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Cooling Water Intake Structures: Summary of EPA's Proposed Rule

Description: This report looks at the environmental impact of using water to absorb the heat from thermoelectric generating plants and manufacturing facilities during their industrial processes. The issue for Congress has been whether a stringent and costly environmental mandate could jeopardize reliability of electricity supply in the United States.
Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OTEC support services. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, 15 May 1982-14 August 1982

Description: Progress relative to accomplishments and relative to meetings, conferences, etc. are reported in the areas of OTEC commercialization support, program technical engineering and instrumentation analysis, technical and management services, OTEC system integration, and transmission subsystem considerations. (LEW)
Date: August 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar repowering workshop: a summary report

Description: The workshop was divided into two groups. Group A discussed key issues in the demand for solar thermal technologies; Group B discussed key issues in the supply of solar thermal technologies. Discussion questions prepared prior to the workshop are listed and the responses are summarized. The workshop agenda and the list of participants are included. (MHR)
Date: August 2, 1978
Creator: Nordman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

Description: Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Price, Henry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

Description: Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Mancini, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar thermal electricity in 1998: An IEA/SolarPACES summary of status and future prospects

Description: Research and development activities sponsored by countries within the International Energy Agency`s solar thermal working group. SolarPACES, have helped reduce the cost of solar thermal systems to one-fifth that of the early pilot plants. Continued technological improvements are currently being proven in next-generation demonstration plants. These advances, along with cost reductions made possible by scale-up to larger production and construction of a succession of power plants, have made solar thermal systems the lowest-cost solar energy in the world and promise cost-competitiveness with fossil-fuel plants in the future. Solar thermal technologies are appropriate for a wide range of applications, including dispatchable central-station power plants where they can meet peak-load to near-base-load needs of a utility, and distributed, modular power plants for both remote and grid-connected applications. In this paper, the authors present the collective position of the SolarPACES community on solar electricity-generating technology. They discuss the current status of the technology and likely near-term improvements; the needs of target markets; and important technical and financial issues that must be resolved for success in near-term global markets.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Tyner, C.E.; Kolb, G.J.; Meinecke, W. & Trieb, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial appraisal of solar thermal electric energy in Tibet and Xinjiang Provinces, People`s Republic of China

Description: At the request of US sponsors Spencer Management Associates (SMA) and Sun{diamond}Lab, China`s Center for Renewable Energy Development and former Ministry of Electric Power conducted an initial appraisal of the issues involved with developing China`s first solar thermal electric power plant in the sunbelt regions of Tibet or Xinjiang provinces. The appraisal concerns development of a large-scale, grid-connected solar trough or tower project capable of producing 30 or more megawatts of electricity. Several of the findings suggest that Tibet could be a niche market for solar thermal power because a solar plant may be the low-cost option relative to other methods of generating electricity. China has studied the concept of a solar thermal power plant for quite some time. In 1992, it completed a pre-feasibility study for a SEGS-type parabolic trough plant with the aid of Israel`s United Development Limited. Because the findings were positive, both parties agreed to conduct a full-scale feasibility study. However, due to funding constraints, the study was postponed. Most recently, Sun{diamond}Lab and SMA asked China to broaden the analysis to include tower as well as trough concepts. The findings of this most recent investigation completed i November of 1997, are the subject of this paper. The main conclusions of all studies conducted to date suggest that a region in the proximity of Lhasa, Tibet, offers the best near-term opportunity within China. The opportunities for solar thermal power plants in other regions of China were also investigated.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Junfeng, Li; Li, Zhu; Zhan, Liu; Yuan, Zhang; Washom, Byron & Kolb, Gregory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

Description: This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: E., Cohen Gilbert; Kearney, David W. & Kolb, Gregory J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study: management of selected aspects of the advanced Solar Thermal Technology Program by a University consortium. Final report, June 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

