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A Rapid Sensitive Direct Method for the Routine Determination of Radium in Urine and Other Biological Materials

Description: Report discussing a method for determining the amount of radium that may have accumulated in the body of an individual by the direct counting of alpha particles from radium in biological materials such as urine.
Date: February 28, 1950
Creator: Russell, Edwin R.; Lesko, Roman C. & Schubert, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urine Analysis for Tritium Oxide

Description: This report analyzes a procedure based on the production of acetylene from the active water, with subsequent measurement of the ionization caused by the tritium beta particle. This eliminates the troublesome absorption on the chamber walls when hydrogen is used, and provides a rapid method for the preparation of the urine samples.
Date: July 27, 1949
Creator: Healy, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission Product Analysis of Urine

Description: The following report describes a chemical procedure to analyze fission products and long-lived rare earths in both untreated urine samples and the supernates from the precipitation steps in the TTA procedure for plutonium.
Date: May 31, 1950
Creator: Thorburn, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium Tolerance and Citrate Excretion

Description: Abstract: "Previously, an acquired tolerance to the toxic action of uranium compounds was developed in two mammalian species, rats and rabbits. In rats made tolerant by repeated injections of uranium an increased excretion of urinary citrate was demonstrated. In these experiments a tolerance to uranium has been produced in dogs. Further, these tolerant dogs evidenced an increased excretion of urinary citrate. The significance of these results is described."
Date: 1948
Creator: Gruschow, Janet & Mann, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UO3 PLANT BIOASSAY

Description: Alternative urine bioassay programs are described for application with decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Hanford UO3 Plant. The alternatives are based on quarterly or monthly urine bioassay for recycled uranium, assuming multiple acute inhalation intakes of recycled uranium occurring over a year. The inhalations are assumed to be 5┬Ám AMAD particles of 80% absorption type F and 20% absorption type M. Screening levels, expressed as daily uranium mass excretion rates in urine, and the actions associated with these levels are provided for both quarterly and monthly sampling frequencies.
Date: July 12, 2010
Creator: Carbaugh, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2006 Through March 31, 2007

Description: A total of 66 urine samples, 6 blank fecal and 6 spiked artificial fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for tritium, Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.7% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 36% of the analyses processed by GEL during the second year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 16 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work. IDP concluded that GEL was performing well for all analyses tested, and concerns identified earlier were satisfactorily resolved.
Date: February 19, 2008
Creator: Antonio, Cheryl L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results Of The Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2007 Through March 31, 2008

Description: A total of 79 urine samples, 3 blank fecal and 5 spiked artificial fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2007 through March 31, 2008) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for tritium, Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.8% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 35% of the analyses processed by GEL during the third year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 24 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty (Table 4). IDP concluded that GEL was performing well for all analyses tested, and concerns identified earlier were satisfactorily resolved.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Antonio, Cheryl L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium in human urine: Normal levels in the US public. 1991 Annual report, Volume 2

Description: A neutron induced fission track method was successfully developed for assaying {sup 239}Pu in human urine with a detection limit below 20 aCi/sample. The technique involves the co-precipitation of {sup 239}Pu with rhodizonic acid, separation of {sup 239}Pu from potentially interfering natural uranium and other inorganic materials by ion-exchange techniques, collection of the sample onto lexan detectors, irradiation of sample in MIT reactor at a fluence of 1.1 x 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, etching of the lexan slide and counting the track either manually or by some automated counting system.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P. & Xue, Ying-Hua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{sup 99}Tc bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

Description: A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. In a urine matrix, the analysis of{sup 99}Tc is plagued with many difficulties using conventional radiometric methods. Difficulties originate during chemical separation due to the volatile nature of Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} or during radiation detection due to color or chemical quenching. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard quench correction and a quench curve correction method are compared to results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results, however the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results. Limits of detection (LOD) for ICP-MS and liquid scintillation detection are 14.67 and 203.4 dpm/L, respectively, in a real urine matrix. In order to determine the basis for the increased precision of the ICP-MS results, the detection sensitivity for each method is derived and measured. The detection sensitivity for the {sup 99}Tc isotope by ICP-MS is 2.175 x 10{sup {minus}7} {+-} 8.990 x 10{sup {minus}9} and by liquid scintillation is 7.434 x 10{sup {minus}14} {+-} 7.461 x 10{sup {minus}15}. A difference by seven orders of magnitude between the two detection systems allows ICP-MS samples to be analyzed for a period of 15 s compared to 3,600 s by liquid scintillation counting with a lower LOD.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Lewis, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bayesian methods for interpreting plutonium urinalysis data

Description: The authors discuss an internal dosimetry problem, where measurements of plutonium in urine are used to calculate radiation doses. The authors have developed an algorithm using the MAXENT method. The method gives reasonable results, however the role of the entropy prior distribution is to effectively fit the urine data using intakes occurring close in time to each measured urine result, which is unrealistic. A better approximation for the actual prior is the log-normal distribution; however, with the log-normal distribution another calculational approach must be used. Instead of calculating the most probable values, they turn to calculating expectation values directly from the posterior probability, which is feasible for a small number of intakes.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Miller, G. & Inkret, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POLONIUM URINALYSIS

Description: A method is described for routine urinalysis for Po by plating on copper at room temperature from acid solution. A discussion is presented based on experience gained by this laboratory in working with the method over a four-year period. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1957
Creator: Krebs, C.A. & Whipple, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES ON THE RETENTION OF CESIUM$sup 137$ BY MICE

Description: Three groups of 12 mice each were maintained at environmental temperatures of 34, 22, and 5 deg C for a period of about 7 weeks after an intraperitoneal injection of Cs/sup 137/. Periodic assay of the activity in the whole body and excreta showed that as environmental temperature decreases the excretion of Cs/sup 137/ increases, probably as a result of the increased metabolic rates associated with low temperatures. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1962
Creator: Furchner, J.E. & Richmond, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department