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Radiological containment handbook

Description: The purpose of this NUREG is to be used as a reference text. It is meant to be used by the working personnel as a guide for using temporary radiological containments. The installing group and health physics group may vary among organizations but responsibilities and duties will not change. It covers installation and inspection containments; working and operating guidelines; operating requirement; emergency procedures; and removal of containments.
Date: October 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review

Description: In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Abercrombie, J.S. & Copenhaver, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extremity dosimetry at US Department of Energy facilities

Description: A questionnaire on extremity dosimetry was distributed to DOE facilities along with a questionnaire on beta dosimetry. An informal telephone survey was conducted as a follow-up survey to answer a few additional questions concerning extremity monitoring practices. The responses to the questionnaire and the telephone survey are summarized in this report. Background information, developed from operational experience and a review of the current literature, is presented as a basis for understanding the information obtained by the survey and questionnaire.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Harty, R.; Reece, W.D. & MacLellan, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

Description: This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1987
Creator: Wilson, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation protection training for diverse general employee populations

Description: Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Copenhaver, E.D. & Houser, B.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Offsite radiation doses from Hanford Operations for the years 1983 through 1987: A comparison of results calculated by two methods

Description: This report compares the results of the calculation of potential radiation doses to the public by two different environmental dosimetric systems for the years 1983 through 1987. Both systems project the environmental movement of radionuclides released with effluents from Hanford operations; their concentrations in air, water, and foods; the intake of radionuclides by ingestion and inhalation; and, finally, the potential radiation doses from radionuclides deposited in the body and from external sources. The first system, in use for the past decade at Hanford, calculates radiation doses in terms of 50-year cumulative dose equivalents to body organs and to the whole body, based on the methodology defined in ICRP Publication 2. This system uses a suite of three computer codes: PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. In the new system, 50-year committed doses are calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the ICRP Publications 26 and 30, which were adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 1985. This new system calculates dose equivalent (DE) to individual organs and effective dose equivalent (EDE). The EDE is a risk-weighted DE that is designed to be an indicator of the potential health effects arising from the radiation dose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 38 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Soldat, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ninth annual report of radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1976

Description: In 1968, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established a program for reporting certain occupational radiation exposure information to a central radiation records repository maintained at the Union Carbide Computing Technology Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Annual summaries (WASH-1350-R1 through WASH-1350-R6) were reported for the years 1968--1973 and included data on AEC contractor employees as well as employees of companies in the private sector licensed by the AEC. In January 1975, the operational functions of the AEC, including the maintenance of records on the occupational radiation exposure of contractor employees were transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the AEC's regulatory functions, including the reporting of information on the occupational radiation exposure of licensees were transferred to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Previous AEC licensees now report to NRC while the contractors reported to ERDA. Radiation exposure data for AEC/ERDA and AEC/ERDA contractor employees for 1974 and 1975 were reported in ERDA 76/119 and ERDA 77-29. This report contains the 1976 data for ERDA and ERDA contractor employees.
Date: April 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program

Description: The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and of the operation of DOE facilities. The program is divided into seven general areas of activity; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 340 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliography is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by laboratory and by year and also summarizes the results from individual authors by journal.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mortality of Hanford radiation workers

Description: The effects of occupational exposure to low level ionizing radiation at the Hanford plant in southeastern Washington were investigated. Death rates were related to exposure status. To provide perspective, the rates were also compared with the death rates of the US population. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gilbert, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

Description: The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Gilbert, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing study of mortality in Hanford workers

Description: The mortality of workers at the Hanford Plant in southeastern Washington who have been exposed to penetrating external ionizing radiation is studied. Deaths are analyzed statistically and compared to standardized mortality ratios. Cancer deaths in particular are examined. (ACR)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Marks, S. & Gilbert, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Communication in hazardous environments

Description: Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Rankin, W N & Herold, T R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory

Description: An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Copenhaver, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