Description: To increase the involvement of universities and advanced technology industries in task-oriented supporting research for the Solar Thermal Energy System (STES) program, organizational issues are considered. A generic and discipline focused program is considered which could provide applied research capabilities for all elements in the STES program. A management structure is presented which is organized around the management and research capabilities of universities. The proposed organization structure is designed to effectively plan, implement, and manage an applied research program dedicated to providing research support for and in coordination with the STES program. The chief aim is to enhance and expand the involvement of universities in the STES program through one or two university management and through the active participation by other universities and industries in an executive advisory board. A large number of consortia development studies were considered and university and industry views were consolidated. A two university team management approach is believed to have distinct advantages.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Hildebrandt, A.F. & Brown, J.H.U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concepts for a bottom-mounted buoyant, stab-in cold water pipe for the OTEC program

Description: A conceptual design for a bottom-mounted, stab-in cold water pipe (CWP) for OTEC is presented. The design concepts used are based on experience gained in the design of marine risers for offshore petroleum production. After a detailed description of the system envisioned and the installation scenario, the status of the major components in the system is discussed relative to the present state of the art in the oil industry. From preliminary structural analyses and cost projections, a comparison is then drawn between the bottom-mounted pipe and free-hanging CWP designs. The comparison shows the bottom-mounted concept to be technically and economically sound, utilizing present oil industry design practices. Finally, recommendations are made for further work to integrate the bottom-mounted CWP concept into the OTEC program.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Pompa, J.A. & Key, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 28 February 1979-31 March 1979

Description: The work performed during the sixth month of the Phase I study of the High Temperature Line-Focus Solar Central Power System is summarized. During the reporting period, subsystem and system parametric analyses were essentially completed. The conceptual design of the system has been initiated. Annual levelized busbar energy costs of 59 mills/kWh are projected for the 80th plant.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Slemmons, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 1 August 1979-31 August 1979

Description: The work performed during the eleventh month of the Phase I study of the Line-Focus Solar Central Power System is summarized. The conceptual design of a 100 MW/sub e/ system was completed during the reporting period. Annual levelized busbar energy costs of 61 mills/kWh are projected for the 80th plant at an average daily capacity factor of 0.6, making the Line-Focus Central Power System plant competitive with nuclear and coal fired plants. Depending on a coal price escalation rate of 8%, it is estimated that there could be as many as 440 100-megawatt solar thermal power plants built in the Western United States by the year 2010. Even higher coal prices could mean a market penetration into other less sunny parts of the United States. Further cost reduction studies proposed should accelerate the realization of electric energy from the sun.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Slemmons, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 29 September 1978-31 October 1978

Description: The objectives of this contract are to provide a conceptual design of a commercial High Temperature Line-Focus 100 MWe Central Power Plant that can produce low cost electricity. To achieve this objective, parametric analyses of the subsystems will be performed to optimize the system. The cost of the optimized plant and its cost of electricity will be used to make an assessment of its potential for commercialization. Progress is reported.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Slemmons, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System performance and cost sensitivity comparisons of stretched membrane heliostat reflectors with current generation glass/metal concepts

Description: Heliostat costs have long been recognized as a major factor in the cost of solar central receiver plants. Research on stretched membrane heliostats has been emphasized because of their potential as a cost-effective alternative to current glass/metal designs. However, the cost and performance potential of stretched membrane heliostats from a system perspective has not been studied until this time. The optical performance of individual heliostats is predicted here using results established in previous structural studies. These performance predictions are used to compare both focused and unfocused stretched membrane heliostats with state-of-the-art glass/metal heliostats from a systems perspective. We investigated the sensitivity of the relative cost and performance of fields of heliostats to a large number of parameter variations, including system size, delivery temperature, heliostat module size, surface specularity, hemispherical reflectance, and macroscopic surface quality. The results indicate that focused stretched membrane systems should have comparable performance levels to those of current glass/metal heliostat systems. Further, because of their relatively lower cost, stretched membrane heliostats should provide an economically attractive alternative to current glass/metal heliostats over essentially the entire range of design parameters studied. Unfocused stretched membrane heliostats may also be attractive for a somewhat more limited range of applications, including the larger plant sizes and lower delivery temperatures.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Murphy, L.M.; Anderson, J.V.; Short, W. & Wendelin, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-thermal power technical and management support. Program summary report

Description: Support activities described are: preparation of the significant development weekly reports; preparation of briefings for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program; preparation of the Annual Thermal Power Systems Technical Progress Report; Integrated Solar Thermal/Industrial Process Heat Program Plan; review of the Storage Technology Development Program for Thermal Power Systems; and review of the Thermal Power Systems Multiyear Plan. A draft of the Goals and Requirements Section of the Integrated Solar Thermal/Industrial Process Heat Program Plan is included. (LEW)
Date: March 9, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982

