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Feasibility study on infrared electro-thermal NDE of stainless steel

Description: Electro-thermal examination, a branch of thermal testing (TT), is a promising method being developed for NDE of stainless steel welds. This report describes the first phase of development; i.e., preliminary demonstration and laboratory evaluation of the method's sensitivity to notches in Type 304 stainless steel plate specimens. It also includes a description of the basic principles, together with a description of the hardware and experimental results showing that electrical discharge machined notches down to 0.16 cm (0.06 in.) long x 0.08 cm (0.03 in.) deep were detected. A qualitative technique for interpreting the test results to determine whether defects are at the surface or deeper within the material is demonstrated. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Green, D.R. & Hassberger, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP), has been designed as a cost-effective, user-friendly replacement for the DOT 6M Specification Package for transporting Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. To ensure the capability of the 9977 GPFP to withstand the regulatory crush test, urethane foam was chosen for the impact absorbing overpack. As part of the package development it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam overpack would provide the required protection for the containment vessel during the thermal test portion of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions Sequential Tests. Development tests of early prototypes were performed, using a furnace. Based on the results of the development tests, detailed design enhancements were incorporated into the final design. Examples of the definitive 9977 design configuration were subjected to an all-engulfing pool fire test, as part of the HAC Sequential Tests, to support the application for certification. Testing has confirmed the package's ability to withstand the HAC thermal tests.
Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: Smith, A; Cecil May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L & Glenn Abramczyk, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed by SRNL to replace the DOT 6M Specification Package and ship Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. Urethane foam was used for the overpack to ensure the package would withstand the 10CFR71.73(c)(2) crush test, which is a severe test for drum-type packages. In addition, it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam configuration provided adequate thermal protection for the containment vessel during the subsequent 10CFR71.73(c)(4) thermal test. Development tests were performed on early prototype test specimens of different diameter overpacks and a range of urethane foam densities. The thermal test was performed using an industrial furnace. Test results were used to optimize the selection of package diameter and foam density, and provided the basis for design enhancements incorporated into the final package design.
Date: February 16, 2007
Creator: Smith, A; Lawrence Gelder, L & Paul Blanton, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Smith, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

Description: Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal fatigue testing of a diffusion-bonded beryllium divertor mock-up under ITER relevant conditions

Description: Thermal response and thermal fatigue tests of four 5 mm thick beryllium tiles on a Russian divertor mock-up were completed on the Electron Beam Test System at Sandia National Laboratories. The beryllium tiles were diffusion bonded onto an OFHC copper saddleblock and a DSCu (MAGT) tube containing a porous coating. Thermal response tests were performed on the tiles to an absorbed heat flux of 5 MW/m{sup 2} and surface temperatures near 300{degrees}C using 1.4 MPa water at 5.0 m/s flow velocity and an inlet temperature of 8-15{degrees}C. One tile was exposed to incrementally increasing heat fluxes up to 9.5 MW/m{sup 2} and surface temperatures up to 690{degrees}C before debonding at 10 MW/m{sup 2}. A third tile debonded after 9200 thermal fatigue cycles at 5 MW/m{sup 2}, while another debonded after 6800 cycles. In all cases, fatigue failure occurred in the intermetallic layers between the beryllium and copper. No fatigue cracking of the bulk beryllium was observed. During thermal cycling, a gradual loss of porous coating produced increasing sample temperatures. These experiments indicate that diffusion-bonded beryllium tiles can survive several thousand thermal cycles under ITER relevant conditions without failure. However, the reliability of the diffusion bonded Joint remains a serious issue.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Youchison, D.L.; Guiniiatouline, R. & Watson, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal vacuum tests of a five watt pseudo chip in a SEM-X electronic module clamped in a satellite box

Description: A five watt pseudo chip in the middle of a SEM-X circuit card was tested with various heat conduction paths in a satellite type electronic box while mounted in a vacuum chamber. Previous tests showed low temperature differentials with the use of circuit board clamps. Flight hardware with thin box walls, low mass module frames, and thin heat covers were tested to determine the temperature differential at 5.0 watts as well as at lower powers. The smallest temperature differential was 23 degrees Celsius between the 5 watt pseudo chip and the cold plate.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Greenwood, W.H. & Akau, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic thermal tomography for nondestructive inspection of aging aircraft

