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Prison Productions: Textiles and Other Military Supplies from State Penitentiaries in the Trans-Mississippi Theater during the American Civil War

Description: This thesis examines the state penitentiaries of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas that became sources of wartime supplies during the Civil War. A shortage of industry in the southwest forced the Confederacy to use all manufactories efficiently. Penitentiary workshops and textile mills supplied a variety of cloth, wood, and iron products, but have received minimal attention in studies of logistics. Penitentiary textile mills became the largest domestic supplier of cloth to Confederate quartermasters, aid societies, citizens, slaves, and indigent families. This study examines how penitentiary workshops converted to wartime production and determines their contribution to the Confederate war effort. The identification of those who produced, purchased, distributed, and used penitentiary goods will enhance our knowledge of overall Confederate supply.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Derbes, Brett J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

STUDIES ON LARGE AREA SUB-FABRIC BURNS

Description: The detonation of shot one at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954, produced a fallout of radioactive ash upon Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands. The distribution of the radioactive ash on the islands and in the plants and animals of the area has been studied and evaluated. During the first expedition to Rongelap Atoll on March 26, 1954, biological samples were collected and measurements made of the radiation contamination. On three additional expeditions extensive collections of material were made for this study, the last on January 25-30, 1955. The decline in radioactivity was measured in 1499 samples of fish, invertebrates, land plants, algae, birds, plankton, soil, and water from the Rongelap area. During this study particular emphasis was placed upon evaluation of the radioactivity in food used by the natives. Coconut milk collected on March 26, 1954, contained 1.03 microcuries per kilogram of wet tissue while the coconut meat had 1.16 mu c/kg. By January 25-30, 1955, the level in coconut milk had declined to 0.041 mu c/kg and the meat to 0.036 mu c/ kg. Fish muscle on March 26, 1954, averaged 2.74 mu c/kg and fish liver 204.0 mu c/kg. The decline to January 25-30 was 0.10 mu c/kg for the muscle and 3.52 mu c/kg for the liver of fish. Somewhat similar declines were found for clam muscle, crab muscle, bird muscle and liver, and for squash, papaya, arrowroot and pandanus. The level of radioactivity was highest in the northern portion of the atoll, except for samples of algae and fish-eating birds, collected during January 1955 from the southern part of the atoll, which had higher levels of radioactivity than samples collected from the northern islands on the same date. This may indicate a translocation of radioactive materials within the lagoon. (auth)
Date: July 5, 1957
Creator: Berkley, K.M. & Pearse, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Non-Traditional Resist Materials and Techniques for Pattern Dyeing

Description: Both the challenges and rewards of pattern dyeing motivated an examination of resist materials, the subject of this study. The first part of the problem was to investigate new materials and those not previously used for dye resists. The second part was to test some of the traditional resisting agents in non-traditional ways. The selected materials were evaluated for their effectiveness as dye resists and for their usefulness to the artist-craftsman. They were also compared to traditional techniques to determine any advantages they may or may not have over previous resist materials.
Date: August 1966
Creator: Williams, Shirlee R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

Description: The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.
Date: September 29, 2010
Creator: Group, China Energy & Hasanbeigi, Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Low-Waste Electrospray Method for Applying Chemicals and Finishing Agents to Textiles Zh

Description: This electrospray technology works by applying the desired chemicals onto a substrate as electrically generated, charged sprays. By imposing a potential difference between the application nozzle and the target, it is possible to precisely direct and control the spray. This electrospray method of application gives a small droplet size and a relatively uniform size distribution, with the added advantage of an easily controllable spray angle. It potentially offers substantial improvement over traditional methods in the area of application uniformity, resulting in improved product quality. Additionally, since the chemicals are electrically directed straight onto the fiber with a minimum of overspray, the electrospray method holds promise in the area of waste reduction, resulting in lowered production cost.
Date: August 1, 1999
Creator: Alexander, D.A. & Zhang, X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest Products: Acoustic Humidity Sensor

Description: The new acoustic sensor, designed as a humidity-control system for the paper and textile industries, can both eliminate overdrying and improve product quality by measuring humidity precisely. This new fact sheet explains how the process works.
Date: January 29, 1999
Creator: Poole, L. & Recca, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUTDIES ON SUB-FABRIC BURNS: THE RELATIONSHIP OF SURFACE APPEARANCE AND DEPTH OF DAMAGE A METHOD OF STUDY, PRELIMINARY RESULTS, AND OBSERVATIONS OF WOUND HEALING

