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Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

Description: Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.
Date: August 15, 2007
Creator: Peterson, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

Description: Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.
Date: August 15, 2007
Creator: Peterson, S & Raskob, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2005.

Description: The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2005 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby handpumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the handpumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.
Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Golchert, N. W. & Oversight, ESH /QA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

Description: Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.
Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M. & Staack, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns

Description: There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system`s costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Drake, R.H. & Williams, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

Description: This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.
Date: March 26, 2001
Creator: Hsu, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress report on the tritium remission simulation

Description: A mathematical model has been developed which computes the concentration of tritiated water reemitted into the atmosphere by surface evaporation and plant transpiration using the Penman-Monteith equation. Using these rates, and assuming a deposition velocity for tritium, a coupled set of diffusion equations are then solved which yield the concentration of tritiated water as a function of time. The model is driven by a number of environmental parameters.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Barbieri, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colloid-Facilitated Plutonium Transport in Saturated Alluvium

Description: Natural groundwater colloids have been recognized as possible agents for enhancing the subsurface transport of strongly-sorbing radionuclides. To evaluate this mechanism, packed-bed column experiments were conducted comparing the simultaneous transport of dissolved plutonium (Pu), Pu sorbed onto natural colloids, 190-nm and 500-nm diameter fluorescent CML microspheres, and tritiated water in saturated alluvium. Experiments were conducted in two columns having slightly different porosities at two flow rates, resulting in average linear velocities (v{sub z}) of 0.6 to 3.65 cm/hr in one column and 0.57 to 2.85 cm/hr in the other. In all experiments, Pu associated with natural colloids transported through alluvium essentially unretarded, while dissolved Pu was entirely retained. These results were consistent with the strong sorption of Pu to alluvium and the negligible desorption from natural colloids, observed in separate batch experiments, over time scales exceeding those of the column experiments. Breakthroughs of natural colloids preceded tritiated water in all experiments, indicating a slightly smaller effective pore volume for the colloids. The enhancement of colloids transport over tritiated water decreased with v{sub z}, implying {approx} 40% enhancement at v{sub z} = 0. The 500-nm CML microspheres were significantly attenuated in the column experiments compared to the 190-nm microspheres, which exhibited slightly more attenuation than natural colloids.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Abdel-Fattah, A.; Reimus, P.; Ware, S. & Haga, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

Description: A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.
Date: October 14, 2010
Creator: Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J. & Stillman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRITIUM INCORPORATION STUDIES IN PHOTO-SYNTHETIC BACTERIA

Description: Although the detailed pathway of carbon, by which carbohydrates are formed from carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, has been established, comparatively little is known about the participation and transport of hydrogen in the complex series of reactions now known to be involved in photosynthesis. The transport of hydrogen may occur concurrently with the redox reactions of photosynthetic electron transport leading to the formation of ATP, as well as in the reduction of carbon dioxide. The participation of the chlorophylls, the carotenoids, the quinones, and other lipoid components in photosynthetic hydrogen transport has been the subject of considerable speculation. In an attempt to elucidate the pathway of hydrogen transport, we are studying the tritium labeling pattern in the lipid extracts of Rhodospirillum rubrum after the bacteria have been illuminated in growth medium containing tritiated water.
Date: July 1, 1967
Creator: Dehner, Thomas R.; Chan, W.-S.; Caple, Marianne B. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah Rivver Site: A Production Scale Demonstration

Description: The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented.
Date: November 4, 2004
Creator: Sessions, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

Description: Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.
Date: August 15, 2007
Creator: Peterson, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 3. Routine Releases, 1973 - 2005

Description: Annual mean concentrations of tritium in air moisture, calculated from data obtained from an air tritium sampler near the LLNL Discovery Center, were compared with annual mean air moisture concentrations predicted from atmospheric releases of tritium for the years 1973 through 2005. The 95% confidence intervals on the predictions and observations usually overlapped. When the distributions of predictions and observations were different, predictions were higher. Using both the observed and predicted air concentrations as input to the tritium dose model, DCART, annual doses to a hypothetical adult, child (age 10) and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) assumed to be living at LLNL's Discovery Center were calculated. Although the doses based on predicted air concentrations tended to be higher, they were nevertheless indistinguishable from doses based on observed air concentrations when uncertainties were taken into account. Annual doses, calculated by DCART and based on observed and predicted air concentrations, were compared with historical tritium doses reported annually by LLNL. Although the historical doses were calculated using various assumptions over the years, their agreement with the DCART predictions is remarkable. The Discovery Center was not the location of the site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI) from 1974 through 1978. However, doses at the location of the SW-MEI for those years were indistinguishable from those at the Discovery Center when uncertainties were taken into account. The upper confidence limits for all doses were always well below the current regulatory limit for dose to a member of the public (100 {micro}Sv or 10 mrem per year) from atmospheric releases (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H). Based on observed air concentrations, the 97.5% confidence limit on the cumulative dose to the hypothetical person born in 1973 and living through 2005 at the Discovery Center was 150 {micro}Sv (15 mrem), while that of the hypothetical ...
Date: August 15, 2007
Creator: Peterson, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 4. Routine Releases, 1953 - 1972

