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Assessment of packaging needs for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Defense Programs.

Description: This report documents a study by Sandia's Systems Analysis Group to assess the status of, and need for, shipping containers to support the mission of National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Defense Program. The focus of the study evolved into determining the status of existing packages relative to Federal Regulations for the Department of Transportation and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proposed regulatory changes will mandate the elimination or restricted use of many current DP packages. This study clarifies numerous misconceptions regarding these regulatory changes and status of packages relative to them. We have proposed guidelines for new package development based on the regulatory status of existing packages. Additionally, we have identified attributes that will make new packagings more amenable to accommodating new contents. This will allow the new packagings to better fill voids in container needs that are recognized but unable to be characterized at this time.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Zeuch, David Henry & Watson, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment and recommendations for fissile-material packaging exemptions and general licenses within 10 CFR Part 71

Description: This report provides a technical and regulatory assessment of the fissile material general licenses and fissile material exemptions within Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. The assessment included literature studies and calculational analyses to evaluate the technical criteria; review of current industry practice and concerns; and a detailed evaluation of the regulatory text for clarity, consistency and relevance. Recommendations for potential consideration by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff are provided. The recommendations call for a simplification and consolidation of the general licenses and a change in the technical criteria for the first fissile material exemptions.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Parks, C. V.; Hopper, C. M. & Lichtenwalter, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final evaluation & test report for the standard waste box (docket 01-53-7A) type A packaging

Description: This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A compliance test and evaluation results of the Standard Waste Box. Testing and evaluation activities documented herein are on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Safety, Health and Security (EM-5), Germantown, Maryland. Duratek Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations performed an evaluation of the changes as documented herein under Docket 01-53-7A.
Date: October 15, 2001
Creator: KELLY, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel

Description: This circular provides information on shipment of spent fuel subject to regulation by US NRC. It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirement of general interest, a summary of data for 1979-1995 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Requirements for the transport of surplus fissile materials in the United States

Description: This paper discusses the requirements and issues associated with the transportation of surplus fissile materials in the United States. The paper describes the materials that will be transported, the permissible modes of transport for these materials, and the safety and security requirements for each mode of transport. The paper also identifies transportation issues associated with these requirements, including the differences in requirements corresponding to who owns the material and whether the transport is on-site or off-site. Finally, the paper provides a discussion that suggests that by adopting the spent fuel standard and stored weapon standard proposed by the National Academy of Sciences, the requirements for transportation become straightforward.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Wilson, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for regulating large, contaminated equipment and large decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) components

Description: In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant were major changes to requirements for Low Specific Activity material and Surface Contaminated Objects. As these requirements were adopted into regulations in the US, it was recognized that guidance on how to apply these requirements to large, contaminated/activated pieces of equipment and decommissioning and decontamination objects would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated to clarify technical uncertainties and ensure implementation. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance which will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules for large items. Concepts being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment before final issuance in 1997.
Date: October 1997
Creator: Pope, R. B.; Easton, E. P.; Cook, J. R. & Boyle, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

Description: In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issuance of the guidance in 1997.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P. & Shankman, S.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the US regulations for fissile exemptions and fissile material general licenses

Description: The paragraphs for general licenses for fissile material and exemptions (often termed exceptions in the international community) for fissile material have long been a part of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 71, Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material. More recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a final rule on Part 71 via emergency rule-making procedures in order to address an identified deficiency related to one of the fissile exemptions. To address the specified deficiency in a general fashion, the emergency rule adopted the approach of the 1996 Edition of the IAEA: Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA 1996), which places restrictions on certain moderating materials and limits the quantity of fissile material in a consignment. The public comments received by the NRC indicated general agreement with the need for restrictions on certain moderators (beryllium, deuterium, and graphite). The comments indicated concern relative to both the degree of restriction imposed (not more than 0.1% of fissile material mass) and the need to limit the fissile material mass of the consignment, particularly in light of the subsequent NRC staff position that the true intent was to provide control for limiting the fissile mass of the conveyance. The purpose of the review is to identify potential deficiencies that might be adverse to maintaining adequate subcriticality under normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. In addition, ORNL has been asked to identify changes that would address any identified safety issues, enable inherently safe packages to continue to be unencumbered in transport, and seek to minimize the impact on current safe practices.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Parks, C. V.; Hopper, C. M.; Lichtenwalter, J. J.; Easton, E. P. & Brochman, P. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of shipping provisions for large lithium batteries

