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Environmental Effects of Sediment Transport Alteration and Impacts on Protected Species: Edgartown Tidal Energy Project

Description: The Islands of Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket are separated from the Massachusetts mainland by Vineyard and Nantucket Sounds; water between the two islands flows through Muskeget Channel. The towns of Edgartown (on Martha’s Vineyard) and Nantucket recognize that they are vulnerable to power supply interruptions due to their position at the end of the power grid, and due to sea level rise and other consequences of climate change. The tidal energy flowing through Muskeget Channel has been identified by the Electric Power Research Institute as the strongest tidal resource in Massachusetts waters. The Town of Edgartown proposes to develop an initial 5 MW (nameplate) tidal energy project in Muskeget Channel. The project will consist of 14 tidal turbines with 13 providing electricity to Edgartown and one operated by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth for research and development. Each turbine will be 90 feet long and 50 feet high. The electricity will be brought to shore by a submarine cable buried 8 feet below the seabed surface which will landfall in Edgartown either on Chappaquiddack or at Katama. Muskeget Channel is located between Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket. Its depth ranges between 40 and 160 feet in the deepest portion. It has strong currents where water is transferred between Nantucket Sound and the Atlantic Ocean continental shelf to the south. This makes it a treacherous passage for navigation. Current users of the channel are commercial and recreational fishing, and cruising boats. The US Coast Guard has indicated that the largest vessel passing through the channel is a commercial scallop dragger with a draft of about 10 feet. The tidal resource in the channel has been measured by the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth and the peak velocity flow is approximately 5 knots. The technology proposed is the helical Gorlov-type turbine positioned with a ...
Date: December 29, 2012
Creator: Barrett, Stephen B.; Schlezinger, David, Ph.D; Cowles, Geoff, Ph.D; Hughes, Patricia; Samimy; Roland, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

Description: Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In addition to prospective analysis for standards and certification, urban form modeling can also be useful in calculating or verifying ex ...
Date: December 15, 2010
Creator: Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining & Fridley, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational mechanics research and support for aerodynamics and hydraulics at TFHRC year 1 quarter 4 progress report.

Description: The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural mechanics (CSM) focus areas at Argonne's Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) initiated a project to support and compliment the experimental programs at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) with high performance computing based analysis capabilities in August 2010. The project was established with a new interagency agreement between the Department of Energy and the Department of Transportation to provide collaborative research, development, and benchmarking of advanced three-dimensional computational mechanics analysis methods to the aerodynamics and hydraulics laboratories at TFHRC for a period of five years, beginning in October 2010. The analysis methods employ well-benchmarked and supported commercial computational mechanics software. Computational mechanics encompasses the areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Wind Engineering (CWE), Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM), and Computational Multiphysics Mechanics (CMM) applied in Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems. The major areas of focus of the project are wind and water effects on bridges - superstructure, deck, cables, and substructure (including soil), primarily during storms and flood events - and the risks that these loads pose to structural failure. For flood events at bridges, another major focus of the work is assessment of the risk to bridges caused by scour of stream and riverbed material away from the foundations of a bridge. Other areas of current research include modeling of flow through culverts to assess them for fish passage, modeling of the salt spray transport into bridge girders to address suitability of using weathering steel in bridges, CFD analysis of the operation of the wind tunnel in the TFCHR wind engineering laboratory, vehicle stability under high wind loading, and the use of electromagnetic shock absorbers to improve vehicle stability under high wind conditions. This quarterly report documents technical progress on the project tasks for the period of July through September ...
Date: December 9, 2011
Creator: Lottes, S.A.; Kulak, R.F. & Bojanowski, C. (Energy Systems)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

Description: One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Schultz, Richard R.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Nigg, David W.; Gougar, Hans D.; Johnson, Richard W.; Terry, William K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