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was founded in September 1952. By 1953, operations involving tritium were underway. Annual doses to an adult, a child (age 10), and an infant (age six months to one year) from tritium released routinely from the Livermore site between 1953 and 1972 were calculated using the tritium dose model, DCART. Uncertainties about sources and release rates are high, particularly for the 1950's, and it was difficult, and sometimes impossible (e.g., when a source was only assumed to have existed) to quantify them accurately. Because of this, every effort was made to assure that the uncertainties applied to the input parameters used in DCART would result in doses that could not have been exceeded. Doses were calculated at the potential locations of the hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI), which were at a residence on Vasco Road inside the present west perimeter of the Laboratory (1953 - 1958), at an automotive garage on East Avenue (1961), and at the Discovery Center (1959, 1960, 1962 - 1972, years which predate the facility). Even with the most conservative, screening model assumptions, the highest dose to the SW-MEI (in 1957) was predicted with 95% probability to have been between 27 and 370 {micro}Sv (2.7 and 37 mrem), with the most likely dose being 130 {micro}Sv (13 mrem). Using more realistic, but still conservative assumptions about what fraction of the diet could have been contaminated, these predictions were reduced by more than a factor of two. All other annual doses (at the 97.5% confidence limits) to the SW-MEI, calculated with the most conservative and health protective assumptions, were less than 200 {micro}Sv (20 mrem), and no dose after 1958 could have exceeded 100 {micro}Sv (10 mren). The cumulative dose to the hypothetical individual at the west perimeter location for 1953 through ...
Date: August 15, 2007
Creator: Peterson, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

Description: Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only ...
Date: September 5, 2007
Creator: Peterson, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

Description: The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.
Date: May 31, 2011
Creator: Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

Description: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.
Date: February 11, 2002
Creator: Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Guttadora, Gregory L. & Ciebiera, Lloyd P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Membrane mediated separation of tritiated water from water without phase change

Description: This development effort at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been directed toward the separation of tritium (via {sup 3}HOH or HTO) from contaminated ground water with the use of membrane technology. Tritium contamination exists in both aquifers and water used for reactor cooling and represents both a technical and financial challenge for the Department of Energy. Currently, the primary option for the remediation low-level tritium is migration with time through geological formations. However, point sources containing tritiated water can be attacked by separation technology, thus directly addressing environmental concerns. The separation technology reported here is especially applicable to tritium contaminated water generated in nuclear fuel storage basins. At Hanford, the dual K-Basins contain 1000 metric tons of fuel with cooling waters; the K-East Basin contains 5.7 million liters of water at 11.1 MBq (3 {mu}Ci/L). The K-West Basin contains 300,000 pCi/L also due to canister leakage. At the Savannah River Site, the L-Reactor Basin (15.2 million liters of water) and K-Reactor Disassembly Basins have held fuel rods for 5 years and many have corroded. Tritium levels are near that of the Hanford basins. At INEL, Building 603 stores more than 13,200 Kg of fuel rods in three pools of lesser volume than the Hanford or Savannah River Sites. Experience with membrane systems in industry indicates that they are inherently energy efficient. In the work at PNL, aromatic polyphosphazenes were chosen as the polymeric material for the membranes being investigated because they have been shown to possess excellent isothermal stability above 300{degrees}C and are quite robust under radiolysis conditions.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Nelson, D.A.; Duncan, J.B.; Jensen, G.A. & Burton, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium waste package

Description: A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB adsorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S. & Walters, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

Description: This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.
Date: October 29, 1997
Creator: Clifton, F.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project report: Tritiated oil repackaging highlighting the ISMS process. Historical radioactive and mixed waste disposal request validation and waste disposal project

Description: The Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) was established to define a framework for the essential functions of managing work safely. There are five Safety Management Functions in the model of the ISMS process: (1) work planning, (2) hazards analysis, (3) hazards control, (4) work performance, and (5) feedback and improve. Recent activities at the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility underscored the importance and effectiveness of integrating the ISMS process to safely manage high-hazard work with a minimum of personnel in a timely and efficient manner. This report describes how project personnel followed the framework of the ISMS process to successfully repackage tritium-contaminated oils. The main objective was to open the boxes without allowing the gaseous tritium oxide, which had built up inside the boxes, to release into the sorting room. The boxes would be vented out the building stack until tritium concentration levels were acceptable. The carboys would be repackaged into 30-gallon drums and caulked shut. Sealing the drums would decrease the tritium off-gassing into the RMWMF.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Schriner, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department