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Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems

Description: Progress is reported for the second year of this project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project objectives for Year 2 were pursued through five tasks: literature reviews on process water constituents, possible environmental impacts and potential control technologies; toxicity bioassays on the effects of coal gasification and oil shale retorting process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; biodegradation studies on process water constituents; bioaccumulation factor estimation for the compounds tested in the toxicity bioassays; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Results in each of the five areas of research are reported.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Bergman, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Pretreatment unit options (Deliverable No. 41)

Description: Three approaches to pretreatment for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant project in the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Pilot Plant have been examined. Analyses of these approaches, selection of the best alternative among the three, and detailed design and evaluation of cost and schedule impacts were made. The best approach available to pretreatment demonstration is an integrated pretreater - an ash agglomerating gasifier (AAG) that uses the existing AAG system, a new pretreater pressure vessel, and needed ancillary equipment. Based on pilot plant results, IGT dos not recommend pretreatment for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant or testing pretreatment in the IGT Pilot Plant, but merely suggests the above approach to pilot plant testing of pretreatment as the most viable. Based on pilot plant tests, IGT does not feel that pretreatment is necessary for operation of the ash agglomerating gasifier with Western Kentucky No. 9 coal. IGT has developed a feeding technique that enables raw coal to be fed directly to the gasifier without plugging of the feed nozzle lines which has been demonstrated in several tests. Should pretreatment prove necessary because of unforeseen circumstances, IGT has studied the available alternatives and has selected the best alternative for detailed consideration. If pretreatment is required, it can be implemented efficiently in accordance with plans developed.
Date: December 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of x-ray emission spectra to the identification of particulate sulfur compounds in ambient air

Description: X-ray emission spectra was found to be an effective method for the observation of the chemical form of particulate sulfur in ambient air. Realizing the unique spectral characteristics of sulfate, an instrument for analyzing pollution filters for sulfate concentrations can be considered. A knowledge of the peak positions and relative peak intensities dispenses with the need to perform time consuming scans. A sealed, helium fille Bragg spectrometer that allows for precise external rotation of the diffracting crystal would permit consecutive measurements of the peak counting rates. A detailed investigation of the K..beta../K..beta..' ratio (observed to be about 3 to 1) through a least squares comparison with a standard sulfate sample would yielded information concerning the sulfate concentration. Any counts remaining in the main peak after removing the sulfate contribution can be attributed to other forms of sulfur, most notably sulfides.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Ramponi, A.J. & Jaklevic, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatty acid ecology of plankton communities. Progress report, May 1, 1978--April 30, 1979

Description: As a test of the hypothesis that fatty acid patterns of entire planktonic communities should be less variable and more predictable in offshore waters than estuarine habitats, monthly samples have been taken in Block Island Sound, Narragansett Bay, and Green Hill Pond (a brackish lagoon), R.I. Observations include physical environmental properties, standing crop estimates, and fatty acid distribution in two size fractions - phytoplankton-microzooplankton and zooplankton. A second hypothesis states that the annual sample trajectory of a zooplankton community displayed in biochemical(fatty acid) phase space is related to production, but only under certain circumstances. Samples were also taken along the major axes of Ria de Arosa and Ria de Muros y Noya, two deep embayments on the Atlantic coast of northern Spain. Results on the first hypothesis show that each system in the gradient of environmental severity behaves individually during the autumnal cooling period, when plankton production declines to annual minima. Spatial distribution of zooplankton in the two adjacent Spanish rias differ completely, both qualitatively and quantitatively. A comparison between the Spanish rias and the three US estuaries should reveal the basic nature of chemically defined stable domain in community structure. From these relations, the fate of communities subjected to either natural stressors or anthrogenic perturbation may be predicted with economy, speed, and objectivity.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Jeffries, H P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the once-through cooling alternative for central steam-electric generating stations

