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A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

Description: First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.
Date: December 13, 2003
Creator: Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea & Zumino, Bruno
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-Relativistic Superstring Theories

Description: We construct a supersymmetric version of the 'critical' non-relativistic bosonic string theory [1] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc CFT which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of Type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are non-chiral. We further consider 'noncritical' generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical non-relativistic string theory and the lightlike Linear Dilaton theory.
Date: December 14, 2007
Creator: Kim, Bom Soo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new method for multinomial inference using Dempster-Shafer theory

Description: A new method for multinomial inference is proposed by representing the cell probabilities as unordered segments on the unit interval and following Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory. The resulting DS posterior is then strengthened to improve symmetry and learning properties with the final posterior model being characterized by a Dirichlet distribution. In addition to computational simplicity, the new model has desirable invariance properties related to category permutations, refinements, and coarsenings. Furthemore, posterior inference on relative probabilities amongst certain cells depends only on data for the cells in question. Finally, the model is quite flexible with regard to parameterization and the range of testable assertions. Comparisons are made to existing methods and illustrated with two examples.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Lawrence, Earl Christopher; Vander Wiel, Scott; Liu, Chuanhai & Zhang, Jianchun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersymmetry without the Desert

Description: Naturalness of electroweak symmetry breaking in weak scale supersymmetric theories may suggest the absence of the conventional supersymmetric desert. We present a simple, realistic framework for supersymmetry in which (most of) the virtues of the supersymmetric desert are naturally reproduced without having a large energy interval above the weak scale. The successful supersymmetric prediction for the low-energy gauge couplings is reproduced due to a gauged R symmetry present in the effective theory at the weak scale. The observable sector superpotential naturally takes the form of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, but without being subject to the Landau pole constraints up to the conventional unification scale. Supersymmetry breaking masses are generated by the F-term and D-term VEVs of singlet and U(1){sub R} gauge fields, as well as by anomaly mediation, at a scale not far above the weak scale. We study the resulting pattern of supersymmetry breaking masses in detail, and find that it can be quite distinct. We construct classes of explicit models within this framework, based on higher dimensional unified theories with TeV-sized extra dimensions. A similar model based on a non-R symmetry is also presented. These models have a rich phenomenology at the TeV scale, and allow for detailed analyses of, e.g., electroweak symmetry breaking.
Date: September 26, 2006
Creator: Nomura, Yasunori & Poland, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Topcolor and the First Muon Collider

Description: We describe a class of models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve strong dynamics and top quark condensation. A new scheme based upon a seesaw mechanism appears particularly promising. Various implications for the first-stage muon collider are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Hill, C.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Moduli stabilization in stringy ISS models

Description: We present a stringy realization of the ISS metastable SUSY breaking model with moduli stabilization. The mass moduli of the ISS model is stabilized by gauging of a U(1) symmetry and its D-term potential. The SUSY is broken both by F-terms and D-terms. It is possible to obtain de Sitter vacua with a vanishingly small cosmological constant by an appropriate fine-tuning of flux parameters.
Date: September 28, 2007
Creator: Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu; Yamazaki, Masahito & Yanagida, T.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Horizons and plane waves: A review

Description: We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.
Date: November 6, 2003
Creator: Hubeny, Veronika E. & Rangamani, Mukund
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quasi-static analysis of elastic behavior for some systems having higher fracture densities.

Description: Elastic behavior of geomechanical systems with interacting (but not intersecting) fractures is treated using generalizations of the Backus and the Schoenberg-Muir methods for analyzing layered systems whose layers are intrinsically anisotropic due to locally aligned fractures. By permitting the axis of symmetry of the locally anisotropic compliance matrix for individual layers to differ from that of the layering direction, we derive analytical formulas for interacting fractured regions with arbitrary orientations to each other. This procedure provides a systematic tool for studying how contiguous, but not yet intersecting, fractured domains interact, and provides a direct (though approximate) means of predicting when and how such interactions lead to more dramatic weakening effects and ultimately to failure of these complicated systems. The method permits decomposition of the system elastic behavior into specific eigenmodes that can all be analyzed, and provides a better understanding about which of these specific modes are expected to be most important to the evolving failure process.
Date: October 15, 2009
Creator: Berryman, J.G. & Aydin, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

