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In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

Description: A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.
Date: October 12, 2004
Creator: KLEIN, JAMES
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

Description: The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.
Date: June 28, 2004
Creator: Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Skinner, C.H. & Gentile, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion cross sections and reactivities

Description: Cross section and reactivity data are summarized for several important fusion reactions. Reactivities are included for both Maxwellian plasmas and beam- Maxwellian target fusion. Equations, tabular and also graphical presentations are included for convenience in a variety of applications. (auth)
Date: June 17, 1974
Creator: Miley, G.H.; Towner, H. & Ivich, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal SiteFiscal Year 2003

Description: The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which is not removed by the ETF, and is discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During fiscal year (FY) 2003 to date (through August 31, 2003), approximately 96-million liters (25.3-million gallons) of water have been discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, and water-level measurements are required by the state-issued permit at the SALDS. The current network consists of 3 proximal monitoring wells and 16 tritium-tracking wells. Proximal wells were sampled in October 2002, and January, February, April, and September of 2003. Tritium-tracking wells were sampled in January and September of 2003, but September results were delayed because of fire hazards near the wellheads. Water-level measurements in three wells nearest the SALDS indicate the continuation of a small hydraulic mound beneath the SALDS facility as a result of discharges. This feature is directing groundwater flow radially outward a short distance before the regional northeasterly flow predominates. This condition also places several wells south of the SALDS hydraulically downgradient of the facility. Some of the wells south of the SALDS in the tritium-tracking network have dried or are projected to soon be dry. Wells 299-W7-6 went dry during FY 2003, preventing collection of the September sample from this well. Tritium activities decreased in all three SALDS proximal wells during FY 2003, compared with FY 2002. Timing between detections of tritium and other constituents in well 699-48-77C suggest a delay of approximately 3 years from detection in wells 699-48-77A and 699-48-77D. Sporadic detections in well 299-W7-5 suggest that tritium from SALDS may be reaching the northern edge of the 200 West Area, south of the facility and may be at ...
Date: November 30, 2003
Creator: Barnett, D. Brent; Rieger, JoAnne T. & Thornton, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shell Temperatures for a Single-Heater Diffuser

Description: A new diffuser/permeator design has been proposed for a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The use of a single heater well in the center of the shell had raised concerns that the Pd/Ag coils may be shielding radiative heat transfer to the walls thus reducing Pd/Ag tube temperatures near the shell below the recommended minimum operating temperature. The diffuser was fitted with thermocouples to measure shell temperatures during testing. Tests were run with the shell evacuated, helium feed flows of 0, 1000, and 2000 sccm; bleed pressures ranging from 0 to 203 kPa, and heater temperatures of 650, 675, and 700 degrees C. Hydrogen permeation tests were run with two hydrogen/helium mixtures and feed rates to simulate 1st and 2nd stage diffuser operations. Approximately 20 hours were required to bring the diffuser from ambient temperature to steady-state conditions. For tests with a heater temperature of 675 degrees C and no hydrogen flow, helium flow rate and pressure had little impact on the measured shell temperatures, the thermowell temperature, roughly 415 degrees C, and altered heater output by only 11 watts. Conversely, controlling the thermowell temperature to 415 degrees C during hydrogen permeation tests increased heater power output, lowered heater temperature, and increased shell temperatures. The tests showed the diffuser can perform its intended function with reasonable assurance that the Pd/Ag tubes were within the recommended temperature range.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: KLEIN, JAMES
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department