Description: The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from steam-electric power generation by means of once-through cooling systems was examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) were identified. The mixing and dilution characteristics of various discharge modes ranging from simple, shoreline surface discharges to long, submerged multiport diffusers were examined in terms of the results of prototype measurements, analytical model predictions, and physical model studies. General guidelines were produced that indicate, for a given plant capacity, a given type of receiving water body, and a given discharge mode, the likelihood that once-through cooling can be effected within the restrictions of typical thermal standards. In general, it was found that shoreline surface discharges would not be adequate for large power plants (greater than or equal to 500 MW) at estuarine and marine coastal sites, would be marginally adequate at lake sites, and would be acceptable only at river sites with large currents and river discharges. Submerged multiport diffusers were found to provide the greatest likelihood of meeting thermal standards in all receiving water environments.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Paddock, R.A. & Ditmars, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal cleaning effects during H-Coal catalytic liquefaction of a western Kentucky coal. [Effect of coal cleaning on oil yield]

Description: Two H-Coal bench-scale liquefaction tests were performed to compare the hydroliquefaction behavior of two Kentucky No. 11 coals from the same mine: a run-of-mine coal with 17.49 W % ash and a deep-cleaned coal with 6.21 W % ash. The tests were conducted using a syncrude mode of operation. The deep-cleaned coal exhibited greater coal conversion and greater residual oil yield than the run-of-mine coal. On a dry coal basis, the deep-cleansed coal yielded approximately 19% more C/sub 4/ to 975/sup 0/F distillate than the run-of-mine coal. The process requirement of a pumpable vacuum still bottoms product would result in a 10% higher C/sub 4/ to 975/sup 0/F yield from the deep-cleaned coal than from the run-of-mine coal in a commercial H-Coal plant.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Bernard, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report: conversion to coal in the industrial sector

Description: A key element of the National Energy Plan is the conversion of industrial boiler fuels from natural gas and oil to coal. But widespread conversion to coal is not taking place in the industrial sector. This study identifies the important factors that restrict the acceptance of coal in industry and examines some alternatives to conventional on-site combustion. An analysis of the economic and environmental barriers is made along with a discussion of financial and logistical constraints. The results indicate that the lack of substantial economic incentives, increased risks due to intensified capital requirements, and the absence of a clear environmental policy make coal a poor choice for most of industry. The proposed tax provisions of the National Energy Plan would improve the economic incentives to convert to coal, but for most industrial energy users the incentives will still be too small and the risks too large. Alternatives to conventional on-site facilities considered are central community steam generation and an area coal terminal. These concepts appear promising for some regions of the country.
Date: December 20, 1978
Creator: Anderson, T.D. & Fox, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion studies on retrievable spent fuel containers: a progress report

Description: Spent fuel canisters stored in halite (NaCl) deposits (salt beds) are subject to a severely corrosive environment when the hot brine inclusions, rich in calcium and magnesium chlorides, migrate to the canister. Since no data base exists on corrosion in halite brines, a survey was made of the corrosion resistance of potential canister materials in other concentrated brine environments. Corrosion-resistant metals include Ta, Ti Code 12, TiPd Alloy, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, and Fe-base 29-4 Alloy. Although carbon steels have cost and availability advantages, they suffer from excessive corrosion rates in brines. Corrosion-resistant nonmetals include carbon, Teflon-type fluorocarbons, epoxide coatings, and polymer cements. While these materials are not suitable for constructing the canister, they could be used as a protective coating on a carbon steel canister. On the basis of this survey, we recommend a coated carbon steel canister, used with cathodic protection. It is important to start a test program to gather a data base on the corrosion of materials in halite brines and to verify the suitability of canister materials.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Ludemann, W.D.; Abrego, L. & McCright, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: an annotated bibliography of the 1977 literature

Description: This bibliography, containing 537 references from the 1977 literature, is the seventh in a series of annotated bibliographies on the effects of heat on aquatic organisms. The effects of thermal discharges at power plant sites are emphasized. Laboratory and field studies on temperature tolerance and the effects of temperature changes on reproduction, development, growth, distribution, physiology, and sensitivity to other stresses are included. References in the bibliography are divided into three subject categories: marine systems, freshwater systems, and estuaries. The references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location of the study, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keywords-in-context of nontrivial words in the title).
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Talmage, S.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radial diffusion of resonant particles in tandem mirrors

