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Seismic-source corner frequencies from the depth of burial experiment

Description: The results from the depth of burial experiment (DOB) are consistent with cube-root scaling and with previous observations that the source corner frequency for underground explosions increases with depth. The corner frequencies, however, were overpredicted by Mueller and Murphy (1971) and underpredicted by Denny and Johnson (1991).
Date: November 23, 1998
Creator: Denny, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Strength and Damage Model for Rock Under Dynamic Loading

Description: A thermodynamically consistent strength and failure model for granite under dynamic loading has been developed and evaluated. The model agrees with static strength measurements and describes the effects of pressure hardening, bulking, shear-enhanced compaction, porous dilation, tensile failure, and failure under compression due to distortional deformations. This paper briefly describes the model and the sensitivity of the simulated response to variations in the model parameters and in the inelastic deformation processes used in different simulations. Numerical simulations of an underground explosion in granite are used in the sensitivity study.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Vorobiev, O.Y.; Antoun, T.H.; Lomov, I.N. & Glenn, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of near-source video and ground motion in the assessment of seismic source functions from mining explosions

Description: Constraint of the operative physical processes in the source region of mining explosions and the linkage to the generation of seismic waveforms provides the opportunity for controlling ground motion. Development of these physical models can also be used in conjunction with the ground motion data as diagnostics of blasting efficiency. In order to properly address the multi-dimensional aspect of data sets designed to constrain these sources, we are investigating a number of modem visualization tools that have only recently become available with new, high-speed graphical computers that can utilize relatively large data sets. The data sets that are combined in the study of mining explosion sources include near-source ground motion acceleration and velocity records, velocity of detonation measurements in each explosive hole, high speed film, video and shot design information.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Stump, B.W. & Anderson, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Work plan addendum for the remedial investigation and feasibility study of the Salmon Site

Description: This document is intended as an addendum to the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the Salmon Site (SS) (formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site) Lamar County, Mississippi. The original work plan - Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study of the Tatum Dome Test Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (herein after called the Work Plan) was approved by the state of Mississippi in 1992 and was intended as the operative document for investigative activities at the Tatum Dome Test Site. Subsequent to the approval of the document a series of activities were undertaken under the auspices of the work plan. This document is organized in the same manner as the original work plan: (1) Introduction; (2) Site Background and History; (3) Initial Evaluation; (4) Data Quality Objectives; (5) RI/FS Tasks; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Management; and (8) Reference. This addendum will identify changes to the original work plan that are necessary because of additional information acquired at the SS. This document is not intended to replace the work plan, rather, it is intended to focus the remaining work in the context of additional site knowledge gained since the development of the original work plan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a focused and phased site characterization as a part, of the RI/FS. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The SS is not listed on the NPL, but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of Underground Structures Subjected to Synamic Loading Using the Distinct Element Method

Description: The authors present results from a parameter study investigating the stability of underground structures in response to ground shock. Direct simulation requires detailed knowledge of both the facility itself and the surrounding geology. In practice, however, key details (joint spacing, joint stiffness, reinforcement) may not be available. Thus, in order to place bounds upon the predicted behavior of a given facility, an extensive series of simulations representing different realizations may be required. They will discuss the distinct element method (DEM) with particular emphasis on techniques for achieving improved computational efficiency, including the handling of contact detection and approaches to parallelization. Some continuum approaches to the simulation of underground facilities are discussed along with results from underground explosions. Finally, their DEM code is used to simulate dynamic loading of several generic subterranean facilities in hard rock for a range of joint properties and sources, demonstrating the suitability of the DEM for this application.
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: Morris, J.P.; Glenn, L.A.; Heuze, F.E. & Blair, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARMADA containment data report

Description: ARMADA was detonated in hole U9cs of Nevada Test Site. Depth of burial was 265 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 9, about 400 m above the Paleozoic formation and 310 m above the standing water level. Detonation time was 05:53 PDT on April 22, 1983, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 0.4 hour after detonation. Resulting crater had a mean radius of 72.9 m and a max depth of 7.7 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the ARMADA containment was considered successful.
Date: April 1996
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SECO containment data report

Description: This containment data report for the SECO event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation, pressure, collapse phenomena, and motion. Surface array measurements are provided.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

Description: This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Sweeney, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOLBO containment data report

Description: This containment data report for the MOLBO event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation, pressure, collapse phenomena, and motion.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depth of burial experiments at Balapan

Description: We report of a series of experiments designed to discriminate underground explosion sources at various depths by means of their seismic signatures at regional distances. This series was a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC). The series consisted of three 25-ton explosions, at depths of 55 m, 300 m, and 50 m. In addition, a 5-ton checkout explosion was fired at a depth of 630 m, and small-scale explosions at each site were carried out so that the empirical Green`s functions could be derived. Broadband and short-period seismic data were recorded at an eight-station network within Kazakhstan, at nominal ranges varying from 100-1500 km, and with good azimuthal coverage for regional phases. In addition, seismic measurements were made at former NRDC sites (BAY and KKL), infrasound recordings were made at the cross array at Kurchatov, and close-in seismic measurements were also made at ranges from ground zero to 20 km. Although the main objective of this series was to study depth-of- burial (DOB) effects on the excitation of regional phases such as LG and RG, and to determine whether peaks in the coda spectral shape correlate well with DOB, a secondary objective was to help calibrate the site of the Kazakhstan seismic network, especially the primary IMS station at MAKanchi, and the auxiliary IMS stations at KURchatov and AKTyubinsk.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Glenn, L.A. & Myers, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