Description: The authors apply dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging as a dynamic thermal tomography tool for wide area inspection of a Boeing 737 aircraft and several Boeing KC-135 aircraft panels. The analyses are discussed in this report. After flash-heating the aircraft skin, they record synchronized DBIR images every 40 ms, from onset to 8 seconds after the heat flash. They analyze selective DBIR image ratios which enhance surface temperature contrast and remove surface-emissivity clutter. The Boeing 737 and KC-135 aircraft fuselage panels have varying percent thickness losses from corrosion. They established the correlation of percent thickness loss with surface temperature rise (above ambient) for a partially corroded F-18 wing box structure and several aluminum plates which had 6 to 60% thickness losses at milled flat-bottom hole sites. Based on this correlation, lap splice temperatures rise 1C per 24 {plus_minus} 5% material loss at 0.4 s after the heat flash. They tabulate and map corrosion-related percent thickness loss effects for the riveted Boeing 737, and the riveted Boeing KKC-135. They map the fuselage composite thermal inertia, based on the (inverse) slope of the surface temperature versus inverse square root of time. Composite thermal inertia maps characterized shallow skin defects within the lap splice at early times (< 0.3 s) and deeper skin defects within the lap splice at late times (> 0.4 s). Late time composite thermal inertia maps depict where corrosion-related thickness losses occur (e.g., on the inside of the Boeing 737 lap splice, beneath the galley and the latrine). Lap splice sites on a typical Boeing KC-135 panel with low composite thermal inertia values had high skin-thickness losses from corrosion.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Del Grande, N. K.; Dolan, K. W.; Durbin, P. F.; Gorvad, M. R. & Shapiro, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Testing of Dallas/Maxim iButton Temperature Logger, Model DS1922L, for Flight Qualification on Captive Flight Test Unit?1B (CFTU-1B)

Description: This report documents the flight qualification testing of the Dallas/Maxim iButton temperature logger, model DS1922L, for internal mounting to the W80 Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). A single thermal test was performed utilizing a Thermotron Model S-1.2V, S/N 20330-S, Environmental Chamber, an Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition/Switch unit, S/N MY44002670, with a Agilent 34901A 20 channel multiplexer, S/N MY41038424, and a single J type thermocouple. Start, stop, chamber temperature and temperature profile control of the Themotron was accomplished using a custom LabView VI. Additional chamber thermal data from the Agilent unit, for comparison with the Thermtron thermocouple, was captured using Agilent BenchLink software. The thermal test was performed in Building 131, Room 2273, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. One hundred twenty eight (128) DS1922L temperature loggers were setup and tested simultaneously.
Date: June 20, 2005
Creator: Jacobson, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal stability of electrodes in Lithium-ion cells

Description: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to identify thermal reactions in Sony-type lithium-ion cells and to correlate these reactions with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. An electrochemical half-cell was used to cycle the anode and cathode materials and to set the state-of-charge (SOC). Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the SOC (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 80 C involving decomposition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte (EC:PC:DEC/1M LiPF{sub 6}) was seen to play an essential role in this reaction. DSC analysis of the anodes from disassembled Sony cells showed similar behavior to the half-cell anodes with a strong exotherm beginning in the 80 C--90 C range. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 C--300 C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF{sub 6} salt, and the PVDF binder. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 C--400 C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 C and increased with the SOC (decreasing Li content in the cathode). No thermal reactions were seen at lower temperatures suggesting that thermal runaway reactions in this type of cell are initiated at the anode. An Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) was used to perform measurements of thermal runaway on commercial Sony Li-ion cells as a function of SOC. The cells showed sustained thermal output as low as 80 C in agreement with the DSC observations of anode materials but the heating rate was strongly dependent on the SOC.
Date: February 7, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing braze quality in the actively cooled Tore Supra Phase III outboard pump limiter

Description: The quality of brazing of pyrolytic graphite armor brazed to copper tubes in Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter was assessed through pre-service qualification testing of individual copper/tile assemblies. The evaluation used non-destructive, hot water transient heating tests performed in the high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop at Sandia`s Plasma Materials Test Facility. Surface temperatures of tiles were monitored with an infrared camera as water at 120{degrees}C at about 2.07 MPa (300 psi) passed through a tube assembly initially at 30{degrees}C. For tiles with braze voids or cracks, the surface temperatures tagged behind those of adjacent well-bonded tiles. Temperature tags were correlated with flaw sizes observed during repairs based upon a detailed 2-D heat transfer analyses. {open_quotes}Bad{close_quotes} tiles, i.e., temperature tags of 10-20{degrees}C depending upon tile`s size, were easy to detect and, when removed, revealed braze voids of roughly 50% of the joint area. Eleven of the 14 tubes were rebrazed after bad tiles were detected and removed. Three tubes were rebrazed twice.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.L.; Miller, J.D.; McGrath, R. & Dale, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

Description: Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A. & Moya, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High heat flux testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico

Description: High heat flux testing for the United States fusion power program is the primary mission of the Plasma Materials Test Facility (PMTF) located at Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico. This facility, which is owned by the United States Department of Energy, has been in operation for over 17 years and has provided much of the high heat flux data used in the design and evaluation of plasma facing components for many of the world`s magnetic fusion, tokamak experiments. In addition to domestic tokamaks such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton and the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics, components for international experiments like TEXTOR, Tore-Supra, and JET also have been tested at the PMTF. High heat flux testing spans a wide spectrum including thermal shock tests on passively cooled materials, thermal response and thermal fatigue tests on actively cooled components, critical heat flux-burnout tests, braze reliability tests and safety related tests. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the high heat flux testing capabilities at the PMTF and describe a few of the experiments performed over the last year.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Youchison, D.L.; McDonald, J.M. & Wold, L.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 28

