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Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

Description: A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R. & Dougherty, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Level-one modules library for DSNP: Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants

Description: The Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants (DSNP) is a system of programs and data sets by which a nuclear power plant or part thereof can be simulated at different levels of sophistication. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, for the DSNP precompiler, for the DSNP libraries, and for the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a set of simple block oriented statements, which together with the appropriate data, comprise a simulation of a nuclear power plant. The majority of the DSNP statements will result in the inclusion of a simulated physical module into the program. FORTRAN statements can be inserted with no restrictions among DSNP statements.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Saphier, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organizing for nuclear power facility development. Final draft report

Description: Centralized power development concepts have been of interest for some years and have been given considerable study in the past, e.g., the Congressionally-directed 1975 NRC studies. In general, while all such studies have concluded that such Centers did offer potential benefits and were feasible, in the mid-1970's, when most of these studies were done, the advantages did not appear to make use of Energy Centers on balance, preferable to continued conventional or dispersed siting. The DOE recognized that more recent circumstances, particularly the TMI accident, and the new imperatives which have been defined since that event for the proper conduct of the nuclear power ''enterprise'' may well have changed that balance. Centralized siting may today offer important benefits, but clearly those benefits can only be realized if the Center is effectively organized and if the institutional problems of organization (i.e., financial, political and jurisdictional) can be dealt with. Thus the Department of Energy asked the S.M. Stoller Corporation (SMSC) to outline the institutional factors and the organizational considerations to be taken into account in the establishment of nuclear power energy centers in the United States.
Date: October 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

Description: This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.
Date: September 30, 1984
Creator: McCafferty, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational safety system reliability. Final report, November 15, 1975--November 14, 1976

Description: A computerized system is described which is to be used in conjunction with operational data (observed failure rates) of nuclear power plant components. The codes convert the system description to its Boolean equivalent and obtain the system reliability vs. time. Additional codes provide a measure of the uncertainty in this calculated system reliability.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Hockenbury, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US central station nuclear electric generating units: significant milestones (status as of July 1, 1980)

Description: The status of 189 US nuclear power plants is reported in a table which gives the name, owner, capacity, type, NSSS architect and contractor and data of public announcement, NSSS order, licensing, and initial operation. The plants are also indexed according to state, region, utility, and alphabetical name. The utility nuclear steam supply system orders are also listed. (DLC)
Date: September 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manpower Requirements in the Nuclear Power Industry, 1982-1991

Description: The objective of this study is to project occupational employment needs, created by growth and employee turnover, for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations of its 60 member utilities. The data were analyzed statistically to identify factors that account for variations in power plant staffing and the number of off-site nuclear support personnel employed by a utility. Total employment in the nuclear power industry is predicted to increase from 54,400 in 1981 to 73,600 in 1991. Nuclear generating capacity will increase from 58 to 124 gigawatts, based on the midline forecast of the Energy Information Administration. The projections assume that current regulations will remain in effect and no new plans for additional generating facilities will be initiated.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Johnson, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Progress report, September 15, 1976--September 14, 1977

Description: This report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts that should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include: (1) design and construction interfacing problems; (2) problems relating to the selection and use of permanent materials and construction methods; (3) construction coordination and communication problems; and (4) problems associated with manpower availability and productivity;
Date: August 10, 1977
Creator: Mason, G.E. & Larew, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data report of a pretest analysis of soil-structure interaction and structural response in low-amplitude explosive testing (50 KG) of the heissdampfreaktor (HDR)

Description: This report describes a three-dimensional nonlinear TRANAL finite element analysis of a nuclear reactor subjected to ground shaking from a buried 50 kg explosive source. The analysis is a pretest simulation of a test event which was scheduled to be conducted in West Germany on 3 November 1979.
Date: November 29, 1979
Creator: Vaughan, D.K.; Sandler, I.; Rubin, D.; Isenberg, J. & Nikooyeh, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

Description: The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.
Date: December 14, 1977
Creator: Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr. & Rad, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary data for U. S. commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

Description: A compilation of data is presented for all United States commercial nuclear power plants for which a construction permit application was made through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data are compiled in four separate tables with cross-referencing indexes: Table 1--General Data; Table 2--Reactor Data; Table 3--Site Data, and Table 4--Circulating-Water System Data. The power plants are listed in numerical order by docket number in all four tables.
Date: March 20, 1978
Creator: Heddleson, F.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-plant reliability data system (IPRDS) - a utility-oriented data base