Description: This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, and food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. These estimates will be based on historical measurements and production information. The environmental transport task will reconstruct the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations. Movement via the atmosphere, surface water (Columbia River), and ground water will be studied. The environmental monitoring task will assemble, evaluate, and report historical environmental monitoring data. A major effort of this task is to separate Hanford as a source of radionuclide concentrations in the environment from concentrations due to natural sources and nuclear testing fallout.
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Dennis, B.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

Description: This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Higby, D.P. & Denovan, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed alternatives for a DOE-wide occupational radiation exposure information system

Description: The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the original intent for a central information system, the need for more detailed information has become evident. The alternatives addressed for a radiation exposure information system were no change in current system, clarification of DOE Order for current system, increased summary information from sites, centralized annual individual dose (exposure) system, and annual dose summary and locator files. A majority of the DOE Ad Hoc Committee has concurred to recommend the annual dose summary and locator files (ADSLF). The acceptance of the ADSLF alternative as the DOE-wide radiation exposure system would give DOE added capability and flexibility in responding to requests for information and would reduce the impact on the sites of special survey requests.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Murphy, B.L.; Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Selby, J.M. & Vallario, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly report

Description: The project is divided into the technical tasks that address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates. These include source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, and food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. These estimates will be based on historical measurements and production information. The environmental transport task will reconstruct the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations. Movement via the atmosphere, surface water (Columbia River), and ground water will be studied.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Dennis, B.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly report

Description: This summary covers progress for the month of July 1989 during which we completed the scheduled milestone 0504-B, Measured River Fish Concentrations; presented a project status update at the TSP meeting on July 21 in Richland, WA; presented the potential role of iodine-129 in the HEDR Project at the TSP meeting; displayed posters at the TSP meeting summarizing available information for the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam; held a working session on the dose calculational model with PNL staff, TSP members, and three members of the public; presented an overview of the HEDR Project's Quality Assurance (QA) program to six members of the TSP; continued internal PNL clearance on several draft reports, which will become part of the Phase I summary report; completed entry of meteorological data for 1983 through 1987 into the meteorological data base; completed verification of the modified MESOILT code; completed preliminary reviews of the analytical methods used as the basis for determining potential biases and the level of uncertainty for two milestones, 0504-B, Measured River Fish Concentrations and 0503-B, Final River and Sediment Monitoring Data; and completed the creation and verification of data files on radionuclide concentrations in vegetation through August 1946.
Date: July 1, 1989
Creator: Dennis, B.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford environmental dose reconstruction project: Monthly report

Description: The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. During the reporting period, we continued revision of Work Plan to reflect phased approach, began incorporating comments from TSP Source Terms Subcommittee into a draft report, continued internal PNL clearance of a draft report, began preparing information to be presented at the May TSP meeting on the Columbia River (between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam), completed a draft report summarizing the approach selected for atmospheric modeling, continued developing data bases on meteorological and numerical data, and met with representatives of the Colville, Spokane, Yakima, and Nez Perce tribes to discuss contracts, data collection, proposal revisions, and other aspects of the HEDR Project.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Dennis, B.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly report, May 1989

Description: The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of independent Technical Steering Panel. The Technical Steering Panel consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included among the members are appointed technical members representing the States of Oregon and Washington, cultural and technical experts nominated by the Indian tribes in the region, and an individual representing the public.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Dennis, B.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eleventh annual report of radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees

Description: In 1968, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established a program for reporting certain occupationa radiation exposure information to a central radiation records repository maintained at the Union Carbide Computing Technology Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Annual summaries (WASH-1350-R1 through WASH-1350-R6) were reported for the years 1968-1973 and included data on AEC contracter employees as well as employees of companies in the private sector licensed by the AEC. In January 1975, the operational functions of the AEC, including the maintenance of records on the occupational radiation exposure on contractor employees, were transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the AEC's regulatory functions, including the reporting of information on the occupational radiation exposure of licenses, were transferred to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Previous AEC licenses then reported to NRC while the contractors reported to ERDA. On October 1, 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) was formed and assumed the responsibilities of ERDA. This report contains the 1978 radiation exposure data for DOE and DOE contractors.
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department