Description: The groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed RH-LLW disposal facility. A four-step analysis approach was documented and applied. This assessment compared the predicted groundwater ingestion dose to the more restrictive of either the 25 mrem/yr all pathway dose performance objective, or the maximum contaminant limit performance objective. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives. The analysis was prepared to support the NEPA-EA for the top two ranking of the proposed RH-LLW sites. As such, site-specific conditions were incorporated for each set of results generated. These site-specific conditions were included to account for the transport of radionuclides through the vadose zone and through the aquifer at each site. Site-specific parameters included the thickness of vadose zone sediments and basalts, moisture characteristics of the sediments, and aquifer velocity. Sorption parameters (Kd) were assumed to be very conservative values used in Track II analysis of CERCLA sites at INL. Infiltration was also conservatively assumed to represent higher rates corresponding to disturbed soil conditions. The results of this analysis indicate that the groundwater impacts for either proposed facility location are expected to be less than the performance objectives.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Schafer, Annette; Rood, Arthur S. & Sondrup, A. Jeffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

Description: Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining radionuclides would exceed the maximum contaminant levels for either site location. The predicted cumulative effective dose equivalent ...
Date: December 23, 2011
Creator: Schafer, Annette; Rood, Arthur S. & Sondrup, A. Jeffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Project Report for project titled "Fluoroalkylphosphonic-acid-based proton conductors"

Description: The overall objective of this research was to create new proton-conducting polymer electrolytes for use in energy conversion devices including hydrogen fuel cells that could operate at high temperatures (95-130 C) and under low relative humidity (< 50% RH) conditions. The new polymers were based on the fluoroalkylphosphonic and phosphinic acid (FPA) groups (see illustration below) which offer prospects for rapid proton transport by a proton-hopping mechanism similar to that which operates in phosphoric acid, a well-known proton-transporting electrolyte that is used in a class of hydrogen fuel cells that work well under the conditions noted above and are already commercially successful. The two specific project objectives were as follows: (1) synthesize and characterize new proton-conducting electrolytes based on the fluoroalkylphosphonic and phosphinic acid (FPA) functional groups; and (2) create and apply new computer models to study protonic conduction in FPA-based electrolytes. The project was successful in creating the desired polymer electrolytes and also a series of molecular model compounds which were used to study proton transport in FPA electrolytes in general. Computer models were created to study both structure and proton-transport dynamics in the electrolytes, particularly the molecular model compounds. Rapid proton transport by a hopping mechanism was found in many of the model compounds and correlations with transport rates with molecular structure were identified. Several polymeric analogs of FPA model compounds were prepared and studied, however FPA-based polymeric materials having very high protonic conductivities under either wet or dry conditions were not obtained. Several possible reasons for the failure of polymeric materials to exhibit the expected high protonic conductivities were identified, including a failure of the polymers to adopt the phase-separated secondary structure/morphology necessary for high proton conductivity, and an unexpected polymer crosslinking effect of acidic groups having two P-OH groups. The project has lent insight into how ...
Date: December 8, 2011
Creator: Creager, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implications of Pulser Voltage Ripple

Description: In a recent set of measurements obtained by G. Kamin, W. Manning, A. Molvik, and J. Sullivan, the voltage waveform of the diode pulser had a ripple of approximately {+-}1.3% of the 65 kV flattop voltage, and the beam current had a larger corresponding ripple of approximately {+-}8.4% of the 1.5 mA average current at the location of the second Faraday cup, approximately 1.9 m downstream from the ion source. The period of the ripple was about 1 {mu}s. It was initially unclear whether this large current ripple was in fact a true measurement of the current or a spurious measurement of noise produced by the pulser electronics. The purpose of this note is to provide simulations which closely match the experimental results and thereby corroborate the physical nature of those measurements, and to provide predictions of the amplitude of the current ripples as they propagate to the end of linear transport section. Additionally analytic estimates are obtained which lend some insight into the nature of the current fluctuations and to provide an estimate of what the maximum amplitude of the current fluctuations are expected to be, and conversely what initial ripple in the voltage source is allowed, given a smaller acceptable tolerance on the line charge density.
Date: December 21, 2011
Creator: Barnard, J J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

Description: At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.
Date: December 15, 2011
Creator: Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P. & Bixler, Nathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced atom chips with two metal layers.

