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Identity Theft Laws: State Penalties and Remedies and Pending Federal Bills

Description: This report provides an overview of state laws on identity theft. It discusses state laws that penalize identity theft, as well as state laws that assist identity theft victims, including those that permit consumers to block unauthorized persons from obtaining their credit information, known as “security freezes.” The report also includes a survey of state “credit freeze” statutes. The report concludes with summaries of federal identity theft legislation pending in the 110th Congress.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Rainson, Tara A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions. The report also discusses the relationship between data breaches and identity theft as well as possible effects of the FTC's Identity Theft Red Flags Rule, effective June 1, 2010. It also examines current legislation on identity theft and possible issues for the 111th Congress to consider.
Date: May 27, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes selected trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions. The report also discusses the relationship between data breaches and identity theft as well as possible effects of the FTC's Identity Theft Red Flags Rule. It also examines possible issues for Congress to consider.
Date: January 16, 2014
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions. The report also discusses the relationship between data breaches and identity theft as well as possible effects of the FTC's Identity Theft Red Flags Rule, effective November 1, 2009.
Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions.
Date: August 26, 2009
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions. The report also discusses the relationship between data breaches and identity theft as well as possible effects of the FTC's Identity Theft Red Flags Rule, effective June 1, 2010.
Date: January 5, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: In 2010, about 8.1 million Americans were reportedly victims of identity fraud, and the average identity fraud victim incurred a mean of $631 in costs as a result of the fraud—the highest level since 2007. Identity theft is often committed to facilitate other crimes such as credit card fraud, document fraud, or employment fraud, which in turn can affect not only the nation's economy but its security. Consequently, in securing the nation and its economic health, policy makers are also tasked with reducing identity theft and its impact.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of Location and Offender Characteristics for Motor Vehicle Theft in Texas from 2001 to 2005

Description: Motor vehicle theft is the costliest property crime in the United States equaling billions of dollars in losses each year. Despite law enforcement success in decreasing the rate of motor vehicle theft in recent years, the actual number of thefts has increased. It is vital for law enforcement agencies to know who is committing motor vehicle theft and where vehicles are being stolen. This study answers these questions by examining offender demographic characteristics and the location types most targeted for motor vehicle theft in Texas from 2001 to 2005. The state of Texas was chosen because Texas has continually been ranked second in the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report for the number of reported incidents of motor vehicle theft in the United States.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Adger, Katherine
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chemical Safety Alert: Anhydrous Ammonia Theft

Description: This publication of Alert presents the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis of anhydrous ammonia as used for agricultural fertilizer and industrial refrigerant.
Date: March 2000
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Governments Have Acted to Protect Personally Identifiable Information, but Vulnerabilities Remain

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The loss of personally identifiable information, such as an individual's Social Security number, name, and date of birth can result in serious harm, including identity theft. Identity theft is a serious crime that impacts millions of individuals each year. Identity theft occurs when such information is used without authorization to commit fraud or other crimes. While progress has been made protecting personally identifiable information in the public and private sectors, challenges remain. GAO was asked to testify on how the loss of personally identifiable information contributes to identity theft. This testimony summarizes (1) the problem of identity theft; (2) steps taken at the federal, state, and local level to prevent potential identity theft; and (3) vulnerabilities that remain to protecting personally identifiable information, including in federal information systems. For this testimony, GAO relied primarily on information from prior reports and testimonies that address public and private sector use of personally identifiable information, as well as federal, state, and local efforts to protect the security of such information. GAO and agency inspectors general have made numerous recommendations to agencies to resolve prior significant information control deficiencies and information security program shortfalls. The effective implementation of these recommendations will continue to strengthen the security posture at these agencies."
Date: June 17, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Available Data Indicate Growth in Prevalence and Cost

