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Evaluated Neutron Cross Sections for Tritium

Description: From foreword: Evaluation of the experimental data on the light isotopes, hydrogen through beryllium, was initiated by LASL in mid-1963. Since the data compilations available were completely inadequate for the task at hand, the tedious program of compiling and plotting was undertaken. As the work progressed an attempt was made to eliminate many of the obvious errors and inconsistencies found in the literature and existing compilations.
Date: February 1965
Creator: Stewart, Leona
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-Section at 15.6 and 16.1 MeV

Description: The intent of this investigation is the determination of the values of the Cs-133 (n,2n)Cs-132 cross-section at neutron energies of 15.6 and 16.1 MeV. Neutrons of this energy are produced with comparative ease by means of the D-T reaction, in which deuterons of energy 500 and 750 keV, respectively, are impingent upon a tritium target.
Date: May 1969
Creator: Pepper, George H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Tritium activities in the United States

Description: There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Anderson, J.L. & LaMarche, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical comparison of three tritium system effluent HTO cleanup systems

Description: It is important that air emissions from tritium systems be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Thus, over the years a number of gas detritiation systems have been developed. Recently there has been interest in lower-cost, simpler systems which do not convert HT to the much more hazardous HTO form. Examples of such systems are (1) a bubbler/dehumidifier, (2) a bubbler/collector, and (3) an adsorber/collector. A computer model of each configuration was written and run. Each system's performance, including tritium buildup in liquid water, and tritium exhausted to the environment, are presented and compared.
Date: March 22, 2002
Creator: Willms, R.Scott; Gentile, Charles; Rule, Keith; Than, Chit & Williams, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

Description: This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.
Date: February 10, 2003
Creator: Hitchcock, Dan & Blake, John, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 ARea State-Approved Land Disposal Site--Fiscal Year 2002

Description: Tritium activities decreased in all three SALDS proximal wells during FY 2002, compared with FY 2001. Activities in well 699-48-77A first decreased to less than 3,000 pCi/L in January 2002, but rose to 150,000 in July, probably as a result of tritium discharges to SALDS that resumed in February 2002. Well 699-48-77C, where tritium analysis produced a maximum value of 750,000 pCi/L in January 2002, reflects the result of the delayed penetration of effluent deeper into the aquifer from tritium discharges. SALDS proximal well 699-48-77D produced a maximum result of 240,000 pCi/L in July 2002. Timing between detections of tritium and other constituents in well 699-48-77C suggest a delay of approximately three years from detection in wells 699-48-77A and 699-48-77D. Historically maxima for tritium (790 and 860 pCi/L in successive sample periods) suggest that tritium from SALDS may be reaching the northern edge of the 200 West Area, south of the facility.
Date: September 19, 2002
Creator: Barnett, D. Brent & Rieger, JoAnne T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

Description: Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Bruyere, S. A. & Cadwallader, L. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMIFacility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13and September 30, 2006

Description: This report details the work done between June 13 andSeptember 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the MainInjector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, thefacility produces (among other components) tritium in engineeredmaterials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium isgenerated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to otherregions within the facility, or be released to theenvironment.
Date: October 25, 2006
Creator: Pruess, Karsten; Conrad, Mark; Finsterle, Stefan; Kennedy, Mack; Kneafsey, Timothy; Salve, Rohit et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic testing of APT blanket assemblies

Description: The Thermal Fluids Laboratory (TFL) conducted hydraulic tests on two versions of the test samples of the Low Flux Blanket Assembly and on four High Flux Blanket Assemblies in support of the Area-A Tests to be conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The first purpose for the tests was to check for manufacturing flaws that might have constricted cooling passages. No evidence of manufacturing flaws was found. The second purpose was to provide hydraulic information that could be used to calculate orifice sizes for limiting flow to the assemblies after installation. During the TFL hydraulic tests differential pressures were measured for the six pieces of hardware as functions of water flowrate. In all cases differential pressure was proportional to flowrate squared. The particular functional relationships needed by LANL are listed in graphical and tabular form.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Steimke, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Improvements of a Tritiated Water Recovery System