Description: The radial diffusion of resonant particles in the banana regime and the plateau regime is derived in detail from kinetic theory. The plateau diffusion, calculated in the tau-approximation, confirms the result given by Ryutov--Stupakov without derivation. The banana diffusion also agrees with the R--S result provided the latter is corrected for some dependence of the collision frequency on epsilon and phi.
Date: December 4, 1978
Creator: Lee, Y.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulation of material transport in a regional ground-water flow system

Description: A numerical model of a regional ground-water flow system (not site specific) was coupled with a material transport model in order to study the influence of porosity and distribution coefficients in bedded media. The effects on model performance were discerned from long-term material transport simulations. Model performance was based on initial breakthrough time, average breakthrough time, and the standard deviation of the breakthrough curve at a discharge surface. Large differences in model performance occurred when the distribution coefficient was changed less than an order of magnitude, while small differences resulted from changing porosity several orders of magnitude.
Date: December 31, 1978
Creator: Naymik, T.G. & Thorson, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NJOY nuclear data processing system: user's manual. [For CDC 7600]

Description: The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing cross sections for neutron and photon transport calculations from ENDF/B-IV and -V evaluated nuclear data. This user's manual provides a concise description of the code, input instructions, sample problems, and installation instructions. 1 figure, 3 tables.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: MacFarlane, R.E.; Barrett, R.J.; Muir, D.W. & Boicourt, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling tower drift studies at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Description: The transfer and fate of chromium from cooling tower drift to terrestrial ecosystems were quantified with concentrations in plant materials (fescue grass) decreasing with increasing distance from the cooling tower. Results indicate that elemental content in drift water (mineral residue) may not be equivalent to the content in the recirculating cooling water of the tower. This hypothesis is contrary to basic assumptions in calculating drift emissions. Results suggest that differences in retention in litter and foliage are related to chemical properties of the drift rather than physical lodging of the particle residue. To determine the potential for movement of drift-derived chromium to surface streams, soil-water samplers (wells) were placed along a distance gradient to Little Bayou Creek. Preliminary model estimates of drift deposition are compared to deposition measurements.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Taylor, F. G.; Hanna, S. R. & Parr, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of geochemical reactions by equilibrum step codes. [Rock-water interactions near nuclear waste reposition]

Description: This report describes the principles, applications, and limitations of the present state of the art of equilibrium step codes. The discussion is oriented toward concerns of the user of such codes, and toward applications of the codes to study of low-temperature, aqueous, geochemical systems; detailed discussion of computational methods is avoided. Primary emphasis is directed to a code devised recently by T. Wolery at Northwestern University and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California. This code is in use at LBL in theoretical studies of rock-water interactions near hypothetical nuclear waste depositories.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Carnahan, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sources and delivery of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 1977--December 1978

Description: Results are presented from a comprehensive study by Pullman Kellogg, with assistance from Gulf Universities Research Consortium (GURC) and National Cryo-Chemics Incorporated (NCI), of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. A survey of carbon dioxide sources within the geographic areas of potential EOR are shown on four regional maps with the tabular data for each region to describe the sources in terms of quantity and quality. Evaluation of all the costs, such as purchase, production, processing, and transportation, associated with delivering the carbon dioxide from its source to its destination are presented. Specific cases to illustrate the use of the maps and cost charts generated in this study have been examined.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Hare, M.; Perlich, H.; Robinson, R.; Shah, M. & Zimmerman, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Research Laboratories 1977 annual report

Description: Research is reported in the following subject areas: regional-scale effects of energy generation; mesoscale transport and diffusion modeling; effluent plume behavior; forest meteorology; climatological studies. Current research programs include air transport studies, especially in rough terrain; air pollution studies; the meteorological effects of cooling towers and energy production; research on plume and wake behavior (including effects of buoyancy, active thermal convection, building wake interaction, and removal processes); extension of atmospheric transport, diffusion, and effluent removal models to special situations such as over-water and over-forest flows; and study of the role of forest structure on the atmospheric energy balance and on diffusion. Separate abstracts were prepared for those studies on scope for ERA/EDB. (JGB)
Date: December 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of a shipping container for transporting high-level waste by railroad

