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Direct Energy Conversion Devices and Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP). A Literature Search

Description: A total of 553 references are listed on the SNAP program and related topics. The references were taken from Nuclear Science Abstracts to Dec. 31, 1962. The contents are arranged in sections on radioisotope-fueled units, reactorfueled units, direct energy conversion, and general topics on nuclear auxiliary power. (J.R.D.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Lanier, S. F. & Raleigh, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Nuclear reactor space electric power units under development in the U. S. include the SNAP-2, SNAP-8, and SNAP-10. The electric power output of these Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) extends over three decades of power, from 300 watts to 6O kilowatts. The major operational, installation, and handling characteristics of these nuclear power units are described. In particular, some limitations and restrictions with regard to payload, shielding, and radiation environment are described with respect to the power plants, their mode of installation, and system weight. The ground handling and safety, as well as the over-all safety, aspects of space reactor utilization are also described. The SNAP-10 power unit is a demonstration system that utilizes thermoelectric power conversion, The SNAP-2 power system utilizes a similar compact nuclear reactor, which is cooled with liquid sodium-potassium alloy, and coupled to a small mercury vapor turbine generator power conversion system. The SNAP-8 system is a direct outgrowth of the SNAP-2 power plant development. It wiil deliver 30,000 watts with one mercury vapor turbine generator system and weighs about 1400 (auth)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Wetch, J.R.; Dieckamp, H.M. & Anderson, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An outline is presented of the potential applications and quantity requiremerts of fission products for the period 1964 to 1968. These applications include military, governmert, and civilian heat sources; irradiation processing; and food irradiation. The potential requirements for 1964 to 1968 are 273 MC / sup 90/Sr and 351 MC /sup 137/Cs. An evaluation is made of the applications of heat-producing isotopes in Coast Guard navigational buoys, lights, and beacons; undersea electronic systems; and weather stations. Costs were determined for conventional methods of power generation and compared to radioisotope power generation. Fuel requiremerts and break-even fuel costs for isotopic power are tabulated. (D.L.C.)
Date: January 1, 1964
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. A Report by the Commission, 1964

Description: The uses and possible systems for auxiliary power, particularly for space applications, are indicated; and the extent to which nuclear systems meet the requirements is discussed. The current and planned development programs are outlined, and the AEC's conclusions on the overall SNAP program are presented. The status, characteristics, and uses of various SNAP generators are tabulated. (D.C.W.)
Date: October 31, 1964
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. An Evaluation, January 1964

Description: The requirements and potential applications for radioisotope and reactor SNAP systems are summarized. A technical review of the SNAP reactor programs, including the associated lithium cooled reactor experiment, is presented; and alternate approaches are evaluated. Radiation and safety considerations of isotopic SNAP systems are discussed, together with the economics of such systems and isotope availability. Characteristics and uses of SNAP systems are also tabulated. (D.C.W.)
Date: October 31, 1964
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nuclear Rocket: New Powerplant for Space Vehicle Propulsion

Description: A fundamental and practical survey is made of nuclear rocket application to space vehicle propulsion. The engine is described and propellant and radiation effects are discussed. Project Rover is summarized and performance requirements for a space vehicle are discussed. It is concluded that nuclear rockets can provide substantial performance, reliability, and economic advantages for difficult space missions. (T.R.H.)
Date: March 1, 1960
Creator: Schmidt, H. R. & Decker, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instruction Manual--SNAP-7C Electric Generation System

Description: A description of SNAP-7C isotope-fueled electric generation system is presented. The operational limits and transportation, handling, installation, and adjustment procedures are described. Maintenance instructions and emergency and safety precautions are included. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 1, 1961
Creator: Blazek, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A nondestructive method was developed for measuring the spacings at the ends of fuel rods in completed SNAP fuel elements. A precisely aligned radiographic technique is employed to form an undistorted image on extra fine grain radiographic film. The end gap is then measured with a 20 x measuring microscope. The radiographic technique, alignment gages, and film reading methods are described for measuring gaps at the blend end and blind end of the fuel elements. The accuracy of measurements at the blend end ranges from plus or minus 0.0005 in. for spacings up to 0.010 in. to plus or minus 0.002 in. for spacings above 0.025 in. The accuracy at the blind end is about one-half that at the blend end. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1962
Creator: Barry, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The SNAP-7C 10-watt Sr/sup 90/ thermoelectric generator, the converter, batteries, and weather station housing that were delivered to Antarctica in December 1961 are described. Thermoelectric analysis, thermal analysis, fuel form and shielding requirements, generator assembly, electrical system, operational tests, and environmental testing are discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 31, 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A survey was made to select the construction materials for the SDR-1 reactor core vessel and grid plates. Hastelloy C was selected for the reactor vessel, top grid plate, and bottom grid plate. Inconel X was selected for the core hold-down springs. (C.J.G.)
Date: April 11, 1960
Creator: Facha, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: On the assumption that a Lockhart-Martinelli type of correlation is applicable, an analytical approach to the interpretation of pressure drop data on condensing flow in tapered tubes was developed with particular reference to the condensation of potassium in a radiant condenser of a type that may be attractive for space power plants. It appears that instability can be encountered in such condensers only through the introduction of excess liquid inventory at reduced power or by design of the condenser for insufficient pressure drop at design power. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1963
Creator: Korsmeyer, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department