Description: Tritium processing equipment is installed inside gloveboxes. Leaks of tritium, normal and accidental, are captured by a tritium stripping system using an oxidation-absorption process. Tritium is captured as tritiated water in zeolite beds and is recovered by desorption and reduction. The regenerated zeolite beds are reused. Reduction of the tritiated water is accomplished by a zeolite bed recovery system using hot magnesium beds. The system has been in operation for about 10 years and met original design requirements. Recent expansion of the facility requires a higher capacity of the system. Operation data are collected and analyzed. Ways to increase the system capacity are discussed.
Date: August 16, 2004
Creator: Heung, Leung K.; Hsu, R. H.; Rice, J. L. & McGee, T. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Angular Distribution and Total Flux of Neutrons Obtained from the Deuterium-Tritium Reaction

Description: Mono-energetic neutrons have been produced with the low-voltage Cockroft-Walton accelerator at North Texas State College using two different reactions. It is the purpose of this paper to report the angular distribution and total flux of the neutrons obtained from the T(D,n) reaction.
Date: 1956
Creator: Duggan, Jerome L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

Description: Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be ...
Date: September 30, 2013
Creator: Morgan, Gregg A & Peters, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

Description: Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Kim, Eung S.; Oh, Chang H. & Patterson, Mike
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium Processing and Containment Technology for Fusion Reactors, Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976

Description: The hydrogen permeabilities of selected metals, alloys, and multiplex preparations that are of interest to fusion reactor technology are being characterized. A high-vacuum hydrogen-permeation apparatus has been constructed for this purpose. A program of studies has been initiated to develop design details for the tritium-handling systems of near-term fusion reactors. This program has resulted in a better definition of reactor-fuel-cycle and enrichment requirements and has helped to identify major research and development problems in the tritium-handling area. The design and construction of a 50-gallon lithium-processing test loop (LPTL) is well under way. Studies in support of this project are providing important guidance in the selection of hardware for the LPTL and in the design of a molten-salt processing test section.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Maroni, V. A.; Calaway, W. F.; Misra, B.; Van Deventer, E. H.; Wegton, J. R.; Yonco, R. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Tritium in Gas Phase Soil Moisture and Helium-3 in Soil Gas at the Hanford Townsite and 100 K Area

Description: In 1999, eight soil gas sampling points ranging in depth from 4.9 ft to 32 ft below ground surface (bgs) in two clusters were installed adjacent to well 699-41-1, south of the Hanford Townsite. Fifteen soil gas sampling points, ranging in depth from 7.0 ft to 10.4 ft bgs, were installed to the north and east of the 100-K East Reactor facility. Gas phase soil moisture samples were collected using silica gel traps from all eight sampling locations adjacent to well 699-41-1 and eight locations at the 100-K Area. Soil gas samples for helium-3 measurements were collected at all sampling points. No detectable tritium (<240 pCi/L) was found in the soil moisture samples from either the Hanford Townsite or 100-K Area sampling points. This behavior suggests that tritiated moisture from groundwater is not migrating upward to the sampling points and there are no large vadose zone sources of tritium at either location. Helium-3 analyses of the soil gas samples showed significant enrichments relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations with a depth dependence consistent with a groundwater source from decay of tritium. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) at the Hanford Townsite ranged from 1.012 at 5 feet below ground surface (bgs) to 2.157 at 32 feet bgs. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios at the 100-K area ranged from 0.972 to 1.131. Based on results from the 100-K area, we believe that a major tritium plume does not lie within that study area. The data also suggest there may be a tritium groundwater plume or a source of helium-3 to the southeast of the study area. We recommend that the study be continued by the placement of additional soil gas sampling points along the perimeter road to the west and to the south of the initial study area.
Date: July 5, 2000
Creator: Olsen, Khris B.; Patton, Gregory W.; Poreda, R.; Dresel, P Evan & Evans, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

Description: This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.
Date: March 26, 2001
Creator: Hsu, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department