Description: A shipping cask uniquely designed to transport solidified high-level wastes (SHLW) from a reprocessing plant to a federal repository has not yet been developed. The amount of material that would be transported and the anticipated characteristics of the SHLW suggest that rail casks will be favored for this transportation because of cost and logistic considerations. The document presents the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for a rail cask for transporting SHLW and to construct scale models of the conceptual cask with accompanying graphics for use at technical meetings and in public information displays. Two 1/10 scale models of the conceptual cask and two H0 gauge (1/87 scale) models of the cask/railcar system have been constructed. A description of the models and accompanying graphics is presented in Appendix A.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Peterson, P.L. & Rhoads, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of oil on a tundra pond. Final report

Description: A three year study of two spills in tundra ponds at Barrow showed that oil has a highly specific impact on the benthos. Instead of a toxic effect on the entire community, as occurred with the crustacean zooplankton, certain insect species inhabiting the vegetated margins of the ponds were eliminated. Physical entrapment by the floating oil slick or the film coating stems of emergent sedges and grasses appeared to cause this mortality, and species specific behaviors may be responsible for the observed selectivity. Recovery of affected populations may take years due to the long life cycles of arctic insects, and the poor dispersal capabilities of many arctic species. Large scale spills covering many contiguous lakes and ponds could have especially long lasting impacts.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Hobbie, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of thermal shock on developmental stages of estuarine fish. Final report

Description: Physiological data and ecological data show that the few estuarine spawners have a higher thermal tolerance in the embryonic and larval stages than do the freshwater, coastal, or oceanic spawning species. However, since all three groups (freshwater, estuarine, and oceanic spawners) occupy the estuary and coastal waters at different times of the year, knowledge of their physiology and ecology at different developmental or life cycle stages is critical for estuarine management decisions.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Dean, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Average neutralization and transverse stability in ISABELLE

Description: Clearing of electrons in the vicinity of the axis of a proton beam in the dipoles of a separated function AG-focusing structure is accomplished by transverse crossed-field drift due to the magnetic dipole field and a weak longitudinal electric field. This electric field is generated by potential differences caused by cross section variations of the beam due to variations of the ..beta..-functions and dispersion. The resulting radial drift brings the electrons into the off-axis region where they are driven out of the magnets by the usual longitudinal cross-field drift caused by the radial space charge field. The neutralization in ISABELLE is then a factor 20 below former estimates, and transverse stability can be obtained by chromaticity adjustments well within the design strengths of the sextupole correction windings.
Date: December 15, 1978
Creator: Herrera, J & Zotter, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced safety in the storage of fissile materials. [Boron-loaded epoxy resin]

Description: An inexpensive boron-loaded liner of epoxy resin for fissile-material storage containers was developed that can be easily fabricated of readily available, low-cost materials. Computer calculations indicate reactivity will be reduced substantially if this neutron-absorbing liner is added to containers in a typical storage array. These calculations compare favorably with neutron-attenuation experiments with thermal and fission neutron spectra, and tests at the Fire Test Facility indicate the epoxy resin will survive extreme environmental and accident conditions. The fire-resistant and insulating properties of the epoxy-resin liner further augment its ability to protect fissile materials. Boron-loaded epoxy resin is adaptable to many tasks but is particularly useful for providing enhanced criticality safety in the packaging and storage of fissile materials.
Date: December 15, 1978
Creator: Williams, G.E. & Alvares, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tables and graphs of photon-interaction cross sections from 0. 1 keV to 100 MeV derived from the LLL Evaluated-Nuclear-Data Library

Description: Energy-dependent evaluated photon interaction cross sections and related parameters are presented for elements H through Cf (Z = 1 to 98). Data are given over the energy range from 0.1 keV to 100 MeV. The related parameters include form factors and average energy deposits per collision (with and without fluorescence). Fluorescence information is given for all atomic shells that can emit a photon with a kinetic energy of 0.1 keV or more. In addition, the following macroscopic properties are given: total mean free path and energy deposit per centimeter. This information is derived from the Livermore Evaluated-Nuclear-Data Library (ENDL) as of October 1978
Date: December 7, 1978
Creator: Plechaty, E.F.; Cullen, D.E. & Howerton, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

Description: This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively.
Date: December 21, 1978
Creator: Johnson, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department