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Corrosion Properties of Titanium and its Alloys

Description: From Introduction: "The objective in preparing this Bulletin is to collect as much as possible of the published corrosion data on titanium and its alloys in aqueous and organic solutions, to correlate and summarize it, and to present it in convenient form."
Date: unknown
Creator: Schlain, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructure of Titanium Welds

Description: Plates of commercially pure titanium were welded and microscopically analyzed to understand the influence of joining variables on weld microstructure.
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Danielson, Paul; Wilson, Rick D. & Alman, David E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fabrication of Arc-Melted Ingots of Titanium and Titanium-Manganese Alloys into Plate

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over production of titanium-manganese alloy plates from arc-melted ingots. As stated in the summary, "for the alloy material, transformation data were obtained, and their age-hardening characteristics were studied. The temperature-impact relationship was established for rolled sections from all three ingots" (p. 1). This report includes tables, graphs, and photographs.
Date: March 1955
Creator: Huber, R. W.; Petersen, V. C. & Wiley, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Titanium Boride Formation and Its Subsequent Influence on Morphology and Crystallography of Alpha Precipitates in Titanium Alloys

Description: Over the last two decades there has been an increased interest in understanding the influence of trace boron additions in Ti alloys. These additions refine the prior β grain size in as-cast Ti alloys along with increasing their modulus and yield strength due to the precipitation of TiB. TiB also acts as a heterogeneous nucleation site for α precipitation and has been shown to influence the α phase morphology. B is completely soluble in liquid Ti but has a negligible solubility in both body centered cubic β and hexagonal close packed α phases of Ti. Thus, during solidification of hypoeutectic B containing alloys, B is rejected from β into the liquid where it reacts with Ti to form pristine single crystal whiskers of TiB. Despite a substantial amount of reported experimental work on the characterization of TiB precipitates, its formation mechanism and influence on α phase precipitation are still not clear. The current work is divided into two parts – (i) understanding the mechanism of TiB formation using first principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations and (ii) elucidating how TiB influences the α phase morphology and crystallography in titanium alloys using electron microscopy techniques. TiB exhibits anisotropic growth morphology with [010] direction as its predominant growth direction and displays a hexagonal cross section with (100), (101), and (10) as the bounding planes. A high density of stacking faults has been experimentally observed on the (100) plane. The present study, by using DFT based nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations, elucidates for the first time that the diffusion of B through TiB is via an interstitial-assisted mechanism as opposed to vacancy-assisted mechanism hypothesized in literature. This one dimensional interstitial-assisted diffusion results in the anisotropic growth of TiB. In addition, the energetics of TiB- α interfaces was calculated to understand the hexagonal ...
Date: December 2013
Creator: Nandwana, Peeyush
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrochemical Reduction of Titanium in Nonaqueous Solvents

Description: Abstract: Electrorefining of Ti in nonaqueous solvents has been studied by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as a method for recycling impure scrap Ti. Electrochemical behavior of Ti species was investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Research results showed that Ti metal can be dissolved in polar solvents such as dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide. However, deposition of Ti from these solvents was not successful. Several solvent systems were investigated for electrodepos.tion of Ti but no deposits were obtained. Reduction of Ti' complexes to Ti" proved to be straightforward, but reduction to lower oxidation states could not be confirmed. In dimethylformamide solutions, cyclic voltammetry results demonstrated the reduction of Ti to an oxidation state of less than three, but no Ti metal was identified. In dimethyl sulfoxide solutions containing LiCl, it was possible to deposit Li metal. After adding Ti salts to the solution, electrolysis quickly passivated the electrode. Deposition of Ti was also investigated in solutions of dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate but, again, no reduction of Ti to oxidation states of less than three occurred. Therefore, the prospects for a nonaqueous electrorefining system for Ti metal do not appear promising.
Date: 1995
Creator: Sibrell, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low cost titanium--myth or reality

Description: In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S. & Gerdemann, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

Description: Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.
Date: June 8, 2009
Creator: Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E. & Williford, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxidation behavior and microstructural decomposition of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V-1B sheet

Description: This article conducts a direct comparison between the oxidation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V + 1B to elucidate whether the addition of boron to Ti-^Al-4V impacts the oxidation behavior.
Date: August 1, 2016
Creator: Brice, David. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Liu, Yue; Brice, R. M.; Reidy, Richard F. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Engineering

Phototoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Daphnia Magna

Description: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) are one of the most abundantly utilized nanomaterials in the world. Studies have demonstrated the mechanism of acute toxicity in TiO2-NP to be the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and mortality in exposed organisms. It has also been demonstrated that the anatase crystalline conformation is capable of catalyzing the cleavage of water molecules to further increase the concentration of ROS in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. This photoenhanced toxicity significantly lowers the toxicity threshold of TiO2-NP to environmentally relevant concentrations (ppb). The goal of this study was to determine whether dietary uptake and accumulation of TiO2-NP in the aquatic filter feeder Daphnia magna resulted in photoenhanced toxicity. D. magna and S. caprincornatum were exposed to aqueous solutions of 20ppm and 200ppm TiO2-NP for 24hrs and then transferred to clean moderately hard water. Samples were taken at various time points, dried, and TiO2 quantified using ICP-MS. Toxicity assays were run on D. magna using three TiO2-NP (20ppm, 200ppm) exposure protocols and two ultraviolet radiation treatments. The first exposure group was exposed to aqueous solutions of TiO2-NP for the duration of the test. The second exposure group was exposed to TiO2-NP for an hour and then transferred to clean water. The third exposure group was fed S. capricornatum that had been allowed to adsorb TiO2-NP. All samples were then placed in an outdoor UV exposure system and exposed to either full spectrum sunlight (with UV) or filtered sunlight (no UV). Here we show that TiO2 uptake peaked at one hour of exposure likely due to sedimentation of the particles out of suspension, thus decreasing bioavailability for the duration of the test. Interetsingly, when D. magna were moved to clean water, aqueous concentrations of TiO2 increase as a result of depuration from the gut ...
Date: December 2013
Creator: Mansfield, Charles M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites

Description: The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increased with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.
Date: September 22, 2002
Creator: Covino, B.S., Jr. & Alman, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive films and blistering of titanium

Description: Coupons of titanium alloys under consideration as components of the Engineered Barrier System in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain have been evaluated for their passive film composition and stability. Oxide depths and compositions on specimens exposed in long-term corrosion testing for one year were determined with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The specimens removed from long-term testing, as well as separate coupons polarized cathodically in an electrochemical cell, exhibited blistering associated with hydride formation in both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Bedrossian, P J; Estill, J C; Farmer, J C; McCright, R D & Phinney, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Titanium Minerals in the Heavy Sand Deposits of Assateague Island, Maryland

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over titanium deposits of Assateague Island, Maryland. As stated in the introduction, "the purpose of this project was to study a typical coastal deposit of beach sands in the Middle Atlantic States, particularly in the area surrounding the Delmarva Peninsula" (p. 1). This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Date: 1959
Creator: Kuster, W. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermochemistry of gas-phase species relevant to titanium nitride CVD

Description: In this work, three different ab initio methods are used to predict bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) and atomization energies for TiCl{sub n} (n = 1-4) and Ti(NH{sub 2})n (n = 1-4) compounds, as well as for the complex TiCl{sub 4}:NH{sub 3}. There is considerable variation in the predicted BDES, even for highly electron-correlated methods. However, bond-additivity corrections applied to coupled-cluster calculations at the CCSD(T) level, expected to be the most reliable of the three methods, yield Ti-Cl BDEs in good agreement with experimental results. An experimental estimate of the TiCl{sub 4} BDE is also reported that is consistent with the ab initio results and recent experiments by others indicating that the TiCl{sub 3} heat of formation reported in the JANAF Tables is too low. Finally, the predicted BDEs indicate that the gas-phase reaction of TiCl{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} to form the complex Cl{sub 4}Ti:NH{sub 3} is exothermic by 17 kcal mol{sub {minus}1}. In addition, decomposition of the complex to form Cl{sub 3}TiNH{sub 2} and HCl is endothermic by 20 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Allendorf, M.D.; Janssen, C.L.; Colvin, M.E.; Melius, C.F.; Nielsen, I.M.B.; Osterheld, T.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Mechanisms to Engineer Fine Scale Alpha Phase Precipitation in Beta Titanium Alloy, Beta 21S