Description: A design concept, device layout, and monolithic microfabrication processing sequence have been developed for a dual-metal layer atom chip for next-generation positional control of ultracold ensembles of trapped atoms. Atom chips are intriguing systems for precision metrology and quantum information that use ultracold atoms on microfabricated chips. Using magnetic fields generated by current carrying wires, atoms are confined via the Zeeman effect and controllably positioned near optical resonators. Current state-of-the-art atom chips are single-layer or hybrid-integrated multilayer devices with limited flexibility and repeatability. An attractive feature of multi-level metallization is the ability to construct more complicated conductor patterns and thereby realize the complex magnetic potentials necessary for the more precise spatial and temporal control of atoms that is required. Here, we have designed a true, monolithically integrated, planarized, multi-metal-layer atom chip for demonstrating crossed-wire conductor patterns that trap and controllably transport atoms across the chip surface to targets of interest.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Stevens, James E.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Benito, Francisco M. & Biedermann, Grant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

Description: The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Schultz, Peter Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1

Description: This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Ruskauff, Greg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H2A Biomethane Model Documentation and a Case Study for Biogas From Dairy Farms

Description: The new H2A Biomethane model was developed to estimate the levelized cost of biomethane by using the framework of the vetted original H2A models for hydrogen production and delivery. For biomethane production, biogas from sources such as dairy farms and landfills is upgraded by a cleanup process. The model also estimates the cost to compress and transport the product gas via the pipeline to export it to the natural gas grid or any other potential end-use site. Inputs include feed biogas composition and cost, required biomethane quality, cleanup equipment capital and operations and maintenance costs, process electricity usage and costs, and pipeline delivery specifications.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Saur, G. & Jalalzadeh, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steering Committee Progress Report on Hydrogen Sensor Performance Testing and Evaluation under the Memorandum of Agreement between NREL, U.S. DOE and JRC-IET, EC

Description: This progress report is a programmatic summary of a formal MOA between NREL and the European Union Joint Research Center, Institute for Energy and Transport to be presented at the Steering Committee Meeting, December 3, 2012.
Date: December 1, 2012
Creator: Buttner, W.; Post, M.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Boon-Brett, L.; Palmisano, V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress Report, December 2010: Improved Site Characterization And Storage Prediction Through Stochastic Inversion Of Time-Lapse Geophysical And Geochemical Data

Description: Over the last project six months, our project activities have concentrated on three areas: (1) performing a stochastic inversion of pattern 16 seismic data to deduce reservoir permeability, (2) development of the geochemical inversion strategy and implementation of associated software, and (3) completing the software implementation of TProGS and the geostatistical analysis that provides the information needed when using the software to produce realizations of the Midale reservoir. The report partially the following deliverables: D2: Model development: MCMC tool (synthetic fluid chemistry data); deliverable completed. D4: Model development/verification: MCMC tool (TProGS, field seismic/chemistry data) work product; deliverable requirements partially fulfilled. D5: Field-based single-pattern simulations work product; deliverable requirements partially fulfilled. When completed, our completed stochastic inversion tool will explicitly integrate reactive transport modeling, facies-based geostatistical methods, and a novel stochastic inversion technique to optimize agreement between observed and predicted storage performance. Such optimization will be accomplished through stepwise refinement of: (1) the reservoir model - principally its permeability magnitude and heterogeneity - and (2) geochemical parameters - primarily key mineral volume fractions and kinetic data. We anticipate that these refinements will facilitate significantly improved history matching and forward modeling of CO{sub 2} storage. Our tool uses the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methodology. Deliverable D1, previously submitted as a report titled ''Development of a Stochastic Inversion Tool To Optimize Agreement Between The Observed And Predicted Seismic Response To CO{sub 2} Injection/Migration in the Weyburn-Midale Project'' (Ramirez et al., 2009), described the stochastic inversion approach that will identify reservoir models that optimize agreement between the observed and predicted seismic response. The software that implements this approach has been completed, tested, and used to process seismic data from pattern 16. A previously submitted report titled ''Model verification: synthetic single pattern simulations using seismic reflection data'', Ramirez et al. 2010, partially fulfilled deliverable ...
Date: December 17, 2010
Creator: Ramirez, A; Mcnab, W; Carle, S; Hao, Y; White, D & Johnson, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