Description: This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Smith, D. F., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

KAWICH-A: Containment data report

Description: This report briefly describes the KAWICH-A event, containment, and measuring instruments utilized. Diagrams are presented on pressure and radiation histories, containment instrumentation plan, and sanded gypsum emplacement.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Heinle, R. & Stubbs, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ISLAY containment data report

Description: This containment data report for the ISLAY event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation pressure and motion. Collapse phenomena are reported, including motion and radiation pressure. Measurements on the emplacement pipe are reported, including motion, pressure, temperature, and radiation.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Stubbs, T. & Heinle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL`s partnership with selected US mines, for CTBT verification: A pictorial and some reflections

Description: The verification of an upcoming Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve seismic monitoring and will provide for on-site inspections which may include drilling. Because of the fact that mining operations can send out strong seismic signals, many mining districts in the US and abroad may come under special scrutiny. The seismic signals can be generated by the use of large quantities of conventional explosives, by the collapse of underground workings, or by sudden energy release in the ground such as in rock bursts and coal bumps. These mining activities may be the cause of false alarms, but may also offer opportunities for evasive nuclear testing. So in preparing for future verification of a CTBT it becomes important to address the mining-related questions. For the United States, these are questions to be answered with respect to foreign mines. But there is a good amount of commonality in mining methods worldwide. Studies conducted at US mine sites can provide good analogs of activities that may be carried out for overseas CTBT verification, save for the expected logistical impediments.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Heuze, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Event location in the Middle East and North Africa

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress towards improving the ability of the IMS seismic network to locate small-magnitude events in the Middle East and North Africa (MIYNA). Given that high-grade ground truth (such as known explosions) has been difficult to obtain in these regions, we have placed a significant effort towards the development of a teleseismically constrained seismic database that provides event locations good to within 20m km. This data set is used to make an initial evaluation of the effectiveness of calibration on the proposed seismic IMS network in the MWNA. Utilizing a surrogate IMS regional network in the Middle East we find that when a seismic event lies within the footprint of the recording network the uncalibrated event locations are good to within about 25 km of the teleseismically constrained (TC) location. Using region-specific static station corrections further reduces this difference to about 20 km. To obtain further improvement in location accuracy we have used the modified kriging technique developed by SNL to interpolate new travel-time corrections. We compare this technique withe other robust linear interpolation techniques with the goal of enhancing the estimation of travel-time corrections. This is important to TC events which we find can have large uncorrelated uncertainties. Finally, we are making a large effort to incorporate LLNL analyst picks on primary and secondary phases and develop azimuth and slownsess estimates horn current IMS arrays to improve/supplement the NEIC picks.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Schultz, C. A.; Myers, S. C. & Ruppert, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground Nuclear Detonations

Description: Since 1952 eight nuclear explosions have been fired underground at the Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site. The explosions have varied in energy release from 55 tons to 19,000 tons of TNT equivalent and were carried out at depths varying from shallow burial to produce cratering to those depths at which no visible effects appeared on the surface. The major experimental data from these explosions, as well as the phenomenology of the deeper shots, are summarized hero. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1959
Creator: Johnson, G.W.; Higgins, G.H. & Violet, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A strength and damage model for rock under dynamic loading

Description: A thermodynamically consistent strength and failure model for granite under dynamic loading has been developed and evaluated. The model agrees with static strength measurements and describes the effects of pressure hardening, bulking, porous compaction, porous dilation, tensile failure, and failure under compression due to distortional deformations. This paper briefly describes the model and the sensitivity of the simulated response to variations in the model parameters and in the inelastic deformation processes used in different simulations. 1D simulations of an underground explosion in granite are used in the sensitivity study.
Date: June 14, 1999
Creator: Antoun, T H; Glenn, L A; Lomov, I N & Vorobiev, O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of an underground explosion in granite

Description: This paper describes the results of a computational study performed to investigate the behavior of granite under shock wave loading conditions. A thermomechanically consistent constitutive model that includes the effects of bulking, yielding, material damage, and porous compaction on the material response was used in the simulations. The model parameters were determined based on experimental data, and the model was then used in a series of one-dimensional simulations of PILE DRIVER, a deeply-buried explosion in a granite formation at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity histories, peak velocity and peak displacement as a function of slant range, and the cavity radius obtained from the code simulations compared favorably with PILE DRIVER data.
Date: June 14, 1999
Creator: Antoun, T; Glenn, L A; Lomov, I N & Vorobiev, O Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department