Description: In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established its ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced electric vehicle (EV) battery technologies and to facilitate the removal of these barriers. As one of three sub-working groups, the Shipping Sub-working Group (SSWG) was formed to address regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international transport of new battery technologies under development for EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The SSWG is currently working with DOT on a proposal, which is intended for submission and consideration at the July 1998 meeting of the UN Sub-Committee of Experts. It is their intent to secure full support for the revised proposal from both the German and French delegations prior to its submission. It is critical to obtain UN Sub-Committee approval in July 1998, so that the DOT proposal can be considered and approved by the UN Committee of Experts at their meeting in December 1998. The UN Committee of Experts meets only on even numbered years, so failure to secure their approval in December 1998 will cause a two-year delay in implementing international regulations for large EV and HEV lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries. Details of the DOT proposal are provided in this paper, including provisions that would relax the lithium and lithium-alloy mass restrictions in a general way, thereby providing a measure of relief for small cells and batteries.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Henriksen, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

Description: The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying to apply these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects. These logic flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the US regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic flow diagrams adapted to the IAEA regulations, and demonstrates how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Easton, E.P. & Cook, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A simplified ALARA approach to demonstration of compliance with surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

Description: The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have jointly prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for consignors and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). The guidance is being developed to facilitate compliance with the new LSA material and SCO requirements, not to impose additional requirements. These new requirements represent, in some areas, significant departures from the manner in which packaging and transportation of these materials and objects were previously controlled. On occasion, it may be appropriate to use conservative approaches to demonstrate compliance with some of the requirements, ensuring that personnel are not exposed to radiation at unnecessary levels, so that exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In the draft guidance, one such approach would assist consignors preparing a shipment of a large number of SCOs in demonstrating compliance without unnecessarily exposing personnel. In applying this approach, users need to demonstrate that four conditions are met. These four conditions are used to categorize non-activated, contaminated objects as SCO-2. It is expected that, by applying this approach, it will be possible to categorize a large number of small contaminated objects as SCO-2 without the need for detailed, quantitative measurements of fixed, accessible contamination, or of total (fixed and non-fixed) contamination on inaccessible surfaces. The method, which is based upon reasoned argument coupled with limited measurements and the application of a sum of fractions rule, is described and examples of its use are provided.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W. & Cook, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing, for packaging and transport, large objects contaminated by radioactive material having a limited A{sub 2} value

Description: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the safe packaging and transportation of radioactive materials follow a graded approach to the requirements for both packaging and controls during transport. The concept is that, the lower the risk posed to the people and the environment by the contents, (1) the less demanding are the packaging requirements and (2) the smaller in number are the controls imposed on the transport of the material. There are likely to be a great number of situations arising in coming years when large objects, contaminated with radioactive material having unlimited A{sub 2} values will result from various decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities and will then require shipment from the D and D site to a disposal site. Such situations may arise relatively frequently during the cleanup of operations involving mining, milling, feedstock, and uranium enrichment processing facilities. Because these objects are contaminated with materials having an unlimited A{sub 2} value they present a low radiological risk to worker and public safety and to the environment during transport. However, when these radioactive materials reside on the surfaces of equipment and other large objects, where the equipment and objects themselves are not radioactive, the radioactive materials appear as surface contamination and, if the contaminated object is categorized as a surface contaminated object, it would need to be packaged for shipment according to the requirements of the Regulations for SCO. Despite this categorization, alternatives may be available which will allow these contaminants, when considered by themselves for packaging and transport, to be categorized as either (1) a limited quantity of radioactive material to be shipped in an excepted package or (2) low specific activity (LSA) materials to be shipped in an IP-1 package or possibly even shipped unpackaged. These options are discussed in this paper.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Cash, J.M. & Best, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Needs assessment activity report: April 1995

Description: As part of a US Department of Energy Headquarters task (DOE-HQ), the Packaging Operations and Development Group within Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has assessed the packaging needs of many DOE sites. These assessments have involved site visits and meetings with personnel involved with transportation and packaging of hazardous materials. By March 1995, 20 DOE facilities had been visited. As a result, these sites been informed of some of the packaging activities that DOE has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of the affects of upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their short-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed which may be of use to other DOE facilities. Program successes include discovery of a need for a reusable Type A liquid sample packaging and its development within another DOE task, establishing communications pathways between DOE sites that have similar transportation and packaging needs, and starting to establish a centralized packaging clearinghouse that will coordinate DOE Complex needs and improve the cost-effectiveness of transportation and packaging activities.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Analysis of a H1616-1 Shipping container in Hypothetical Accident conditions

