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Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962

Description: This report outlines the contents of Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which is the bill that mandates that the Department of Commerce conduct studies of industries to determine whether foreign competition is harming national security and allows the President to impose tariffs or other restrictions on imports found to be threats to national security.
Date: February 23, 2018
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F. & Jones, Vivian C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Customer Response to RTP in Competitive Markets: A Study ofNiagara Mohawk's Standard Offer Tariff

Description: Utilizing load, price, and survey data for 119 largecustomers that paid competitively determined hourly electricity pricesannounced the previous day between 2000 and 2004, this study providesinsight into the factors that determine the intensity of price response.Peak and off-peak electricity can be: perfect complements, substitutes,or substitutes where high peak prices cause temporary disconnection fromthe grid, as for some firms with on-site generation. The averageelasticity of substitution is 0.11. Thirty percent of the customers usepeak and off-peak electricity in fixed proportions. The 18 percent withelasticities greater than 0.10 provide 75 percent of the aggregate priceresponse. In contrast to Industrial customers, Commercial/Retail andGovernment/Education customers are more price responsive on hot days andwhen the ratio of peak to off-peak prices is high. Price responsivenessis not substantially reduced when customers operate near peak usage.Diversity of customer circumstances and price response suggest dynamicpricing is suited for some, but not all customers.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Boisvert, Richard N.; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Neenan,Bernie & Hopper, Nicole
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ongoing Section 232 Steel and Aluminium Investigations

Description: This report discuses two investigations by the Department of Commerce related to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which allows the President to impose tariffs or quotas on imported goods if it is in the interest of national security. These investigations are being conducted on the steel and aluminium industries to determine whether the President can and whether he should impose import restrictions. Mixed reactions to the investigations and proposals are also discussed.
Date: July 28, 2017
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tricks of the Trade: Section 301 Investigation of Chinese Intellectual Property Practices Concludes (Part 2)

Description: This report is the part two of two of a report on the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative's (USTR) recently concluded its investigation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the "Section 301 Investigation") "to determine whether acts, policies, and practices of the Government of China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation are unreasonable or discriminatory and burden or restrict U.S. commerce." This part of the report applies the general legal framework to this specific Section 301 Investigation, providing background on the investigation, describing the USTR's findings and the President's directives, and concluding by addressing what legal issues lie ahead.
Date: March 29, 2018
Creator: Lewis, Caitlin Devereaux
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shining a Light on the Solar Trade: Investigation Leads to Tariffs on Solar-Related Imports (Part 2)

Description: This report is part two of a report discussing the implementation of a tariff-rate quota on solar-energy related imports for four years beginning February 7, 2018. The announcement was triggered by the results of a U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) investigation into potential harm to U.S. industries from the importation of solar-panel related parts. This section of the report discusses the background of the investigation and various options the ITC suggested as a remedy to their findings of injury to U.S. industry as well as Congressional considerations.
Date: January 26, 2018
Creator: Lewis, Caitlain Devereaux
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commerce Determines Steel and Aluminium Imports Threaten to Impair National Security

Description: This report discusses the Commerce Department's recommendations regarding actions to take to protect American industries from foreign competition in the steel and aluminium industries. Commerce recommendations on tariffs and quotas for steel and aluminium imports are included.
Date: March 2, 2018
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F. & Jones, Vivian C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shining a Light on the Solar Trade: Investigation Leads to Tariffs on Solar-Related Imports (Part 1)

Description: This report is part one of a report discussing the implementation of a tariff-rate quota on solar-energy related imports for four years beginning February 7, 2018. The announcement was triggered by the results of a U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) investigation into potential harm to U.S. industries from the importation of solar-panel related parts. The process of an ITC investigation is described in this part of the the report.
Date: January 26, 2018
Creator: Lewis, Caitlain Devereaux
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

Description: The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Firestone, Ryan & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Value of Distributed Generation under Different TariffStructures