Description: Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.
Date: December 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological data for SRI study of mesoscale weather effects by pilot plant

Description: The data required to estimate the probability of occurrence of initial meteorological conditions leading to an effect on the weather by the pilot solar thermal electric plant are discussed. No completely appropriate data summaries are available. Vertical atmospheric profiles are the most appropriate source of raw data for a statistical analysis, but these are not available from the pilot plant location either. The available stability data for the pilot plant site are presented. A procedure is outlined to obtain the required estimates of occurrence frequency if desired. However, it is recommended that more substantial effects be demonstrated with a physically realistic model before great effort is expended on data analysis.
Date: May 7, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar energy systems simulation and analysis. 1st quarterly progress report, September 30-December 30, 1979

Description: The primary objective of this contract is to generate User's Guides for several University of Houston developed codes relating to the performance and optimization of solar power tower or solar central receiver systems. Although certain planned generalizations of the codes for a user's version have been delayed until the second quarter, an acceptable outline of the User's Guide has been produced, and documentation is underway. During the second quarter a draft of this user's guide will be prepared, the code generalizations carried to a logical conclusion and preliminary steps in documenting other components of our code library initiated.
Date: January 20, 1980
Creator: Vant-Hull, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

Description: The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Price, H. W. & Kistner, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance test plan for a space station toluene heater tube

Description: Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a toluene heater tube integral to a heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. This heat pipe is a subassembly of the heat receiver. The heat receiver, the heat absorption component of the ORC solar dynamic power system, consists of forty liquid metal heat pipes located circumferentially around the heat receiver`s outside diameter. Each heat pipe contains a toluene heater, two thermal energy storage (TES) canisters and potassium. The function of the heater tube is to heat the supercritical toluene to the required turbine inlet temperature. During the orbit of the space station, the heat receiver and thereby the heat pipe and heater tube will be subjected to variable heat input. The design of the heater must be such that it can accommodate the thermal and hydraulic variations that will be imposed upon it.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Parekh, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermocline Thermal Storage Test for Large-Scale Solar Thermal Power Plants

Description: Solar thermal-to-electric power plants have been tested and investigated at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) since the late 1970s, and thermal storage has always been an area of key study because it affords an economical method of delivering solar-electricity during non-daylight hours. This paper describes the design considerations of a new, single-tank, thermal storage system and details the benefits of employing this technology in large-scale (10MW to 100MW) solar thermal power plants. Since December 1999, solar engineers at Sandia National Laboratories' National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) have designed and are constructing a thermal storage test called the thermocline system. This technology, which employs a single thermocline tank, has the potential to replace the traditional and more expensive two-tank storage systems. The thermocline tank approach uses a mixture of silica sand and quartzite rock to displace a significant portion of the volume in the tank. Then it is filled with the heat transfer fluid, a molten nitrate salt. A thermal gradient separates the hot and cold salt. Loading the tank with the combination of sand, rock, and molten salt instead of just molten salt dramatically reduces the system cost. The typical cost of the molten nitrate salt is $800 per ton versus the cost of the sand and rock portion at $70 per ton. Construction of the thermocline system will be completed in August 2000, and testing will run for two to three months. The testing results will be used to determine the economic viability of the single-tank (thermocline) storage technology for large-scale solar thermal power plants. Also discussed in this paper are the safety issues involving molten nitrate salts and other heat transfer fluids, such as synthetic heat transfer oils, and the impact of these issues on the system design.
Date: August 14, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: During the period April 1, 2001--June 30, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) accelerated construction of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the installation of foundations for the fuel storage facility, the fuel receiving facility, and the processing building. Allegheny received all processing equipment to be installed at Willow Island. Allegheny completed the combustion modeling for the Willow Island project. During this time period construction of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed, with few items left for final action. The facility was dedicated at a ceremony on June 29. Initial testing of cofiring at the facility commenced. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the construction activities at both sites along with the combustion modeling at the Willow Island site.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Payette, K. & Tillman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material

Description: Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Kennedy, C.E. & Smilgys, R.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department