Description: The thermal response of the H1616 transport container is simulated to demonstrate compliance with the Federal regulations for performance during hypothetical accident conditions (HAC). The goal is to show that tests conducted for the certification of the H1616 shipping container provide conservatively high estimates of temperatures at key regions within the container. A one-dimensional computational model is developed to simulate the thermal response of the shipping container in cylindrical coordinates. The model assumes the container is axisymmetric and allows for variable thermal properties. The model is calibrated using temperature data obtained from two experimental thermal tests and is then used to evaluate the thermal response of the shipping container to several different scenarios that meet or exceed the Federal regulations. A pre-heating technique, which is used to simulate the thermal effects of a radioactive heat source within the container, is also evaluated.
Date: November 2002
Creator: Hollenshead, Jeromy T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Cask Transportation Facility Modifications (CTFM) compliance to DOE order 6430.1A Project A.5 and A.6

Description: This report was prepared to evaluate the compliance of CTFM to DOE Order 6430.1A. This document presents the results of an evaluation that was performed to assess compliance of the K West (KW) Cask Transportation Facility Modifications (CTFM) designs against applicable requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1 A, General Design Criteria. This evaluation was grouped under two categories described as Cask Loadout System (CLS) and Cranes/Other Modifications.
Date: April 24, 2000
Creator: ARD, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

Description: This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Allred, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal precedents regarding use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal transportation of SNF and HLW

Description: Risk assessment has become an increasingly important and essential tool in support of Federal decision-making regarding the handling, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This paper analyzes the current statutory and regulatory framework and related legal precedents with regard to SNF and HLW transportation. The authors identify key scientific and technical issues regarding the use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal decision-making regarding anticipated shipments.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.; O`Hora, T.D. & Chen, S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AT-400A compliance test report

Description: In 1993 Sandia was directed to design containers for the long-term storage and transport of nuclear weapons origin fissile material. This program was undertaken at the direction of the US Department of Energy and in cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory were tasked with developing the internal fixturing for the contents. The hardware is being supplied by AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and the packaging process has been developed at Mason and Hanger Corporation`s Pantex Plant. The unique challenge was to design a container that could be sealed with the fissile material contents; and, anytime during the next 50 years, the container could be transported with only the need for the pre-shipment leak test. This required a rigorous design capable of meeting the long-term storage and transportation requirements. This report addresses the final testing that was undertaken to demonstrate compliance with US radioactive materials transport regulations.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Glass, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of regulatory impacts to real target impacts

Description: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relative severity of regulatory impacts onto an essentially rigid target to impacts at higher velocities onto real targets. For impacts onto the essentially rigid target all of the kinetic energy of the package is absorbed by deformation of the package. For impacts onto real targets the kinetic energy is absorbed by deformation of the target as well as by deformation of the package. The amount of kinetic energy absorbed by the target does not increase the severity of the impact.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H1616 supplemental compliance test report

Description: Sandia National Laboratories designed the H1616 container for transport of Type B quantities of radioactive materials. During the most recent recertification cycle, questions were raised concerning the ability of drum type containers with locking rings to survive the hypothetical accident sequence when the puncture test was oriented to specifically attack the locking ring. A series of tests has been performed that conclusively demonstrates that the specially designed locking ring on the H1616 performs adequately in this environment.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Glass, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

Description: This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Schmitt, R.C. & Tyacke, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TEST & EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

Description: This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements.
Date: December 29, 2003
Creator: Kelly, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL loop transport cask

Description: An evaluation of the ORNL loop transport cask demonstrating its compliance with the regulations governing the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials is presented. A previous review of the cask is updated to demonstrate compliance with current regulations, to present current procedures, and to reflect the more recent technology.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Evans, J.H.; Chipley, K.K.; Nelms, H.A.; Crowley, W.K. & Just, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE DOSE RATE FOR BOUNDING MASS LIMITS IN A 9977 PACKAGING

Description: The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that the hazards associated with the shipment of a radioactive material are directly proportional to its mass. This study describes a methodology that estimates the acceptable masses for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a 9977 Package compliant with the Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) external radiation level limits. 10CFR71.33 states that a shipping application identifies the radioactive and fissile materials at their maximum quantity and provides an evaluation demonstrating compliance with the external radiation standards. Since rather small amounts of some isotopes emit sufficiently strong radiation to produce a large external dose rate, quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. A methodology was established for determining the dose rate for bounding mass limits for a set of isotopes in the Model 9977 Shipping Package. Calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels using the MCNP radiation transport code to develop a set of response multipliers (Green's functions) for 'dose per source particle' for each neutron and photon spectral group. The source spectrum from one gram of each isotope was folded with the response multipliers to generate the dose rate per gram of each isotope in the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers. The maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped within the regulatory limits for dose rate at the surface was determined. For a package containing a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions ...
Date: May 24, 2012
Creator: Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S. & Loftin, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department