Description: Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Faraggi, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Quasi-Toroidal Stellarator: An Innovative Confinement Experiment

Description: To develop a new class of stellarators that exhibit improved confinement compared to conventional stellarators. This approach generally makes use of a designed symmetry of the magnetic field strength along a particular coordinate axis in the toroidal geometry of the stellarator, and is referred to as quasi-symmetry.
Date: April 1, 2001
Creator: Knowlton, S F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomic Scale coexistence of Periodic and quasiperiodic order in a2-fold A1-Ni-Co decagonal quasicrystal surface

Description: Decagonal quasicrystals are made of pairs of atomic planes with pentagonal symmetry periodically stacked along a 10-fold axis. We have investigated the atomic structure of the 2-fold surface of a decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystal using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface consists of terraces separated by steps of heights 1.9, 4.7, 7.8, and 12.6{angstrom} containing rows of atoms parallel to the 10-fold direction with an internal periodicity of 4{angstrom}. The rows are arranged aperiodically, with separations that follow a Fibonacci sequence and inflation symmetry. The results indicate that the surfaces are preferentially Al-terminated and in general agreement with bulk models.
Date: November 14, 2005
Creator: Park, Jeong Young; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Ribeiro,R.A.; Canfield, P.C.; Jenks, C.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Little Twin Higgs Model

Description: We present a twin Higgs model based on left-right symmetry with a tree level quartic. This is made possible by extending the symmetry of the model to include two Z_2 parities, each of which is sufficient to protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass squared. Although both parities are brokenexplicitly, the symmetries that protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass are broken only collectively. The quadratic divergences of the Higgs mass are thus still protected at one loop. We find that the fine-tuning in this model is reduced substantially compared to the original left-right twin Higgs model. This mechanism can also be applied to the mirror twin Higgs model to get a significant reduction of the fine-tuning, while keeping the mirror photon massless.
Date: July 25, 2007
Creator: Goh, Hock-Seng; Goh, Hock-Seng & Krenke, Christopher A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamical (super) symmetry breaking

Description: Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) is a concept theoristsrely on very often in the discussions of strong dynamics, model building,and hierarchy problems. In this talk, I will discuss why this is such apermeating concept among theorists and how they are used in understandingphysics. I also briefly review recent progress in using dynamicalsymmetry breaking to construct models of supersymmetry breaking andfermion masses.
Date: October 3, 2000
Creator: Murayama, Hitoshi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New inflation vs. chaotic inflation, higher degree potentials and the reconstruction program in light of WMAP3

Description: The cosmic microwave background power spectra are studied for different families of single field new and chaotic inflation models in the effective field theory approach to inflation. We implement a systematic expansion in 1/N(e), where N(e)~;;50 is the number of e-folds before the end of inflation. We study the dependence of the observables (n(s), r and dn(s)/dlnk) on the degree of the potential (2n) and confront them to the WMAP3 and large scale structure data: This shows in general that fourth degree potentials (n=2) provide the best fit to the data; the window of consistency with the WMAP3 and LSS data narrows for growing n. New inflation yields a good fit to the r and n(s) data in a wide range of field and parameter space. Small field inflation yields r<0.16 while large field inflation yields r>0.16 (for N(e)=50). All members of the new inflation family predict a small but negative running -4(n+1) x 10-4<=dn(s)/dlnk<=-2 x 10-4. (The values of r, n(s), dn(s)/dlnk for arbitrary N(e) follow by a simple rescaling from the N(e)=50 values.) A reconstruction program is carried out suggesting quite generally that for n(s) consistent with the WMAP3 and LSS data and r<0.1 the symmetry breaking scale for new inflation is |phi0|~;;10MPl while the field scale at Hubble crossing is lbar phi(c) rbar~;;M(Pl). The family of chaotic models features r>=0.16 (for N(e)=50) and only a restricted subset of chaotic models are consistent with the combined WMAP3 bounds on r, n(s), dn(s)/dlnk with a narrow window in field amplitude around |phi(c)|~;;15M(Pl). We conclude that a measurement of r<0.16 (for N(e)=50) distinctly rules out a large class of chaotic scenarios and favors small field new inflationary models. As a general consequence, new inflation emerges more favored than chaotic inflation.
Date: February 12, 2007
Creator: Ho, Chiu Man; Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H.J.; Ho, C.M. & Sanchez, N.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Techniques for Identifying and Measuring High Order Modes in RF Cavities

