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"Burst-like" Characteristics of the delta/alpha-prime Phase Transformation in Pu-Ga Alloys

Description: The {delta} to {alpha}' phase transformation in Pu-Ga alloys is intriguing for both scientific and technological reasons. On cooling, the ductile fcc d-phase transforms martensitically to the brittle monoclinic {alpha}'-phase at approximately -120 C (depending on composition). This exothermic transformation involves a 20% volume contraction and a significant increase in resistivity. The reversion of {alpha}' to {delta} involves a large temperature hysteresis beginning just above room temperature. In an attempt to better understand the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics responsible for these unusual features, we examined the {delta}/{alpha}' transformations in a 0.6 wt% Pu-Ga alloy using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and resistometry. Both techniques indicate that the martensite start temperature is -120 C and the austenite start temperature is 35 C. The heat of transformation is approximately 3 kJ/mole. During the {alpha}' {yields} {delta} reversion, ''spikes'' and ''steps'' are observed in DSC and resistometry scans, respectively. These spikes and steps are periodic, and their periodicity with respect to temperature does not vary with heating rate. With an appropriate annealing cycle, including a ''rest'' at room temperature, these spikes and steps can be reproduced through many thermal cycles of a single sample.
Date: November 10, 2003
Creator: Blobaum, K; Krenn, C; Haslam, J; Wall, M & Schwartz, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Source-to-Source Architecture for User-Defined Optimizations

Description: The performance of object-oriented applications often suffers from the inefficient use of high-level abstractions provided by underlying libraries. Since these library abstractions are user-defined and not part of the programming language itself only limited information on their high-level semantics can be leveraged through program analysis by the compiler and thus most often no appropriate high-level optimizations are performed. In this paper we outline an approach based on source-to-source transformation to allow users to define optimizations which are not performed by the compiler they use. These techniques are intended to be as easy and intuitive as possible for potential users; i.e. for designers of object-oriented libraries, people most often only with basic compiler expertise.
Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: Schordan, M & Quinlan, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION

Description: We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.
Date: June 10, 2009
Creator: Butter, Daniel & Gaillard, Mary K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic Transformations in the Inference Process

Description: A technique for incorporating automatic transformations into processes such as the application of inference rules, subsumption, and demodulation provides a mechanism for improving search strategies for theorem proving problems arising from the field of program verification. The incorporation of automatic transformations into the inference process can alter the search space for a given problem, and is particularly useful for problems having broad rather than deep proofs. The technique can also be used to permit the generation of inferences that might otherwise be blocked and to build some commutativity or associativity into the unification process. Appropriate choice of transformations, and new literal clashing and unification algorithms for applying them, showed significant improvement on several real problems according to several distinct criteria.
Date: July 1980
Creator: Veroff, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Methodology for Algorithm Development Through Schema Transformations

Description: A programming methodology based on schema transformations is presented. Such an approach is a logical outcome of recent developments in program manipulating systems. Concurrent development of algorithms and their proofs of correctness is a significant feature of the proposed methodology. As the development process begins with an abstract schema, it is often possible to derive several related end algorithms in a single development process. This has implications in both the economics of software development and the understanding and teaching of algorithms. The initial schematic specification (a skeleton algorithm schema), the intermediate and final algorithm schemata are all expressed in Darlington's first-order recursion equation language exploiting set-theoretic constructs. A set of transformation rules together with a set of reduction rules for set expressions is then used to successively transform the schematic specification into different algorithm schemata. Most of the transformations are applications of a small number of common rewriting rules.
Date: July 1982
Creator: Muralidharan, M. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computation of Confidence Limits for Linear Functions of the Normal Mean and Variance

Description: A program is described that calculates exact and optimal (uniformly most accurate unbiased) confidence limits for linear functions of the normal mean and variance. The program can therefore also be used to calculate confidence limits for monotone transformations of such functions (e.g., lognormal means). The accuracy of the program has been thoroughly evaluated in terms of coverage probabilities for a wide range of parameter values.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Land, C.E. & Lyon, B.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modern Techniques in Acoustical Signal and Image Processing

