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Optimization of the Configuration of Pixilated Detectors Based on the Sgabbib-Nyquist Theory for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Tokamak Plasmas

Description: This paper describes an optimization of the detector configuration, based on the Shannon-Nyquist theory, for two major x-ray diagnostic systems on tokamaks and stellarators: x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers and x-ray pinhole cameras. Typically, the spectral data recorded with pixilated detectors are oversampled, meaning that the same spectral information could be obtained using fewer pixels. Using experimental data from Alcator C-Mod, we quantify the degree of oversampling and propose alternate uses for the redundant pixels for additional diagnostic applications.
Date: August 9, 2012
Creator: : E. Wang, P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, L.F. Delgado-Apricio, K.W. Hill and N. Pablant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in Simulating Turbulent Electron Thermal Transport in NSTX

Description: Nonlinear simulations based on multiple NSTX discharge scenarios have progressed to help differentiate unique instability mechanisms and to validate with experimental turbulence and transport data. First nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing (MT) turbulence in a high-beta NSTX H-mode discharge predict experimental levels of electron thermal transport that are dominated by magnetic flutter and increase with collisionality, roughly consistent with energy confinement times in dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments. Electron temperature gradient (ETG) simulations predict significant electron thermal transport in some low and high beta discharges when ion scales are suppressed by E x B shear. Although the predicted transport in H-modes is insensitive to variation in collisionality (inconsistent with confinement scaling), it is sensitive to variations in other parameters, particularly density gradient stabilization. In reversed shear (RS) Lmode discharges that exhibit electron internal transport barriers, ETG transport has also been shown to be suppressed nonlinearly by strong negative magnetic shear, s<<0. In many high beta plasmas, instabilities which exhibit a stiff beta dependence characteristic of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) are sometimes found in the core region. However, they do not have a distinct finite beta threshold, instead transitioning gradually to a trapped electron mode (TEM) as beta is reduced to zero. Nonlinear simulations of this "hybrid" TEM/KBM predict significant transport in all channels, with substantial contributions from compressional magnetic perturbations. As multiple instabilities are often unstable simultaneously in the same plasma discharge, even on the same flux surface, unique parametric dependencies are discussed which may be useful for distinguishing the different mechanisms experimentally.
Date: July 17, 2013
Creator: Guttenfelder, Walter; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of Non-resonant Internal Kink Mode with Toroidal Rotation in NSTX

Description: Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q pro le and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m, n ) = (1, 1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2; 1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTMs)1 . The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and signi cant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important e ects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with nite toroidal rotation using parameters and pro les of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear pro le. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little e ect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can signi cantly inuence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1, 1) mode and the the induced (2, 1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at nite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the e ects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2, 1) magnetic island even at a low level.
Date: July 16, 2013
Creator: Fu, Guoyong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Physics of Tokamak Start-up

Description: Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. ITER, the National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current.
Date: November 13, 2012
Creator: Mueller, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle Control and Plasma Performance in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX)

Description: The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) is a small, low aspect ratio tokamak, which is fitted with a stainless steel-clad copper liner, conformal to the last closed flux surface. The liner can be heated to 350{degree}C. Several gas fueling systems, including supersonic gas injection, and molecular cluster injection have been studied, and produce fueling efficiencies up to 35%. Discharges are strongly affected by wall conditioning. Discharges without lithium wall coatings are limited to plasma currents of order 10 kA, and discharge durations of order 5 msec. With solid lithium coatings discharge currents exceed 70 kA, and discharge durations exceed 30 msec. Heating the lithium wall coating, however, results in a prompt degradation of the discharge, at the melting point of lithium. These results suggest that the simplest approach to implementing liquid lithium walls in a tokamak - thin, evaporated, liquefied coatings of lithium - does not produce an adequately clean surface.
Date: February 21, 2013
Creator: Majeski, Richard Majeski; Abrams, T.; Boyle, D.; Granstedt, E.; Hare, J.; Jacobson, C. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks

Description: This Letter presents the rst numerical veri cation for the bounce-harmonic (BH) resonance phenomena of the neoclassical transport in a tokamak perturbed by non-axisymmetric magnetic elds. The BH resonances were predicted by analytic theories of neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), as the parallel and perpendicular drift motions can be resonant and result in a great enhancement of the radial momentum transport. A new drift-kinetic #14;f guiding-center particle code, POCA, clearly veri ed that the perpendicular drift motions can reduce the transport by phase-mixing, but in the BH resonances the motions can form closed orbits and particles radially drift out fast. The POCA calculations on resulting NTV torque are largely consistent with analytic calculations, and show that the BH resonances can easily dominate the NTV torque when a plasma rotates in the perturbed tokamak and therefore is a critical physics for predicting the rotation and stability in ITER. __________________________________________________
Date: April 17, 2013
Creator: Kim, Kimin; Park, Jong-Kyu & Boozer, Allen H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of Short Wavelength Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes

Description: Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to ≈ 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n=1 kink-like mode. In this paper we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE), and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present evidence of a curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.
Date: December 19, 2012
Creator: Fredrickson, E. D.; Podesta, M.; Bortolon, A.; Crocker, N. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparing Linear Microinstability of the National Compact Stellarator Expriment and a Shaped Tokamak

Description: One metric for comparing con nement properties of di erent magnetic fusion energy con gurations is the linear critical gradient of drift wave modes. The critical gradient scale length determines the ratio of the core to pedestal temperature when a plasma is limited to marginal stability in the plasma core. The gyrokinetic turbulence code GS2 was used to calculate critical temperature gradients for the linear, collisionless ion tem- perature gradient (ITG) mode in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and a prototypical shaped tokamak, based on the pro les of a JET H-mode shot and the stronger shaping of ARIES-AT. While a concern was that the narrow cross section of NCSX at some toroidal locations would result in steep gradients that drive instabilities more easily, it is found that other stabilizing e ects of the stellarator con guration o set this so that the normalized critical gradients for NCSX are competitive with or even better than for the tokamak. For the adiabatic ITG mode, NCSX and the tokamak had similar critical gradients, though beyond marginal stability, NCSX had larger growth rates. However, for the kinetic ITG mode, NCSX had a higher critical gradient and lower growth rates until a/LT ≈#25; 1:5 a/LT;crit, when it surpassed the tokamak&#x27;s. A discussion of the results presented with respect to a/LT vs R/LT is included.
Date: November 20, 2012
Creator: J.A. Baumgaertel, G.W. Hammett and D.R. Mikkelsen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission

Description: A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.
Date: August 27, 2012
Creator: Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge Turbulence Velocity Changes with Lithium Coating on NSTX

Description: Lithium coating improves energy confinement and eliminates edge localized modes in NSTX, but the mechanism of this improvement is not yet well understood. We used the gas-puff-imaging (GPI) diagnostic on NSTX to measure the changes in edge turbulence which occurred during a scan with variable lithium wall coating, in order to help understand the reason for the confinement improvement with lithium. There was a small increase in the edge turbulence poloidal velocity and a decrease in the poloidal velocity fluctuation level with increased lithium. The possible effect of varying edge neutral density on turbulence damping was evaluated for these cases in NSTX. __________________________________________________
Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: A. Cao, S.J. Zweben, D.P. Stotler, M. Bell, A. Diallo, S.M. Kaye and B. LeBlanc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Measurement And Modeling Of Current Profile Changes Due To Neutral Bean Ion Redistribution During TAE Avalanches in NSTX

Description: Brief &quot;avalanches&quot; of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed in NSTX plasmas with several different n numbers simultaneously present. These affect the neutral beam ion distribution as evidenced by a concurrent drop in the neutron rate and, sometimes, beam ion loss. Guiding center orbit modeling has shown that the modes can transiently render portions of the beam ion phase space stochastic. The resulting redistribution of beam ions can also create a broader beam-driven current profile and produce other changes in the beam ion distribution function
Date: July 9, 2013
Creator: Darrow, Douglas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymmetric Fields