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Identity theft involves "stealing" another person's personal identifying information, such as their Social Security Number (SSN), date of birth, or mother's maiden name, and using it to fraudulently establish credit, run up debt, or take over existing financial accounts. The prevalence and cost of identity theft seem to be increasing. Recently introduced bills seek to prevent identity theft and enforce laws prohibiting identity theft. Since May 1998, various actions--particularly passage of federal and state statutes--have been taken to address identity theft. Precise, statistical measurement of identity theft trends is difficult for several reasons. Federal law enforcement agencies lack information systems to track identity theft cases. Also, identity theft almost always accompanies white-collar or financial crimes, such as bank fraud, credit card or access device fraud, or the use of counterfeit financial instruments. Data sources, such as consumer complaints and hotline allegations, can be used as proxies for gauging the prevalence of identity theft. Law enforcement investigations and prosecutions of identity theft-related crimes, such as bank and credit card fraud, also provide data."
Date: February 14, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Employee Theft: The Relationship of Shrinkage Rates to Job Satisfaction, Store Security, and Employee Reliability

Description: The correlation between employee theft and various employee attitudes is investigated with 489 subjects from a large discount store chain located in the southeastern United States. Subjects completed two tests: Personnel Decisions, Inc. 's Employment Inventory/Customer Service Inventory which measures employee reliability and orientation toward providing customer service; and the Organization Responsiveness Questionnaire which measures satisfaction and perceived store security. Individual scores on the tests were correlated with a performance rating form completed by the subject's supervisor. Scores were computed for each store and correlated with inventory shrinkage rates. Results revealed relatively weak correlations for some variables. The multiple regression analysis was unable to significantly predict any of the criterion variables.
Date: August 1992
Creator: LaFosse, W. Greg
Partner: UNT Libraries

"Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

Description: In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Aldridge, Chris D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RELATIVE PROLIFERATION RISKS FOR NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING ARRANGEMENT

Description: The present study demonstrates a probabilistic approach to quantify the proliferation risks of fuel leasing and recycling. A Markov model approach is applied to evaluate the probability of proliferation success by diversion or theft. Proliferation risk is calculated as a product of the probability of success and the corresponding consequences.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: CHENG,L.Y.; YUE, M. & BARI, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

Description: This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include information important to the evaluation methodology users and to the decisions of a proliferant State or ...
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: BARI, R. & AL., ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comparison of Scores Made on the MMPI and CTMM by Two Groups of Juvenile Delinquents Apprehended for Auto Theft and a Group of Non-Delinquents

Description: The problem of this study was to determine if juvenile delinquents who commit auto theft without an accomplice differ significantly in certain characteristics from those who commit such thefts with one of more confederates. The characteristics investigated were: (1) scores made on individual scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and (2) intellectual ability as measured by the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity. Furthermore, the same characteristics were examined to determine if a significant difference existed between each of the groups of juvenile delinquents and a group of juveniles who did not have a record of delinquency and attended Sunday School classes regularly.
Date: May 1963
Creator: Sypert, Walter Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory search and property protection programs -- March 22, 1984

Description: On November 30, 1983, the LLNL Directorate met to discuss Laboratory policy regarding searches. An advance package (dated November 16, 1983) discussing background issues and DOE`s property protection and safeguards concerns was distributed to the Director and Associate Directors. A number of Associate Directors expressed concern about the nature of the theft problem at the Laboratory. There was also discussion about many employees` perception that Laboratory Management (including the Security Department) really did not care. The Director endorsed the need to establish searches in the SNM areas. The property protection type of searches were perceived as being very sensitive from a labor relations perspective. Nevertheless, the Directorate was sufficiently concerned about the safeguards and property protection issues to request the Security Department to develop a search plan for their review. A draft Search Program was prepared by the Security Department and reviewed individually with the Directorate for their comments. On March 19, 1984, the Directorate met collectively to consider a summary of these individual comments and to finalize a Search Program. Decisions made during that meeting have been incorporated into this document. This plan describes the search procedures that will be implemented at SNM areas and a two point program concerning property protection. Procedures are also set forth that will allow for expanded searches during periods of heightened security concern.
Date: March 22, 1984
Creator: Leary, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US statutes for enforcement by security inspectors