Description: Acoustical signal processing problems can lead to some complex and intricate techniques to extract the desired information from noisy, sometimes inadequate, measurements. The challenge is to formulate a meaningful strategy that is aimed at performing the processing required even in the face of uncertainties. This strategy can be as simple as a transformation of the measured data to another domain for analysis or as complex as embedding a full-scale propagation model into the processor. The aims of both approaches are the same--to extract the desired information and reject the extraneous, that is, develop a signal processing scheme to achieve this goal. In this paper, we briefly discuss this underlying philosophy from a ''bottom-up'' approach enabling the problem to dictate the solution rather than visa-versa.
Date: April 4, 2002
Creator: Candy, J V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimal information transmission in organizations: search and congestion

Description: We propose a stylized model of a problem-solving organization whose internal communication structure is given by a fixed network. Problems arrive randomly anywhere in this network and must find their way to their respective specialized solvers by relying on local information alone. The organization handles multiple problems simultaneously. For this reason, the process may be subject to congestion. We provide a characterization of the threshold of collapse of the network and of the stock of floating problems (or average delay) that prevails below that threshold. We build upon this characterization to address a design problem: the determination of what kind of network architecture optimizes performance for any given problem arrival rate. We conclude that, for low arrival rates, the optimal network is very polarized (i.e. star-like or centralized), whereas it is largely homogeneous (or decentralized) for high arrival rates. These observations are in line with a common transformation experienced by information-intensive organizations as their work flow has risen in recent years.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Arenas, A.; Cabrales, A.; Danon, L.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Guimera, R. & Vega-Redondo, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-Incarvillateine Employing an Intramolecular Alkylation via Rh-Catalyzed Olefinic C-H Bond Activation

Description: An asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-incarvillateine, a natural product having potent analgesic properties, has been achieved in 11 steps and 15.4% overall yield. The key step is a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkylation of an olefinic C-H bond to set two stereocenters. Additionally, this transformation produces an exocyclic, tetrasubstituted alkene through which the bicyclic piperidine moiety can readily be accessed.
Date: February 18, 2008
Creator: Tsai, Andy; Bergman, Robert & Ellman, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

String Field Equations from Generalized Sigma Model

Description: We propose a new approach for deriving the string field equations from a general sigma model on the world-sheet. This approach leads to an equation which combines some of the attractive features of both the renormalization group method and the covariant beta function treatment of the massless excitations. It has the advantage of being covariant under a very general set of both local and non-local transformations in the field space. We apply it to the tachyon, massless and first massive level, and show that the resulting field equations reproduce the correct spectrum of a left-right symmetric closed bosonic string.
Date: January 29, 1997
Creator: Bardakci, K. & Bernardo, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron Scattering Studies of Pre-Transitional Effects in Solid-Solid Phase Transformations

Description: Neutron scattering studies have played a fundamental role in understanding solid-solid phase transformations, particularly in studying the lattice dynamical behavior associated with precursor effects. A review of the studies performed on solids exhibiting Martensitic transformations is given below. The mode softening and associated elastic diffuse scattering, previously observed in NiAl alloys, will be discussed as well as more recent work on Ni{sub 2}MnGa, a system exhibiting magnetic order as well as a Martensitic transformation. Also, new results on the precursor effects in ordered and disordered FePt alloys will be presented.
Date: June 30, 1999
Creator: Shapiro, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discontinuous Thermal Expansions and Phase Transformations in Crystals at Higher Temperatures

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to make more detailed studies of transformations. Fourteen compounds have been examined by high temperature X-ray diffraction for this purpose. The investigations have been carried out in such a way as to reveal: 1. the existence of transformations, 2. the influence of polarizability on thermal expansion, 3. the anisotropy of expansion, and 4. the discontinuity of thermal expansion.
Date: 1967
Creator: Hsu, Yuan Tsun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pressure Induced Phase Transformation of Pb(Zr(0.95)Ti(0.05))O(3) Based Ceramics: Grain Size Dependence

