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Experimental and theoretical investigations of marine stratocumulus cloud sensitivity to climate parameters using ship-trail clouds

Description: The formation and radiative properties of clouds are poorly parameterized in numerical climate models, especially marine boundary layer clouds. Twomey (1991), after describing the importance of cloud microphysics to the climate problem, states Clearly, many more field measurements and laboratory experiments are called for, rather than endless repetitions of computer simulations that are closely related to each other and parameterize in very similar ways.'' The effort described here is a field e… more
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Porch, W.; Buchwald, M.; Glatzmaier, T.; Kao, C.-Y.; Unruh, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hudson, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Isolation of pathogenic Naegleria from artificially heated waters

Description: Investigations were undertaken to determine whether heated waters facilitate the proliferation of free-living amoeba that cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Water samples were taken close to the discharges of power plants situated on lakes or rivers in Florida and Texas and from cooling towers in Tennessee. The water temperatures ranged from 29 to 42/sup 0/C. Water samples were also taken from several lakes in Florida and Texas without associated power plants. The water temperatures of … more
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Tyndall, R L; Willaert, E; Stevens, A R & Coutant, C C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Power plant reject heat utilization: an assessment of the potential for wide-scale implementation

Description: An assessment of the relative economic and heat utilization merits of plant reject heat utilization systems was made in an effort to indicate those technologies that show the greatest potential for wide-scale implementation in the power generating industry. The heat utilization systems were designed to accommodate the yearly cooling needs of a 1000-MW(e) power plant. Thus, for the purposes of this study, it was assumed that these systems replaced the cooling tower as the primary condenser cooli… more
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Olszewski, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermal impact assessment of multi power plant operations on estuaries. [Computer calculations for Hudson River]

Description: The assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on large estuaries requires careful consideration of the problems associated with: re-entrainment, re-circulation, thermal interaction, delay in the attainment of thermal equilibrium state, and uncertainty in specifying open boundaries and open boundary conditions of the regions, which are critically important in the analysis of the thermal conditions in receiving water bodies with tidal dominated, periodically reversing flow … more
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Eraslan, A. H.; Kim, K. H. & Harris, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hanford production reactor heat releases 1951--1971

Description: The purpose of this report is to document and detail the thermal releases from the Hanford nuclear production reactors during the period 1951 through 1971, and to put these releases in historical perspective with respect to changing Columbia River flows and temperatures. This information can also be used as a foundation for further ecological evaluations. When examining Hanford production reactor thermal releases to the Columbia River all related factors affecting the releases and the character… more
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Kannberg, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interactions of Corbicula sp. with power plants. [Power plant condenser fouling by clams, use of waste heat for control of fouling by clams, and use of thermal effluents in clam aquaculture]

Description: There are three perspectives with which to view the interaction of Corbicula and power plants: as a fouling agent; as an important part of the natural ecosystem; and as a potential species for use in waste heat aquaculture. The first two of these interactions are essentially negative in character, since they involve avoidance of impacts either of Corbicula on power plant operation or of power plant operation on Corbicula. Condenser fouling by these claims has been controlled by mechanical means… more
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Mattice, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-temperature, deployable, membrane heat-pipe radiator element; demonstration and status

Description: Performance tests of a high-temperature, deployable, membrane heat pipe have been conducted. This system is intended for use in thermal rejection systems for space nuclear power plants. Because current developmental programs for space nuclear power require heat rejection systems in the 2 to 100-megawatt range, development of lightweight, large-area, heat rejection radiators with operating temperatures of greater than 600 K is being investigated. Heat-pipe radiators are potentially the lightest-… more
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Trujillo, V.L.; Keddy, E.S. & Merrigan, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic macrophytes in a reactor cooling reservoir

Description: Measurements of ash-free dry weight were used to characterize the effects of a heated effluent on submerged macrophytes in a reactor cooling reservoir. The species which were most abundant during the summers of 1974 and 1975 were Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. and S. Examination of the vertical distribution of the shoot biomass of Myriophyllum revealed that plants in heated areas grew closer to the water surface than plants in unheated areas. The biomass of the secon… more
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Grace, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

Description: L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indi… more
Date: December 15, 1991
Creator: Bowers, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Anadromous salmonids of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River: 1984 status

Description: The Hanford Reach, a regulated but flowing section of the Columbia River, supports spawning populations of fall chinook salmon and steelhead. It also serves as a migration route for upriver runs of chinook, coho and sockeye salmon, and of steelhead. Environmental studies conducted in association with activities on the Hanford Site provide a basis for assessing present ecological conditions in the Hanford Reach. Spawning populations of fall chinook salmon at Hanford increased dramatically after … more
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Becker, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite difference model

Description: A surface impoundment model by finite-difference (SIMFD) has been developed. SIMFD computes the flow rate, velocity field, and the concentration distribution of pollutants in surface impoundments with any number of islands located within the region of interest. Theoretical derivations and numerical algorithm are described in detail. Instructions for the application of SIMFD and listings of the FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the application an… more
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Yeh, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FLUOMEG: a planar finite difference mesh generator for fluid flow problems with parallel boundaries. [In FORTRAN IV]