Description: This document is one of a three volume set. BNL 52201 is titled `Selected Text of Atomic Energy Act Executive Orders and Other Laws of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Executives`, and it contains detailed information for use by executives. BNL 52202 is titled `U.S. Statutes of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Officers`, and contains less detail than BNL 52201. It is intended for use by officers. BNL 52203 is titled `U.S. Statutes for Enforcement by Security Inspectors`, and it contains statutes to be applied by uniformed security inspectors.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Cadwell, J.J. & Ruger, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision estimates for tomographic nondestructive assay

Description: Requirements for effective safeguards during the transition to environmental management at nuclear material production facilities within the DOE complex are deriving improvements in the accuracy of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. An important aspect of the transition is the need for facilities to terminate safeguards on waste materials, thus reducing the cost for safeguards at the facility. Requirements for the termination of safeguards on candidate waste material have been established by DOE to minimize the potential for diversion or theft of nuclear material. Because heterogenous waste and residue materials are stored in large containers such as 208-L drums, conventional assay techniques such as segmented gamma scanning (SGS) that were developed to assay small samples cannot always provide accurate measurements. Consequently, facilities using the conventional NDA instrumentation may be limited in their ability to discard waste materials in compliance with DOE requirements. One technique being applied to improve the accuracy of assays of waste in large containers is computerized tomography (CT). Research on the application of CT to improve both neutron and gamma-ray assays of waste is being carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For example, tomographic gamma scanning (TGS) is a single-photon emission CT technique that corrects for attenuation of gamma rays emitted from the sample using attenuation images from transmission CT.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Prettyman, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Total Extent of Refund Fraud Using Stolen Identities is Unknown

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Understanding the extent and nature of identity theft-related refund fraud is important to crafting a response to it, but Internal Revenue Service (IRS) managers recognize that they do not have a complete picture. Program officials said that one of the challenges they face in combating this type of fraud is its changing nature and how it is concealed. While perfect knowledge about cases and who is committing the crime will never be attained, the better IRS understands the problem, the better it can respond and the better Congress can oversee IRS's efforts. IRS officials described several areas where the extent and nature of identity theft is unknown."
Date: November 29, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Some Outreach Efforts to Promote Awareness of New Consumer Rights Are Under Way

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions (FACT) Act of 2003 which amended the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), contains provisions intended to help consumers remedy the effects of identity theft. For example, section 609(e) of the amended FCRA gives identity theft victims the right to obtain records of fraudulent business transactions, and section 609(d) requires the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to develop a model summary of identity theft victims' rights. This report provides information on (1) outreach efforts to inform consumers, businesses, and law enforcement entities about section 609(e); (2) the views of relevant groups on the provision's expected impact; and (3) FTC's process for developing its model summary of rights and views on the summary's potential usefulness."
Date: June 30, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Greater Awareness and Use of Existing Data Are Needed

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Identity theft or identity fraud generally involves "stealing" another person's personal identifying information--such as Social Security Number (SSN), date of birth, and mother's maiden name--and then using the information to fraudulently establish credit, run up debt, or take away existing financial accounts. The Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998 made identity theft a separate crime against the person whose identity was stolen, broadened the scope of the offense to include the misuse of information as well as documents and provided punishment--generally a fine or imprisonment or both. GAO found no comprehensive or centralized data on enforcement results under the federal Identity Theft Act. However, according to a Deputy Assistant Attorney General, federal prosecutors are using the 1998 federal law. As with the federal act, GAO found no centralized or comprehensive data on enforcement results under state identity theft statutes. However, officials in the 10 states selected for study provided examples of actual investigations or prosecutions under these statutes. Generally, the prevalence of identity theft and the frequently multi- or cross-jurisdictional nature of such a crime underscore the importance of promoting cooperation or coordination among federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. One of the most commonly used means of coordination, task forces, can have participating agencies from all levels of law enforcement and, in some instances, can have participants from banks and other private sector entities. Although the Social Security Administration's Office of the Inspector General fraud hotline annually receives thousands of allegations involving either (1) SSN misuse or (2) program fraud with SSN misuse potential, the agency concentrates its investigative resources on the latter category of allegations because the protection of the Social Security trust funds is a priority."
Date: June 28, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department