Description: We report on a number of techniques which can be used to unravel the higher-order-mode spectrum of an RF cavity. Most of these techniques involve the application of basic symmetry principles and require for their application only that the cavity exhibit some basic symmetry, possibly broken by the presence of couplers, apertures, etc., which permits a classification of these modes in terms of some property characterized by that symmetry, e.g., multipolarity for a cavity which is basically a figure of revolution. Several examples of the application of these techniques are given.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Goldberg, D.A. & Rimmer, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalous U(1) and low-energy physics: the power of D-flatness and holomorphy

Description: In models with an anomalous abelian symmetry broken at a very large scale, we study which requirements to impose on the anomalous charges in order to prevent standard model fields from acquiring large vacuum expectation values. The use of holomorphic invariants to study D-flat directions for the anomalous symmetry, proves to be a very powerful tool. We find that in order to forbid unphysical configurations at that scale, the superpotential must contain many interaction terms, including the usual Yukawa terms. Our analysis suggests that the anomalous charge of the {mu}-term is zero. It is remarkable that, together with the seesaw mechanism, and mass hierarchies, this implies a natural conservation of R-parity.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Binetruy, P.; Irges, N.; Lavignac, S. & Ramond, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Orbital-optimized opposite-spin scaled second order correlation: An economical method to improve the description of open-shell molecules

Description: Coupled cluster methods based on Brueckner orbitals are well-known to resolve the problems of symmetry-breaking and spin-contamination that are often associated with Hartree-Fock orbitals. However their computational cost is large enough to prevent application to large molecules. Here they present a simple approximation where the orbitals are optimized with the mean-field energy plus a correlation energy taken as the opposite-spin component of the second order many-body correlation energy, scaled by an empirically chosen parameter (recommended as 1.2 for general applications). This optimized 2nd order opposite spin (abbreviated as O2) method requires fourth order computation on each orbital iteration. O2 is shown to yield predictions of structure and frequencies for closed shell molecules that are very similar to scaled second order Moller-Plesset methods. However it yields substantial improvements for open shell molecules, where problems with spin-contamination and symmetry breaking are shown to be greatly reduced.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Lochan, Rohini C. & Head-Gordon, Martin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

rSUGRA: Putting Nonuniversal Gaugino Masses on the (W)MAP

Description: In this talk, we investigate the relic density and direct detection prospects of rSUGRA, a simple paradigm for supersymmetry breaking that allows for nonuniversal gaugino masses. We present updated plots reflecting the latest cosmological measurements from WMAP.
Date: June 17, 2003
Creator: Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

qSF wavefront triplication in a transversely isotropicmaterial

Description: Triplication of a wavefront, also classically known as birefringence, can and does occur in transversely isotropic (TI) media. With the growing interest in shear waves, and in particular, converted shear waves, it becomes necessary to study this phenomenon, and the bright spots that accompany it. In a plane that includes the medium's rotational symmetry axis, there may exist a range of angles within which the qSV wave, whose polarization lies in that plane, may propagate at three distinct velocities. The region of the qSV wave curve where this can occur always corresponds to the region of the qSV slowness curve where the closed qSV curve about the origin is concave. When the range of angles is small and the three arrivals are close together, the usual situation, the qSV wave within that small range will be significantly brighter than in other directions. When the range of angles is large, the two cusps of the wave surface, on the borders of the region of triplication will both be bright spots.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Schoenberg, Michael & Daley, Thomas M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Invariance, groups, and non-uniqueness: The discrete case