Description: This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.
Date: December 28, 2011
Creator: Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S. & McDonald, Benjamin S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remediation of Uranium in the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Ammonia Gas: FY 2010 Laboratory-Scale Experiments

Description: This investigation is focused on refining an in situ technology for vadose zone remediation of uranium by the addition of ammonia (NH3) gas. Objectives are to: a) refine the technique of ammonia gas treatment of low water content sediments to minimize uranium mobility by changing uranium surface phases (or coat surface phases), b) identify the geochemical changes in uranium surface phases during ammonia gas treatment, c) identify broader geochemical changes that occur in sediment during ammonia gas treatment, and d) predict and test injection of ammonia gas for intermediate-scale systems to identify process interactions that occur at a larger scale and could impact field scale implementation.Overall, NH3 gas treatment of low-water content sediments appears quite effective at decreasing aqueous, adsorbed uranium concentrations. The NH3 gas treatment is also fairly effective for decreasing the mobility of U-carbonate coprecipitates, but shows mixed success for U present in Na-boltwoodite. There are some changes in U-carbonate surface phases that were identified by surface phase analysis, but no changes observed for Na-boltwoodite. It is likely that dissolution of sediment minerals (predominantly montmorillonite, muscovite, kaolinite) under the alkaline conditions created and subsequent precipitation as the pH returns to natural conditions coat some of the uranium surface phases, although a greater understanding of these processes is needed to predict the long term impact on uranium mobility. Injection of NH3 gas into sediments at low water content (1% to 16% water content) can effectively treat a large area without water addition, so there is little uranium mobilization (i.e., transport over cm or larger scale) during the injection phase.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Zhong, Lirong; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Mark D.; McKinley, James P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report - Investigation into the Relationship between Heterogeneity and Heavy-Tailed Solute Transport

Description: The objective of this project was to characterize the influence that naturally complex geologic media has on anomalous dispersion and to determine if the nature of dispersion can be estimated from the underlying heterogeneous media. The UNM portion of this project was to provide detailed representations of aquifer heterogeneity through producing highly-resolved models of outcrop analogs to aquifer materials. This project combined outcrop-scale heterogeneity characterization (conducted at the University of New Mexico), laboratory experiments (conducted at Sandia National Laboratory), and numerical simulations (conducted at Sandia National Laboratory and Colorado School of Mines). The study was designed to test whether established dispersion theory accurately predicts the behavior of solute transport through heterogeneous media and to investigate the relationship between heterogeneity and the parameters that populate these models. The dispersion theory tested by this work was based upon the fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) model. Unlike most dispersion studies that develop a solute transport model by fitting the solute transport breakthrough curve, this project explored the nature of the heterogeneous media to better understand the connection between the model parameters and the aquifer heterogeneity. We also evaluated methods for simulating the heterogeneity to see whether these approaches (e.g., geostatistical) could reasonably replicate realistic heterogeneity. The UNM portion of this study focused on capturing realistic geologic heterogeneity of aquifer analogs using advanced outcrop mapping methods.
Date: December 6, 2013
Creator: Weissmann, Gary S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

Description: Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin ...
Date: December 6, 2011
Creator: Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J. & Chenault, Jeffrey W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

Description: The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.
Date: December 31, 2011
Creator: Gilliland, Deanna & Usher, Matthew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

Description: The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat ...
Date: December 19, 2011
Creator: Wang, Dexin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

Description: The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat ...
Date: December 19, 2011
Creator: Wang, Dexin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department