X" is the USS South Dakota, Brenner Pass, Resting American soldiers following a battle in Munda. Back: Typical German infantry regiment. Illustration shows regiment. Text gives detailed description of Regimental Headquarters Company, Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, Battalions, Infantry and Motorized Companies.
Date: October 11, 1943
Creator: [United States.] Army Orientation Course.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

Description: On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Razuvaev, V. N.; Apasova, E. G.; Martuganov, R. A.; Vose, R. S. & Steurer, P. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The distribution of cloud cover over the former USSR as derived from the RIHMI 223-Station 3-hourly meteorological database

Description: In recent years a great deal of meteorological and climatological data has been exchanged between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and the former Soviet Union: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information (RIHMI) in Obninsk, Russia. This was accomplished via Working Group VIB (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) of the bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment, established on May 23, 1972 by the United States and the USSR. One of the key datasets compiled by RIHMI includes 3-hourly meteorological observations from 223 USSR stations for the period 1966-83. RIHMI has chosen to use daily and hourly data from these stations as the basis for considerable climate research efforts. These data (hereafter referred to as the RIHMI database) will soon be made available by both NCDC and the Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data have undergone extensive quality assurance checks at RIHMI, NCDC, and CDIAC. The data contain observations of some 22 meteorological variables, including near-surface air temperature, sea level pressure, precipitation amount, weather type, and total cloud cover. This study uses the RIHMI database to examine the spatial distribution of total cloud cover over the former USSR (hereafter referred to as the USSR). In this initial assessment, we focus on comparing our results with total cloud cover data presented in the atlas: Global Distribution of Total Cloud Cover and Cloud Type Amounts Over Land for the common data period 1971-81.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Kaiser, D. P.; Vose, R. S.; Karl, T. R. & Razuvaev, V. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data

Description: This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Davis, P. A. & Berlin, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Megagauss technology and pulsed power applications

Description: This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. Because of recent changes in Russia, there are opportunities to acquire and evaluate technologies for ultrahigh-magnetic-field flux compressors and ultrahigh-energy, ultrahigh-current pulsed-power generators that could provide inexpensive access to various extreme matter conditions and high-energy-density physics regimes. Systems developed by the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) at Arzamas-16 (Sarova) have the potential of creating new thrusts in several areas of high-magnetic-field and high-energy-density R&D, including high-field and high-temperature superconductivity, Faraday effect, cyclotron resonance, isentropic compression, magneto-optical properties, plasma physics, astrophysics, energy research, etc. Through a formal collaboration supported and encouraged by high-ranking DOE officials and senior laboratory management, we have gained access to unique Russian technology, which substantially exceeds US capabilities in several areas, at a small fraction of the cost which would be incurred in an intensive and lengthy US development program.
Date: September 1996
Creator: Lindemuth, I. R.; Reinovsky, R. E. & Fowler, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department