Description: Currently, there are data from six operating units comprising four nuclear power plants in the data base. There are an additional seven units (4 plants) that are ready for data collection and encoding. Overall, approximately 120,000 maintenance records have been reviewed and 24,000 records of corrective maintenance actions have been extracted. The components for which data encoding has been completed include pumps and valves. The pump data base contains 1468 pumps and 3100 maintenance records on these pumps spanning almost 24 reactor-years of commercial operation. An additional 900 pump maintenance records for years prior to commercial operation have also been entered. The valve data base contains 24,825 valve population records and approximately 5800 valve maintenance records.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Borkowski, R.J. & Kahl, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliability based investigation of design factors

Description: Second-moment probabilistic techniques are used to formulate structural resistances and loads and to derive reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors for design. Existing concepts of the second-moment reliability theory have been extended to the practical case of multiple load combinations. This development consistently includes the stochastic character of loads and the unpredictable nature of their combinations. For this purpose, a new technique for the evaluation of load combinations is presented, whereby the moments of the extreme of combined loads is obtained in terms of the moments of individual loads and parameters describing their random fluctuations in time. Reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors are derived in terms of the acceptable level of risk, the coefficients of variation of the loads and resistance, uncertainties associated with errors in modeling and estimation, and a set of parameters describing the stochastic nature of loads and their combinations.
Date: June 30, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of national attitudes toward nuclear energy: a longitudinal analysis

Description: The purpose of this paper is to present a longitudinal overview of public attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States. Over ten years of attitudinal data are now available for analysis of the stability of such attitudes over time. These data are useful to many people, including policy makers in government, nuclear industry decision makers, and public action groups that support and oppose nuclear power. This information is also useful in checking the claims of those who purport to be speaking for the public. The level of public acceptance for nuclear power in the near term and into the next century can only be estimated at this time. But this estimate can be based on nearly a decade of survey research.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Rankin, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding public perspectives on nuclear energy

Description: The levels of and underlying bases for public support, opposition, and ambivalence toward continued nuclear power development are reviewed. Data are presented on the public's general evaluations of nuclear power by indicating the extent of support and opposition, by discussing the interpretation of undecided responses, and by examining changes in public opinion over time. Differences in general attitudes toward nuclear energy related to demographic characteristics, including sex, age, education, income, and geographic region are examined. Bases for explaining public support of and opposition to nuclear power are discussed by identifying consistent patterns of attitudes among pronuclear individuals and among antinuclear individuals in the general public.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Melber, B.D. & Rankin, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplification of NPRDS reporting. Final report

Description: A significant amount of time is spent in documenting and reporting on the operation of a nuclear power plant. This study has accumulated information and provides recommendations on how to simplify reporting and eliminate redundant reporting to the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System without degradation of the output. It also provides information on forthcoming processing and procedural changes that will minimize the lapse time encountered during data editing and correcting.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: LeJune, L.A. & Wallace, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures: an evaluation

Description: Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) evaluated the applications of system identification techniques to the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures and subsystems. These experimental techniques involve exciting a structure and measuring, digitizing, and processing the time-history motions that result. The data can be compared to parameters calculated using finite element or other models of the test systems to validate the model and to verify the seismic analysis. This report summarizes work in three main areas: (1) analytical qualification of a set of computer programs developed at LLL to extract model parameters from the time histories; (2) examination of the feasibility of safely exciting nuclear power plant structures and accurately recording the resulting time-history motions; (3) study of how the model parameters that are extracted from the data be used best to evaluate structural integrity and analyze nuclear power plants.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Weaver, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Personnel supply and demand issues in the nuclear power industry. Final report of the Nuclear Manpower Study Committee

Description: The anticipated personnel needs of the nuclear power industry have varied widely in recent years, in response to both increasing regulatory requirements and declining orders for new plants. Recent employment patterns in the nuclear energy field, with their fluctuations, resemble those of defense industries more than those traditionally associated with electric utilities. Reactions to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 by industry and regulators have increased the demand for trained and experienced personnel, causing salaries to rise. Industry, for example, has established several advisory organizations like the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). At the same time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed many new construction and operating requirements in an effort to take advantage of lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident and to respond to the perceived public interest in better regulation of nuclear power. Thus, at present, utilities, architect-engineer firms, reactor vendors, and organizations in the nuclear development community have heavy workloads.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department