Description: A substantial decrease in hydrostatic ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) transformation pressure was measured for Pb(Zr{sub 0.949}Ti{sub 0.051}){sub 0.989}Nb{sub 0.0182}O{sub 3} ceramics with decreasing grain size. The 150 MPa decrease in hydrostatic FE to AFE transformation pressure over the grain size range of 8.5 {micro}m to 0.7{micro}m was shown to be consistent with enhanced internal stress with decreasing grain size. Further, the Curie Point decreased and the dielectric constant measured at 25 C increased with decreasing grain size. All three properties: dielectric constant magnitude, Curie point shift and FE to AFE phase transformation pressure were shown to be semi-quantitatively consistent with internal stress differences on the order of 100 MPa. Calculations of Curie point shifts from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, using internal stress levels derived from the hydrostatic depoling characteristics, were consistent with measured values.
Date: December 21, 1999
Creator: TUTTLE,BRUCE A.; VOIGT,JAMES A.; SCOFIELD,TIMOTHY W.; ASELAGE,TERRENCE L.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; YANG,PIN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure, chemistry, and properties of mineral nanoparticles

Description: Nanoparticle properties can depart markedly from their bulk analog materials, including large differences in chemical reactivity, molecular and electronic structure, and mechanical behavior. The greatest changes are expected at the smallest sizes, e.g. 10 nm and below, where surface effects are expected to dominate bonding, shape and energy considerations. The precise chemistry at nanoparticle interfaces can have a profound effect on structure, phase transformations, strain, and reactivity. Certain phases may exist only as nanoparticles, requiring transformations in chemistry, stoichiometry and structure with evolution to larger sizes. In general, mineralogical nanoparticles have been little studied.
Date: December 2, 2008
Creator: Waychunas, G.A.; Zhang, H. & Gilbert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spontaneous Generation of Voltage in Single-Crystal Gd5Si2Ge2 During Magnetostructural Phase Transformations

Description: The spontaneous generation of voltage (SGV) in single-crystal and polycrystalline Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} during the coupled magnetostructural transformation has been examined. Our experiments show reversible, measurable, and repeatable SGV responses of the materials to the temperature and magnetic field. The parameters of the response and the magnitude of the signal are anisotropic and rate dependent. The magnitude of the SGV signal and the critical temperatures and critical magnetic fields at which the SGV occurs vary with the rate of temperature and magnetic-field changes.
Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Zou, M.; Tang, H.; Schlagel, D.L.; Lograsso, T.A.; K.A. Gschneidner,jr. & Pecharsky, V.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation Crystallography and Plasticity of the Delta to Alpha Prime Transformation in Plutonium Alloys

Description: In delta phase Pu-Ga alloys, the transformation from the ductile face-centered cubic (fcc) {delta} phase that is retained at room temperature to the brittle low-temperature monoclinic alpha' phase is a thermally activated diffusionless transformation with double-c kinetics. Accurate modeling of the phase transformation requires detailed understanding of the role of plastic flow during the transformation and of the crystallographic transformation path. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we find a significant increase in dislocation density in {delta} near the {alpha}' plates, which suggests that plastic deformation contributes to the accommodation of the 20% reduction in volume during the transformation. Analysis of a series of optical micrographs of partially transformed alloys suggests that the {alpha}' habit plane is usually nearly perpendicular to <111> {delta}. However, a small number of TEM observations support a habit plane near <112> or <123>, in agreement with earlier work.
Date: December 18, 2003
Creator: Krenn, C R; Wall, M A & Schwartz, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Situ Spectroscopic Observation of Activation and Transformation of Tantalum Suboxides

Description: Using ambient pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS), we were able to observe the process of oxidation of tantalum with different morphological parameters. Being able to trace surface evolution during oxidation, we evaluated activation energy of oxidation under the influence of strain and grain boundaries. It was found that the metal oxidized through three different stages and there was a transition stage where the phase transformation from suboxides to the equilibrium state of pentoxide. The applied stress and surface defects reduced the activation energy oxidation.
Date: December 16, 2009
Creator: Wang, Ke; Liu, Zhi; Cruz, Tirma Herranz; Salmeron, Miquel & Liang, Hong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department