Description: Lie group methods provide a valuable tool for examininginvariance and non-uniqueness associated with geophysical inverseproblems. The techniques are particularly well suited for the study ofnon-linear inverse problems. Using the infinitesimal generators of thegroup it is possible to move within the null space in an iterativefashion. The key computational step in determining the symmetry groupsassociated with an inverse problem is the singular value decomposition(SVD) of a sparse matrix. I apply the methodology to the eikonal equationand examine the possible solutions associated with a crosswelltomographic experiment. Results from a synthetic test indicate that it ispossible to vary the velocity model significantly and still fit thereference arrival times. the approach is also applied to data fromcorosswell surveys conducted before and after a CO2 injection at the LostHills field in California. The results highlight the fact that a faultcross-cutting the region between the wells may act as a conduit for theflow of water and CO2.
Date: March 24, 2005
Creator: Vasco, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probing the evolution of antiferromagnetism in multiferroics

Description: This study delineates the evolution of magnetic order in epitaxial films of the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 system. Using angle- and temperature-dependent dichroic measurements and spectromicroscopy, we have observed that the antiferromagnetic order in the model multiferroic BiFeO3 evolves systematically as a function of thickness and strain. Lattice-mismatch-induced strain is found to break the easy-plane magnetic symmetry of the bulk and leads to an easy axis of magnetization which can be controlled through strain. Understanding the evolution of magnetic structure and how to manipulate the magnetism in this model multiferroic has significant implications for utilization of such magnetoelectric materials in future applications.
Date: June 9, 2010
Creator: Holcomb, M.; Martin, L.; Scholl, A.; He, Q.; Yu, P.; Yang, C.-H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bounds and self-consistent estimates for elastic constants of granular polycrystals composed of orthorhombics or crystal with higher symmetries

Description: Methods for computing Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and related self-consistent estimates of elastic constants for polycrystals composed of crystals having orthorhombic symmetry have been known for about three decades. However, these methods are underutilized, perhaps because of some perceived difficulties with implementing the necessary computational procedures. Several simplifications of these techniques are introduced, thereby reducing the overall computational burden, as well as the complications inherent in mapping out the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding curves. The self-consistent estimates of the effective elastic constants are very robust, involving a quickly converging iteration procedure. Once these self-consistent values are known, they may then be used to speed up the computations of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds themselves. It is shown furthermore that the resulting orthorhombic polycrystal code can be used as well to compute both bounds and self-consistent estimates for polycrystals of higher-symmetry tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic (but not trigonal) materials. The self-consistent results found this way are shown to be the same as those obtained using the earlier methods, specifically those methods designed specially for each individual symmetry type. But the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds found using the orthorhombic code are either the same or (more typically) tighter than those found previously for these special cases (i.e., tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic). The improvement in the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds is presumably due to the additional degrees of freedom introduced into the available search space.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Berryman, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring Fundamental Principles in the Study of Derived Relational Responding in Pigeons

Description: A persistent challenge for behaviorally-based accounts of learning has been providing an account of learning that occurs in the absence of systematically programmed contingencies of reinforcement. Symmetry, one type of emergent behavior, has been repeatedly demonstrated with humans, but has been considerably more difficult to demonstrate with non-humans. In this study, pigeons were exposed to a go/no-go procedure in which hue stimuli were presented full screen on a touchscreen monitor. Pigeons learned 12 baseline relations in less than 30 days. Traditional measures used to evaluate symmetry indicated that, during tests, three of the four birds responded more to the reverse of relations that were reinforced in training than to the reverse of relations that were not reinforced in training. However, additional analyses of these data suggests that these differences were driven by one of two trial types and that symmetry was only observed for one of the two predicted relations. These data systematically replicate and extend work by Urcuioli and colleagues and point to areas where further research is needed.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Hinnenkamp, Jay Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Duality after supersymmetry breaking

Description: Starting with two supersymmetric dual theories, we imagine adding a chiral perturbation that breaks supersymmetry dynamically. At low energy we then get two theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms that are generated dynamically. With a canonical K{umlt a}hler potential, some of the scalars of the ``magnetic`` theory typically have negative mass-squared, and the vector-like symmetry is broken. Since for large supersymmetry breaking the ``electric`` theory becomes ordinary QCD, the two theories are then incompatible. For small supersymmetry breaking, if duality still holds, the magnetic theory analysis implies specific patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD with small soft masses.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Shadmi, Yael & Cheng, Hsin-Chia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department