Description: Vertical instability of a tokamak plasma can be controlled by nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields localized near the plasma edge at the bottom and top of the torus. The required magnetic fields can be produced by a relatively simple set of parallelogram-shaped coils.
Date: October 2, 2007
Creator: Reiman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Linear Stability Properties of Medium- to High- n TAEs in ITER

Description: This document provides a detailed report on the successful completion of the DOE OFES Theory Milestone for FY2007: Improve the simulation resolution of linear stability properties of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE) driven by energetic particles and neutral beams in ITER by increasing the numbers of toroidal modes used to 15.
Date: February 14, 2008
Creator: Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V; Kessel, C E; Kramer, G J; McCune, D; Manickam, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Theory of the Kink Mode during the Vertical Disruption Events in Tokamaks

Description: This paper explains the locked m/n = 1/1 kink mode during the vertical disruption event when the plasma has an electrical contact with the plasma facing conducting surfaces. It is shown that the kink perturbation can be in equilibrium state even with a stable safety factor q > 1, if the halo currents, excited by the kink mode, can flow through the conducting structure. This suggests a new explanation of the so-called sideway forces on the tokamak in-vessel components during the disruption event. __________________________________________________
Date: January 14, 2008
Creator: Zakharov, Leonid E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress towards Steady State at Low Aspect Ratio on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

Description: Modifications to the plasma control capabilities and poloidal field coils of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have enabled a significant enhancement in shaping capability which has led to the transient achievement of a record shape factor (S ≡ q95 (Iρ⁄ αΒτ)) of ∼41 (MA m−1 Τ−1) simultaneous with a record plasma elongation of κ ≡ β ⁄ α ∼ 3. This result was obtained using isoflux control and real-time equilibrium reconstruction. Achieving high shape factor together with tolerable divertor loading is an important result for future ST burning plasma experiments as exemplified by studies for future ST reactor concepts, as well as neutron producing devices, which rely on achieving high shape factors in order to achieve steady state operation while maintaining MHD stability. Statistical evidence is presented which demonstrates the expected correlation between increased shaping and improved plasma performance.
Date: November 8, 2007
Creator: D.A. Gates, J. Menard, R. Maingi, S. Kaye, S.A. Sabbagh, S. Diem, J.R.Wilson, M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, J. Ferron, E.D. Fredrickson, C.E. Kessel, B.P. LeBlanc, F. Levinton, J. Manickam, D. Mueller, R. Raman, T. Stevenson, D. Stutman, G. Taylor, K. Tritz, H. Yu, and the NSTX Research Team
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

Description: Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects ...
Date: August 20, 2009
Creator: M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium-Management Requirements for D-T Fusion Reactors (ETF, INTOR, FED)

Description: The successful operation of D-T fusion reactors will depend on the development of safe and reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. The tritium handling requirements for D-T reactors were analyzed. The reactor facility was then designed from the viewpoint of tritium management. Recovery scenarios after a tritium release were generated to show the relative importance of various scenarios. A fusion-reactor tritium facility was designed which would be appropriate for all types of plants from the Engineering Test Facility (ETF), the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR), and the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) to the full-scale power plant epitomized by the STARFIRE design.
Date: October 1981
Creator: Finn, P. A.; Clemmer, Robert G. & Misra, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HHFW Power Flow Along Magnetic Field Lines In The Scrape-off Layer of NSTX

Description: A significant fraction of high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) power applied to NSTX can be lost to the scrape-off layer (SOL) and deposited in bright and hot spirals on the divertor rather than in the core plasma. We show that the HHFW power flows to these spirals along magnetic field lines passing through the SOL in front of the antenna, implying that the HHFW power couples across the entire width of the SOL rather than mostly at the antenna face. This result will help guide future efforts to understand and minimize these edge losses in order to maximize fast wave heating and current drive.
Date: February 27, 2012
Creator: Perkins, Rory; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Enhanced Nonlinear Critical Gradient for Electron Turbulent Transport due to Reversed Magnetic Shear

