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Utilization of near-source video and ground motion in the assessment of seismic source functions from mining explosions

Description: Constraint of the operative physical processes in the source region of mining explosions and the linkage to the generation of seismic waveforms provides the opportunity for controlling ground motion. Development of these physical models can also be used in conjunction with the ground motion data as diagnostics of blasting efficiency. In order to properly address the multi-dimensional aspect of data sets designed to constrain these sources, we are investigating a number of modem visualization tools that have only recently become available with new, high-speed graphical computers that can utilize relatively large data sets. The data sets that are combined in the study of mining explosion sources include near-source ground motion acceleration and velocity records, velocity of detonation measurements in each explosive hole, high speed film, video and shot design information.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Stump, B.W. & Anderson, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Strength and Damage Model for Rock Under Dynamic Loading

Description: A thermodynamically consistent strength and failure model for granite under dynamic loading has been developed and evaluated. The model agrees with static strength measurements and describes the effects of pressure hardening, bulking, shear-enhanced compaction, porous dilation, tensile failure, and failure under compression due to distortional deformations. This paper briefly describes the model and the sensitivity of the simulated response to variations in the model parameters and in the inelastic deformation processes used in different simulations. Numerical simulations of an underground explosion in granite are used in the sensitivity study.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Vorobiev, O.Y.; Antoun, T.H.; Lomov, I.N. & Glenn, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic-source corner frequencies from the depth of burial experiment

Description: The results from the depth of burial experiment (DOB) are consistent with cube-root scaling and with previous observations that the source corner frequency for underground explosions increases with depth. The corner frequencies, however, were overpredicted by Mueller and Murphy (1971) and underpredicted by Denny and Johnson (1991).
Date: November 23, 1998
Creator: Denny, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

KAWICH-A: Containment data report

Description: This report briefly describes the KAWICH-A event, containment, and measuring instruments utilized. Diagrams are presented on pressure and radiation histories, containment instrumentation plan, and sanded gypsum emplacement.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Heinle, R. & Stubbs, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL`s partnership with selected US mines, for CTBT verification: A pictorial and some reflections

Description: The verification of an upcoming Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve seismic monitoring and will provide for on-site inspections which may include drilling. Because of the fact that mining operations can send out strong seismic signals, many mining districts in the US and abroad may come under special scrutiny. The seismic signals can be generated by the use of large quantities of conventional explosives, by the collapse of underground workings, or by sudden energy release in the ground such as in rock bursts and coal bumps. These mining activities may be the cause of false alarms, but may also offer opportunities for evasive nuclear testing. So in preparing for future verification of a CTBT it becomes important to address the mining-related questions. For the United States, these are questions to be answered with respect to foreign mines. But there is a good amount of commonality in mining methods worldwide. Studies conducted at US mine sites can provide good analogs of activities that may be carried out for overseas CTBT verification, save for the expected logistical impediments.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Heuze, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOLBO containment data report

Description: This containment data report for the MOLBO event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation, pressure, collapse phenomena, and motion.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The influence of rock material models on seismic discrimination of underground nuclear explosions

Description: We found that the spectral characteristics of the seismic signal from underground explosions were mainly determined by the rock material strength and the gas porosity. Both the unloading characteristics and the amplitude of the ``elastic toe`` are important parameters in the porous model.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Glenn, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SECO containment data report

Description: This containment data report for the SECO event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation, pressure, collapse phenomena, and motion. Surface array measurements are provided.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ISLAY containment data report

Description: This containment data report for the ISLAY event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation pressure and motion. Collapse phenomena are reported, including motion and radiation pressure. Measurements on the emplacement pipe are reported, including motion, pressure, temperature, and radiation.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARMADA containment data report

Description: ARMADA was detonated in hole U9cs of Nevada Test Site. Depth of burial was 265 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 9, about 400 m above the Paleozoic formation and 310 m above the standing water level. Detonation time was 05:53 PDT on April 22, 1983, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 0.4 hour after detonation. Resulting crater had a mean radius of 72.9 m and a max depth of 7.7 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the ARMADA containment was considered successful.
Date: April 1996
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

Description: This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Smith, D. F., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

Description: This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Sweeney, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Work plan addendum for the remedial investigation and feasibility study of the Salmon Site

Description: This document is intended as an addendum to the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the Salmon Site (SS) (formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site) Lamar County, Mississippi. The original work plan - Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study of the Tatum Dome Test Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (herein after called the Work Plan) was approved by the state of Mississippi in 1992 and was intended as the operative document for investigative activities at the Tatum Dome Test Site. Subsequent to the approval of the document a series of activities were undertaken under the auspices of the work plan. This document is organized in the same manner as the original work plan: (1) Introduction; (2) Site Background and History; (3) Initial Evaluation; (4) Data Quality Objectives; (5) RI/FS Tasks; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Management; and (8) Reference. This addendum will identify changes to the original work plan that are necessary because of additional information acquired at the SS. This document is not intended to replace the work plan, rather, it is intended to focus the remaining work in the context of additional site knowledge gained since the development of the original work plan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a focused and phased site characterization as a part, of the RI/FS. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The SS is not listed on the NPL, but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground motion characterization of the single shot in a mining blast array with the close-in seismic data