Description: Relationships between surface appearance and actual depth of damage of sub-fabric burns have been established for only a few burns. Since surface appearance has been the most widely used criterion for evaluating the ability of fabrics to protect against radiant energy, it is of some importance to know whether or not bare skin and sub-fabric burns of similar appearance are of comparable severity. In this experiment it was found that both types of burn when produced by one second exposures and when graded 3/sup +/ moderate because of their surface appearance are, indeed, equally severe. Observations on healing of the two types of burn suggest no differences in the manner or rate of tissue restoration. (auth)
Date: December 8, 1958
Creator: Berkley, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STUDIES ON LARGE AREA SUB-FABRIC BURNS. THE EFFECT OF (1) REFLECTANCE AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC, AND (2) TREATMENT WITH FIRE-RETARDANT MATERIAL

Description: A series of cutaneous burns was produced on swine by exploding 150 mgm of magnesium powder at distances of 20 and 25 cm from the animal. This provided 20 cal/cm/sup 2/ at exposure times of 0.7 and 2 to 3 sec and 16 cal/cm/sup 2/ at an exposure time of 0.7 sec respectively. The effect of placing green and khaki poplin fabrics untreated and treated with fire-retardant material L-S 123P, in contact with and separated 5 and 10 mm from skin was studied. Burns were evaluated both by surface appearance and by microscopic examination. All the fabrics reduced the severity of the burns. As the amount of separation increased, the severity of the burns decreased if the fabric remained intact. The knaki fabric with its higher reflectance gave more protection than the green fabric at 16 cal/cm/sup 2/ at 0.7 sec exposure time and 20 cal/cm/sup 2/ at 2 to 3 sec exposure time, but not at 20 cal/cm/sup 2/ at 0.7 sec exposure. The fire- retardant treated material gave more protection than the untreated material if it persisted longer during the exposure. If both persisted during the exposure but flaming or flaring occiirred, the untreated fabric gave more protection than the treated. (auth)
Date: August 7, 1958
Creator: Berkley, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ginning cotton.

Description: Describes the importance of the ginning process, and the means for ginning the highest quality cotton.
Date: November 1956
Creator: Bennett, Charles A. (Charles Abel), b. 1889
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Tow-Level Progressive Damage for Simulating Carbon-Fiber Textile Composites: Interim Report

Description: A numerical approach to model the elasto-plastic and tensile damage response of tri-axially braided carbon-fiber polymeric-matrix composites is developed. It is micromechanically based and consists of a simplified unit cell geometry, a plane-stress tow-level constitutive relationship, a one-dimensional undulation constitutive law, and a non-traditional shell element integration rule. The braided composite lamina is idealized as periodic in the plane, and a simplified three-layer representative volume (RV) is assembled from axial and braider tows and pure resin regions. The constituents in each layer are homogenized with an iso-strain assumption in the fiber-direction and an iso-stress condition in the other directions. In the upper and lower layers, the fiber-direction strain is additively decomposed into an undulation and a tow portion. A finite-deformation tow model predicts the plane-stress tow response and is coupled to the undulation constitutive relationship. The overall braid model is implemented in DYNA3D and works with traditional shell elements. The finite-deformation tow constitutive relationship is derived from the fiber elasticity and the isotropic elasto-plastic power-law hardening matrix response using a thermodynamic framework and simple homogenization assumptions. The model replicates tensile damage evolution, in a smeared sense, parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis and is regularized to yield mesh independent results. The tow-level model demonstrates reasonable agreement, prior to damage, with detailed three-dimensional FE (finite element) elasto-plastic simulations of aligned, periodically arranged, uni-directional composites. The 3-layer braid model response is compared with predictions obtained from detailed micromechanical simulations of the braid's unit cell in uni-axial extension, shear, and flexure for three braid angles. The elastic properties show good agreement as does the non-linear response for loadings dominated by the axial tows. In loadings dominated by the braider tow response, the absence of a non-linear undulation model deteriorates the agreement. Nonetheless, the present approach is applicable to a broad range of ...
Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Zywicz, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department