Description: Metastable b-Ti alloys are titanium alloys with sufficient b stabilizer alloying additions such that it's possible to retain single b phase at room temperature. These alloys are of great advantage compared to a/b alloys since they are easily cold rolled, strip produced and can attain excellent mechanical properties upon age hardening. Beta 21S, a relatively new b titanium alloy in addition to these general advantages is known to possess excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. A homogeneous distribution of fine sized a precipitates in the parent b matrix is known to provide good combination of strength, ductility and fracture toughness. The current work focuses on a study of different mechanisms to engineer homogeneously distributed fine sized a precipitates in the b matrix. The precipitation of metastable phases upon low temperature aging and their influence on a precipitation is studied in detail. The precipitation sequence on direct aging above the w solvus temperature is also assessed. The structural and compositional evolution of precipitate phase is determined using multiple characterization tools. The possibility of occurrence of other non-classical precipitation mechanisms that do not require heterogeneous nucleation sites are also analyzed. Lastly, the influence of interstitial element, oxygen on a precipitation during the oxidation of Beta 21S has been determined. The ingress of oxygen and its influence on microstructure have also been correlated to measured mechanical properties.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Behera, Amit Kishan
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Assessment of Uncommon Titanium Binary Systems: Ti-Zn, Ti-Cu, and Ti-Sb

Description: The current study focuses on phase stability and evolution in the titanium-zinc titanium-copper and titanium-antimony systems. The study utilized the Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENS™) processing technique to deposit compositionally graded samples of three binary system in order to allow the assessment of phase stability and evolution as a function of composition and temperature the material is subjected to. Through LENS™ processing it was possible to create graded samples from Ti-xSb (up to 13wt%) and Ti-xCu (up to 16wt%). The LENS™ deposited gradient were solutionized, and step quenched to specific aging temperature, and the resulting microstructures and phase were characterized utilizing XRD, EDS, SEM, FIB and TEM. The Ti-Zn system proved incapable of being LENS™ deposited due to the low vaporization temperature of Zn; however, a novel processing approach was developed to drip liquid Zn onto Ti powder at temperatures above β transus temperature of Ti (882 ◦C) and below the vaporization temperature of Zn (907 ◦C). The product of this processing technique was characterized in a similar way as the graded LENS™ depositions. From measurements performed on Ti-Sb it seems that Sb could be a potential α stabilizer in Ti due to the presence of a mostly homogeneous α grains throughout the gradient; however, from XRD it can be understood that a titanium antimonide phase is present. From results obtained from the Ti-Zn samples, it can be surmised that the eutectoid reaction seems to be active, i.e. The eutectoid reaction is kinetically fast, as concluded by the presence of pearlitic structures. Finally, for the Ti-Cu system this work has been attempted to prove or disprove the existence of the Ti3Cu through the use of XRD and TEM SAD patterns. From XRD spectra collected there are peaks belonging to the Ti3Cu orthorhombic phase along with Ti2Cu and α-Ti phase. In ...
Date: May 2015
Creator: Brice, David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Elevated-temperature fatigue properties of two titanium alloys

Description: Report presenting an investigation to evaluate the unnotched fatigue properties of two titanium alloys at elevated temperatures. A variety of temperatures were tested and the results are provided in tabular form and as curves of stress versus cycles to failure for each test temperature. Both alloys were found to have potential use at the temperature ranges investigated.
Date: April 24, 1956
Creator: Rey, William K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma quench production of titanium from titanium tetrachloride

Description: This project, Plasma Quench Production of Titanium from Titanium Tetrachloride, centers on developing a technique for rapidly quenching the high temperature metal species and preventing back reactions with the halide. The quenching technique chosen uses the temperature drop produced in a converging/diverging supersonic nozzle. The rapid quench provided by this nozzle prevents the back reaction of the halide and metal. The nature of the process produces nanosized particles (10 to 100 nm). The powders are collected by cyclone separators, the hydrogen flared, and the acid scrubbed. Aluminum and titanium powders have been produced in the laboratory-scale device at 1 gram per hour. Efforts to date to scale up this process have not been successful.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Sears, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

Description: The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Cordes, R. A. & Donaldson, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A summary is presented of available information on the nature of H embrittlement in Ti, its control, and effects on other Ti properties. Most data also apply to Zr. Types of embrittlement are discussed, along with H sources and effects on mechanical properties. Also, the effects of H on forming heat treatment, and joining are discussed as well as Ti production and processing and methods of H removal. Finally, H in-service pickup is considered, and methods for establishing the extent of this reaction are discussed. (J.R.D.)
Date: February 12, 1958
Creator: Hammond, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department