Description: Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing structure for standby service. In particular, the utilities do not feel that DG customers are paying their fair share of transmission and distribution costs - traditionally recovered through a volumetric($/kWh) mechanism - under existing tariff structures. In response, new tariff structures with higher fixed costs for DG have been implemented in New York and in California. This work analyzes the effects of different electricity tariff structures on DG adoption. First, the effects of the new standby tariffs in New York are analyzed in different regions. Next generalized tariffs are constructed, and the sensitivity to varying levels of the volumetric and the demand ($/kW, i.e. maximum rate) charge component are analyzed on New York's standard and standby tariff as well as California's standby tariff. As expected, DG profitability is reduced with standby tariffs, but often marginally. The new standby structures tend to promote smaller base load systems. The amount of time-of-day variability of volumetric pricing seems to have little effect on DG economics.
Date: May 31, 2006
Creator: Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercialand Industrial Customers:A Scoping Study

Description: Demand response is increasingly recognized as an essentialingredient to well functioning electricity markets. This growingconsensus was formalized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), whichestablished demand response as an official policy of the U.S. government,and directed states (and their electric utilities) to considerimplementing demand response, with a particular focus on "price-based"mechanisms. The resulting deliberations, along with a variety of stateand regional demand response initiatives, are raising important policyquestions: for example, How much demand response is enough? How much isavailable? From what sources? At what cost? The purpose of this scopingstudy is to examine analytical techniques and data sources to supportdemand response market assessments that can, in turn, answer the secondand third of these questions. We focus on demand response for large(>350 kW), commercial and industrial (C&I) customers, althoughmany of the concepts could equally be applied to similar programs andtariffs for small commercial and residential customers.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie & Cappers, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tariffs Can Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy

Description: The solar power market is growing at a quickening pace, fueled by an array of national and local initiatives and policies aimed at improving the value proposition of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though these policies take many forms, they commonly include up-front capital cost rebates or ongoing production incentives, supplemented by net metering requirements to ensure that customer-sited PV systems offset the full retail rate of the customer-hosts. Somewhat less recognized is the role of retail rate design, beyond net metering, on the customer-economics of grid-connected PV. Over the life of a PV system, utility bill savings represent a substantial portion of the overall economic value received by the customer. At the same time, the design of retail electricity rates, particularly for commercial and industrial customers, can vary quite substantially. Understanding how specific differences in rate design affect the value of customer-sited PV is therefore essential to supporting the continued growth of this market.
Date: August 31, 2008
Creator: Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen & Golove, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unleashing renewable energy power in developing countries: Proposal for a global renewable energy policy fund

Description: The document argues that renewable energy policies have not been implemented in the developing world due to financial costs, and also that the Clean Developing Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol has been ineffective. The document proposes the use of Feed-In Tariff policies, and the use of a renewable energy policy fund.
Date: November 2009
Creator: World Future Council
Partner: UNT Libraries

Tariff Attitudes of the Major Parties

Description: A tariff policy is two-sided and may be compared to a wall. Every export from a country is some other country's import, and every tariff imposition, while apparently a domestic law to bring in a revenue or build up home industries, is, at the same time the means of keeping out some other country's exports. Too often, we look upon only one side of the wall--our own side. We are likely to regard the tariff as a means of controlling the inflow of foreign goods or as a means of raising revenue. But to understand the tariff policy and employ it to its fullest advantage or disadvantage we must be willing and capable of looking over the wall to understand the effect of a tariff--or any other commercial policy--on the aims and aspirations of other nations.
Date: August 1950
Creator: Lumsden, O. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Tricks of the Trade: Section 301 Investigation of Chinese Intellectual Property Practices Concludes (Part 1)

Description: This report discusses the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative's (USTR) recent investigation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 to determine whether acts, policies, and practices of the Government of China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation were unreasonable or discriminatory and burdening or restricting U.S. commerce and President Trumps's memorandum in response.
Date: March 29, 2018
Creator: Lewis, Caitlin Devereaux
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department