Description: A two- or three-dimensional finite difference mesh generator capable of discretizing subrectangular flow regions (planar coordinates) with arbitrarily shaped bottom contours (vertical dimension) was developed. This economical, interactive computer code, written in FORTRAN IV and employing DISSPLA software together with graphics terminal, generates first a planar rectangular grid of variable element density according to the geometry and local kinematic flow patterns of a given fluid flow problem… more
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Kleinstreuer, C. & Patterson, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

Description: This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits conta… more
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Drift-modeling and monitoring comparisons. [Drift from power plant cooling towers]

Description: Congress is looking into the conglomeration of nuclear reactors into energy centers of limited area. Drift from cooling towers can corrode and damage structures in the immediate vicinity of the towers, cause a public nuisance if located near parking lots or high-density traffic areas, and endanger local vegetation. The estimation of salt deposition has relied primarily on predictions from a variety of models, with very few direct measurements. One of the major efforts in our program is to evalu… more
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Chen, N.C.J. & Hanna, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

Description: Although limited, the results of tests evaluating the comparative effects of chlorinated and ozonated thermal discharges on mummichog and white perch indicate that the biological effects of ozonation are much less severe than those of chlorination. The data also show white perch to be more sensitive than mummichog to the tested biocides. The relative effects of ozonation and chlorination in the behavioral studies were similar to those observed in the toxicity studies. Cough rates were higher in… more
Date: July 23, 1979
Creator: Meldrim, J. W.; Holmstrom, E. R. & Balog, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Simulation of atmospheric turbulence

Description: A method is described for constructing an artificial temporal sequence of velocity values for simulating atmospheric turbulence. The method develops the conditional probability density distribution of velocity given that the previous value of velocity is known. A value is randomly selected from the conditional probability density which then serves as a known value for the next conditional probability density function. Continuing this procedure provides the desired simulated sequence of velocity… more
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Cliff, W.C. & Hall, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Observations on the use of the consequence model CRAC for small nonreactor atmospheric releases

Description: The consequence model CRAC from the Reactor Safety Study was recently applied to atmospheric releases of radioactive material from nonreactor sources. This study examines the effect of three model parameters, interval size, population distribution and plume thermal bouyancy, on the consequence estimates. Recommendations for the appropriate use of CRAC in such consequence studies are included.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Ericson, Jr., D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design and analysis of aquatic monitoring programs at nuclear power plants.

Description: This report addresses some of the problems of designing, conducting, and analyzing aquatic environmental monitoring programs for impact assessment of nuclear power plants. The concepts discussed are applicable to monitoring the effects of chemical, radioactive, or thermal effluents. The concept of control and treatment station pairs is the fundamental basis for the experimental method proposed. This concept is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between the two stations forming the pa… more
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: McKenzie, D. H.; Kannberg, L. D.; Gore, K. L.; Arnold, E. M. & Watson, D. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experimental testing and analytical analysis of a plastic panel heat exchanger for greenhouse heating

Description: The performance of a plastic panel-type heat exchanger, suitable for greenhouse heating using low-grade (25 to 60/sup 0/C water) power plant reject heat, was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical analysis showed that a plastic panel heat exchanger would have an overall heat transfer coefficient, U/sub 0/, of about 18 w/m/sup 2/-/sup 0/C compared to about 12 w/m/sup 2/-/sup 0/C for a fin-tube heat exchanger, under typical greenhouse conditions. Furthermore the plastic he… more
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Olszewski, M. & Thomas, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant

Description: The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations o… more
Date: June 1986
Creator: Seigel, Richard A.; Brandt, Laura A.; Knight, James L. & Novak, Susan S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Identification of hazards in non-nuclear power plants. Volume 1. Summary report. Phase I and Phase II. Consultant report

Description: This report summarizes the first step in an evaluation of the public health and safety hazards associated with non-nuclear plants. The study was limited to hazards that could affect the general public outside the plant boundaries. Public health and safety hazards are identified for seven types of power plants: coal-fired conventional boiler, atmospheric fluidized bed boiler, pressurized fluidized bed-combined cycle, oil-fired, oil-fired steam turbine, combined cycle, combustion (gas) turbine, a… more
Date: August 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Primary production and biovolume of chroococcoid cyanobacteria in relation to other phytoplankton in southeastern US lakes

Description: Primary production rates and algal biovolumes were measured for various size classes of phytoplankton in three South Carolina lakes. Size classes of less than 3 ..mu..m accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary production but only represented less than 5% of the total algal biovolume. Fluorescence microscopic analyses and laboratory culturing experiments indicated that chroococcoid cyanobacteria (unicellular blue-green algae) were primarily responsible for the relatively high primary product… more
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Tison, D. L. & Wilde, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Periphyton responses to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures in a low pH South Carolina stream: effects on biomass and productivity

Description: The interactive effects of elevated temperatures and nutrient enrichment on periphyton communities on glass slides were studied for one year in the Flowing Streams Laboratory, operated by Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for the Department of Energy (Figure 1). Water from a South Carolina stream called Upper Three Runs, characterized by low pH and low nutrient concentrations and with intermittent swamp drainage, was used.
Date: June 19, 1979
Creator: Brown, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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