Description: The first nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment show that reversed magnetic shear can suppress thermal transport by increasing the nonlinear critical gradient for electron-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence to three times its linear critical value. An interesting feature of this turbulence is non- linearly driven off-midplane radial streamers. This work reinforces the experimental observation that magnetic shear is likely an effective way of triggering and sustaining e-ITBs in magnetic fusion devices.
Date: May 11, 2011
Creator: J. L. Peterson, G.W. Hammett, D.R. Mikkelsen, H.Y. Yuh, J. Candy, W. Guttenfelder, S.M. Kaye, and B. LeBlanc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence

Description: This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Guttenfelder, W; Kaye, S M; Nevins, W M; Wang, E; Bell, R E; Hammett, G W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity with a Particle Simulation in the Tokamak Magnetic Breaking Experiments

Description: Accurate calculation of perturbed distribution function #14;δf and perturbed magnetic fi eld #14;δB is essential to achieve prediction of non-ambipolar transport and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) in perturbed tokamaks. This paper reports a study of the NTV with a #14;δf particle code (POCA) and improved understanding of magnetic braking in tokamak experiments. POCA calculates the NTV by computing #14;f with guiding-center orbit motion and using #14;B from the ideal perturbed equilibrium code (IPEC). POCA simulations are compared with experimental estimations for NTV, which are measured from angular momentum balance (DIII-D) and toroidal rotational damping rate (NSTX). The calculation shows good agreement in total NTV torque for the DIII-D discharge, where an analytic neoclassical theory also gives a consistent result thanks to relatively large aspect-ratio and slow toroidal rotations. In NSTX discharges, where the aspect-ratio is small and the rotation is fast, the theory only gives a qualitative guide for predicting NTV. However, the POCA simulation largely improves the quantitative NTV prediction for NSTX. It is discussed that a self- consistent calculation of δ#14;B using general perturbed equilibria is eventually necessary since a non-ideal plasma response can change the perturbed eld and thereby the NTV torque.
Date: April 23, 2013
Creator: Kimin Kim, et al
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Representation of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes

Description: One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ Β = ∇ X (xi X B) ensures that δ B • ∇ ψ = 0 at a resonance, with ψ labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation δ Β = ∇ X αB. These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of δ B • ∇ψ at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in xi to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed
Date: January 15, 2013
Creator: White, Roscoe B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U

Description: NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in order to distribute the heat flux between the upper and lower divertors making it desirable to coat the upper divertor region with Li as well. An upward aiming LITER (U-LITER) is presently under development and will be inserted into NSTX-U using a horizontal probe drive located in a 6&quot; upper midplane port. In the retracted position the evaporator will be loaded with up to 300 mg of Li granules utilizing one of the calibrated NSTX Li powder droppers[2]. The evaporator will then be inserted into the vessel in a location within the shadow of the RF limiters and will remain in the vessel during the discharge. About 10 seconds before a discharge, it will be rapidly heated and the lithium completely evaporated onto the upper divertor, thus avoiding the complication of a shutter that prevents evaporation during the shot when the diagnostic shutters are open. The minimal time interval between the evaporation and the start of the discharge will avoid the passivation of the lithium by residual gases and enable the study of the conditioning effects of un-passivated Li surfaces [3]. Two methods are being investigated to accomplish the rapid (few second) heating of the lithium. A resistive method relies on passing a large current through a Li filled crucible. A second method requires using a 3 kW e-beam gun to heat the Li. In this paper the evaporator systems will be described and the pros and cons of each heating method will be discussed.
Date: July 9, 2013
Creator: Roquemore, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department