Description: Ground motion data from single, cylindrical explosions with the same source configuration as the individual explosions that make up a production mining blast array are analyzed. Strong shear motion is observed which can not be accounted for by the simple explosion source. Spall (the detachment and slap-down of the near surface strata and the separation of the burden and overburden from the continuum) accompanying the explosion seems to play an important role in shear wave energy generation. These shear energy may be the most damaging to the structures near the production site.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Yang, Xiaoning & Stump, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STATIC STRESS DETERMINATIONS IN SALT, SITE COWBOY

Description: An investigation was made to determine the stress field in the salt dome and the stress concentrations on the surface of the small (12-ft diameter) sphere. For the most part, the apparatus and techniques used in the investigation are new and have not been described in other reports. Therefore the theory, concepts, apparatus, and some of the lists made to determine the reproducibility of the apparatus are described briefly. (W.L.H.)
Date: July 29, 1960
Creator: Merrill, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STATIC STRESS DETERMINATIONS AND CRUSHED ZONE MEASUREMENTS SITE HOBO

Description: Post-shot measurements were made to determine the static field near the shot sites and the volume of the crushed zone of rock surrounding the location of the charges fired during Project HOBO. These measurements were made in connection with the Seismic Detection Program. (W.L.H.)
Date: July 1, 1960
Creator: Merrill, R.H. & Hooker, V.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of an underground explosion in granite

Description: This paper describes the results of a computational study performed to investigate the behavior of granite under shock wave loading conditions. A thermomechanically consistent constitutive model that includes the effects of bulking, yielding, material damage, and porous compaction on the material response was used in the simulations. The model parameters were determined based on experimental data, and the model was then used in a series of one-dimensional simulations of PILE DRIVER, a deeply-buried explosion in a granite formation at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity histories, peak velocity and peak displacement as a function of slant range, and the cavity radius obtained from the code simulations compared favorably with PILE DRIVER data.
Date: June 14, 1999
Creator: Antoun, T; Glenn, L A; Lomov, I N & Vorobiev, O Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of Underground Structures Subjected to Synamic Loading Using the Distinct Element Method

Description: The authors present results from a parameter study investigating the stability of underground structures in response to ground shock. Direct simulation requires detailed knowledge of both the facility itself and the surrounding geology. In practice, however, key details (joint spacing, joint stiffness, reinforcement) may not be available. Thus, in order to place bounds upon the predicted behavior of a given facility, an extensive series of simulations representing different realizations may be required. They will discuss the distinct element method (DEM) with particular emphasis on techniques for achieving improved computational efficiency, including the handling of contact detection and approaches to parallelization. Some continuum approaches to the simulation of underground facilities are discussed along with results from underground explosions. Finally, their DEM code is used to simulate dynamic loading of several generic subterranean facilities in hard rock for a range of joint properties and sources, demonstrating the suitability of the DEM for this application.
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: Morris, J.P.; Glenn, L.A.; Heuze, F.E. & Blair, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CARNELIAN containment data report

Description: The CARNELIAN event was detonated in hole U4af of the Nevada Test Site as indicated in figure 1 .l. The CARNELIAN device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 208 m in the alluvium of Area 4 , about 70 m above the Paleozoic formation and 330 m above the standing water level, as shown in the geologic cross-sections of figure 1.2(l) Figure 1 3 displays the local surface area showing nearby events Stemming of the 2 44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan shown in figure 1 4. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver(2) Detonation time was about 07 00 PDT on July 28 , 1977, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 19 minutes after the detonation resulting in a crater having a �cookie-cutter� geometry (steep walls with a relatively flat bottom) with a mean radius of 32 2 m and a maximum depth of 10 5 m No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the CARNELIAN containment was considered successful
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Stubbs, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A strength and damage model for rock under dynamic loading

Description: A thermodynamically consistent strength and failure model for granite under dynamic loading has been developed and evaluated. The model agrees with static strength measurements and describes the effects of pressure hardening, bulking, porous compaction, porous dilation, tensile failure, and failure under compression due to distortional deformations. This paper briefly describes the model and the sensitivity of the simulated response to variations in the model parameters and in the inelastic deformation processes used in different simulations. 1D simulations of an underground explosion in granite are used in the sensitivity study.
Date: June 14, 1999
Creator: Antoun, T H; Glenn, L A; Lomov, I N & Vorobiev, O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department