Description: Thermal testing of a subscale locomotive sodium battery module was initiated.to validate thermal models. The hybrid trip optimizer problem was formulated. As outcomes of this project, GE has proceeded to commercialize trip optimizer technology, and has initiated work on a state-of-the-art battery manufacturing plant for high energy density, sodium-based batteries.
Date: February 19, 2010
Creator: Salasoo, Lembit & Chandra, Ramu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal performance of concrete masonry unit wall systems

Description: New materials, modern building wall technologies now available in the building marketplace, and unique, more accurate, methods of thermal analysis of wall systems create an opportunity to design and erect buildings where thermal envelopes that use masonry wall systems can be more efficient. Thermal performance of the six masonry wall systems is analyzed. Most existing masonry systems are modifications of technologies presented in this paper. Finite difference two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer modeling and unique methods of the clear wall and overall thermal analysis were used. In the design of thermally efficient masonry wall systems is t to know how effectively the insulation material is used and how the insulation shape and its location affect the wall thermal performance. Due to the incorrect shape of the insulation or structural components, hidden thermal shorts cause additional heat losses. In this study, the thermal analysis of the clear wall was enriched with the examination of the thermal properties of the wall details and the study of a quantity defined herein the Thermal Efficiency of the insulation material.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Kosny, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

Description: Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.
Date: December 17, 1998
Creator: Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C. & Yee, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing experience with the FORTE` satellite

Description: FORTE is a small 193 kg (425 lb) satellite that will be placed in orbit with a Pegusus-XL launch vehicle in late 1996. The primary FORTE Program objective is to detect and record atmospheric bursts of electromagnetic radiation. The satellite structure is fabricated primarily with graphite epoxy. This Paper summarizes the testing/analysis philosophy for the FORTE satellite structure and describes how preliminary engineering module structural tests affected the final design. Several novel design features that were implemented to minimize the shock and vibration environments are also described.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Butler, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 5, Manufacturing R&D

Description: TPX Insulation & Impregnation R&D test results are reported for 1x2 samples designed for screening candidate conduit insulation systems for TPX PF and TF coils. The epoxy/glass insulation system and three proposed alternate insulation systems employing Kapton, was evaluated in as received sample condition and after 10 thermal cycles in liquid nitrogen. Two DGBA impregnation systems, Shell 826 and CTD101K were investigated. Square incoloy 908 and 316 LN stainless hollow conduits were used for 1x2 sample fabrication. Capacitance, dielectric loss, and insulation resistance dielectric characteristics were measured for all samples. Partial discharge performance was measured for samples either in air, under silicon oil, or under liquid nitrogen up to 10kVrms at 60 Hz. Hipot screening was performed at 10 kVdc. The samples were cross sectioned and evaluated for impregnation quality. The implications of the test results on the TPX preliminary design decision are discussed.
Date: August 4, 1995
Creator: Roach, J. F.; Urban, W. M. & Hartman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal-hydrological analysis of large-scale thermal tests in the exploratory studies facility at Yucca Mountain

Description: In situ thermal tests, which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, will provide a major portion of the experimental basis supporting the validation of coupled thermal-hydrological-geomechanical-geochemicaI (T-H-M-C) process models required to assess the total system performance at the site. With respect to advective rock dryout, we have identified three major T-H flow regimes: (1) throttled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; (2) unthrottled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; and (3) unthrottled, buoyant, advective rock dryout. With the V-TOUGH code, we modeled a range of heater test sizes, heating rates, and heating durations under a range of plausible hydrological conditions to help optimize an in situ thermal test design that provides sufficient information for determining (a) the dominant mode(s) of heat flow, (b) the major T-H regime(s) and processes (such as vapor diffusion) that govern the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow, and (c) the influence of heterogeneous properties and conditions on the flow of heat, vapor, and condensate. For the plate thermal test, which uniformly heats a disk-shaped area, we evaluated a wide range of test areas, ranging from 50 to 5077 m{sup 2}. We evaluated the single-drift thermal test, which consists of a row of large-waste-package-sized heaters sitting on the floor of the heater drift, and then developed an optimized thermal test configuration, called the single-drift, winged thermal test, in which the heater drift is flanked by wing heater arrays. For this configuration, we considered three heating schedules (with 1-, 2-, and 4-yr full-power heating periods) and three heating rates (122, 177, and 236 W/m{sup 2}). For determining the dominant T-H regime(s) and dominant heat-flow mode(s), the most important diagnostic measurements are vertical temperature and gas-phase pressure profiles and gas-phase pressure and relative humidity RH histories in the drift.
Date: February 20, 1996
Creator: Buscheck, T.A. & Nitao, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department