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A PRIORI PREDICTIVE METHODS OF ASSESSING HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHEICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

Description: Passage of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) last year emphasized the urgent need for the formulation of viable criteria and interim standards limiting the exposure of increasingly large segments of the U.S. population to environmental chemical toxicants. Unfortunately, current methods of developing these standards are both time-consuming and costly. The resulting need for a priori predictive techniques to assess the inherent potential of chemicals, such as the halocarbons found in chlorinated waters, for inducing adverse biological effects, has led to the use of a number of analytical methods designed primarily for screening large numbers of chemical compounds before they impose unacceptable environmental hazards, frequently of crisis proportions. Four of the techniques best adapted to dealing with the multifactorial environmental problems of chemical health effects will be briefly described: (1) quantitative structure/activity relationships (QSAR); (2) factor analysis (FA); (3) pattern recognition/artificial intelligence (PR/AI); and (4) molecular connectivity (MC). While it is clear that none provides easy answers, it would appear that the more recent areas of PR and MC both merit more intensive investigation as predictive tools. In particular, the relative simplicity of the MC approach and the possibility of substantially reducing the empirical component are attractive incentives for pursuing further work in this area.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Kland, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Guidance Program reference book: Toxic substances control act. Revision 7

Description: This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of PCB laboratory wastes

Description: Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) govern the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including use, storage, and disposal. Under TSCA, PCBs can only be used if the use is authorized under the TSCA regulations in 40 CFR 761; otherwise, the use of PCBs is prohibited and the PCBs must be disposed as PCB waste. 40 CFR 761.30(j) authorizes the use of PCBs in ``small quantities for research and development.`` Research and development activities are defined to include activities associated with laboratory analysis.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal requirements for PCB waste

Description: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PCB storage requirements

Description: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

Description: This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, administration facility, weigh scale, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facility for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams.
Date: November 6, 2007
Creator: Simonds, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic Engineering Research for D and D of R Reactor Storage Pond Sludge: Electrokinetics, Carbon Dioxide Extraction, and Supercritical Water Oxidation

Description: Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D and D operations at DOE sites across the country. The standard process for destruction of MLLW is incineration, which has an uncertain future. The extraction and destruction of PCBs from MLLW was the subject of this research Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide with 5% ethanol as cosolvent and Supercritical Waster Oxidation (SCWO) were the processes studied in depth. The solid matrix for experimental extraction studies was Toxi-dry, a commonly used absorbent made from plant material. PCB surrogates were 1.2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 2-chlorobiphenyl (2CBP). Extraction pressures of 2,000 and 4,000 psi and temperatures of 40 and 80 C were studied. Higher extraction efficiencies were observed with cosolvent and at high temperature, but pressure little effect. SCWO treatment of the treatment of the PCB surrogates resulted in their destruction below detection limits.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: Matthews, Michael A.; David A. Bruce,; Davis, Thomas A.; Thies, Mark C.; Weidner, John W. & White, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

Description: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees` illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees` reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC).
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field technologies for the measurement of PCBs

Description: The collaborative effort between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Energy (DOE), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents a viable team to administer, plan, execute, and report on demonstrations of commercially available field characterization and monitoring technologies. This effort is part of the EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. One of the overriding goals of this effort is to develop regulatory-accepted and cost effective alternatives to conventional fixed laboratory analyses through the identification and evaluation of innovative, field technologies. A technology demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques will occur during July 22 through 30, 1997. The demonstration will be conducted at a DOE site (ORNL) where there is a substantial repository of PCB-contaminated materials from multiple DOE sites. Technology developers with PCB monitoring instrumentation will be evaluated. These instruments will include field portable gas chromatographs with surface acoustic wave and electron capture detectors, and field analysis kits, such as immunoassay and ion specific electrode kits. These instruments are suitable for the quantification of PCBs in a variety of matrices. Soil and surface samples will be evaluated during the demonstration. The demonstration will focus on the current DOE-Oak Ridge analytical needs to support Toxic Substance and Control Act (TSCA) decisions, while allowing developers to showcase the features of their technologies.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Carden, D.M. & Billets, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

Description: DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.
Date: June 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

Description: A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PCB spill response and notification requirements

Description: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The PCB mark

Description: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PCB recordkeeping and reporting

Description: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

Description: The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.
Date: November 14, 2007
Creator: AL, PRIGNANO
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

Description: This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Montgomery, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual site environmental report for calendar year 1999

Description: Many State and Federal environmental protection laws and regulations apply to Western. Western facilities are within the jurisdiction of six Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regions and 17 states. Western's environmental policy statement directs employees to prevent, control, and abate environmental pollution at their facilities, and when possible, enhance the environment. To help assure conformance with all regulatory requirements, and to achieve its pollution prevention goals and objectives, Western is developing an Environmental Management System (EMS). One of the major regulatory impacts on Western continues to be the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that regulates the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Western's policy is to eliminate PCBs from its system wherever economically and operationally possible. This will lessen the impact of PCB regulations on operations and the impact of PCBs on the environment. Executive Order 12856 requires Federal Agencies to comply with the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). As with other DOE elements, Western has been complying with EPCRA since before the Executive Order was issued. To summarize, in 1999, Western's Regional offices implemented programs to notify State and local emergency response entities in accordance with Section 311 and 312 of EPCRA. Chemical inventories indicate that Western does not manufacture, process, or otherwise use reportable quantities of EPCRA Section 313 chemicals so Toxic Release reports were not required.
Date: April 14, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BASIC ENGINEERING RESEARCH FOR D&D OF R REACTOR STORAGE POND SLUDGE: ELECTROKINETICS, CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION, AND SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION

Description: Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D&D operations at DOE sites across the country. Currently, the volume of these wastes is approximately 23,500 m3, and the majority of these wastes (i.e., almost 19,000 m3) consist of PCBs and PCB-contaminated materials. Further, additional PCB-contaminated waste will be generated during D&D operations in the future. The standard process for destruction of this waste is incineration, which generates secondary waste that must be disposed, and the TSCA incinerator at Oak Ridge has an uncertain future. Beyond incineration, no proposed process for the recovery and/or destruction of these persistent pollutants has emerged as the preferred choice for DOE cleanup. The main objective of the project was to investigate and develop a deeper understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic reactions involved in the extraction and destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from low-level mixed waste solid matrices in order to provide data that would permit the design of a combined-cycle extraction/destruction process. The specific research objectives were to investigate benign dense-fluid extraction with either carbon dioxide (USC) or hot water (CU), followed by destruction of the extracted PCBs via either electrochemical (USC) or hydrothermal (CU) oxidation. Two key advantages of the process are that it isolates and concentrates the PCBs from the solid matrices (thereby reducing waste volume greatly and removing the remaining low-level mixed waste from TSCA control), and little, if any, secondary solvent or solid wastes are generated. This project was a collaborative effort involving the University of South Carolina (USC), Clemson University (CU), and Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) (including the Savannah River Technology Center, Facilities Decommissioning Division and Regulatory Compliance). T he project was directed and coordinated by the South Carolina Universities Research ...
Date: December 31, 2001
Creator: Matthews, Michael A.; Bruce,David; Davis,Thomas; Thies, Mark; Weidner, John & White, Ralph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic Engineering Research for D&D of R Reactor Storage Pond Sludge: Electrokinetics, Carbon Dioxide Extraction, and Supercritical Water Oxidation

Description: Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D&D operations at DOE sites across the country. Currently, the volume of these wastes is 23,500 m3, and the majority of these wastes (i.e., almost 19,000 m3) consist of PCBs and PCB-contaminated materials. No proposed process for the recovery and/or destruction of these persistent pollutants has emerged as the preferred choice for DOE cleanup. Collaborating researchers at the University of South Carolina (USC), Clemson University (Clemson University), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), under the direction of the South Carolina Universities Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF), have performed initial research and development on a combined PCB extraction/destruction process for the PCB-contaminated solids that are generated during D&D activities. Extraction is performed using either supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) or hot, pressurized water. Destruction is accomplished by oxidation in supercritical or near-critical water. Two key aspects of the proposed process are that it isolates and concentrates the PCBs from the solid matrices (thereby reducing waste volume greatly), and little if any secondary solvent or solid wastes are generated.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Matthews, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plans and Progress on Hanford MLLW Treatment and Disposal

Description: Mixed low-level waste (MLLW) contains both low-level radioactive materials and low-level hazardous chemicals. The hazardous component of mixed waste has characteristics identified by any or all of the following statutes: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended; the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976; and Washington State dangerous waste regulations. The Fluor Hanford Waste Management Project (WMP) is responsible for storing, treating, and disposing of solid MLLW, which includes organic and inorganic solids, organics and inorganic lab packs, debris, lead, mercury, long-length equipment, spent melters, and remote-handled (RH) and oversized MLLW. Hanford has 7,000 cubic meters, or about 25%, of the MLLW in storage at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Hanford plans to receive 57,000 cubic meters from on-site generators, or about 50% of DOE's newly generated MLLW. In addition, the Hanford Environment Restoration Program and off-site generators having approved Federal Facility Consent Agreement site treatment plans will most likely send 200 cubic meters of waste to be treated and returned to the generators. Volumes of off-site waste receipts will be affected when the MLLW Record of Decision is issued as part of the process for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The WMP objective relative to MLLW is to treat and dispose of {approx}8000 cubic meters of existing inventory and newly-generated waste by September 30, 2006.
Date: February 24, 2003
Creator: McDonald, K. M.; Blackford, L. T.; Nester, D. E.; Connolly, R. R.; McKenney, D. E. & Moy, S. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

Description: Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D&D) activities. PCBs can pose other significant waste management issues for D&D projects, particularly for nuclear facilities. Depending ...
Date: November 20, 2007
Creator: Lowry, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

Description: The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.
Date: August 6, 2007
Creator: SWAN, R.J. & LAKES, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

Description: Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste. ...
Date: November 5, 2010
Creator: Lowry, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

Description: The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches ...
Date: October 4, 2010
Creator: Programs, NSTec Environmental
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department