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LDRD 102610 final report new processes for innovative microsystems engineering with predictive simulation.

Description: This LDRD Final report describes work that Stephen W. Thomas performed in 2006. The initial problem was to develop a modeling, simulation, and optimization strategy for the design of a high speed microsystem switch. The challenge was to model the right phenomena at the right level of fidelity, and capture the right design parameters. This effort focused on the design context, in contrast to other Sandia efforts focus on high-fidelity assessment. This report contains the initial proposal and the annual progress report. This report also describes exploratory work on micromaching using femtosecond lasers. Steve's time developing a proposal and collaboration on this topic was partly funded by this LDRD.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Mitchell, Scott A. & Thomas, Stephen W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report task order number B239641 between the Regents of the University of California and Institute of Experimental Physics task 2: Switch development.

Description: The LLNL project of the pulsed power system for the National Ignition Facility requires a switch with the following operational parameters: peak current of 400 kA, the transferred charge of 150 C, operating voltage of 25 kV, and reliable operating life of 10,000 shots. A review of high-power switches is given with detailed studies on vacuum switches and semiconductor switches.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Galakhov, I.V.; Gruzin, I.A.; Gudov, S.N.; Kirillov, G.A.; Logutenko, S.L.; Murugov, V.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch.

Description: Two different Sandia MEMS devices have been tested in a high-g environment to determine their performance and survivability. The first test was performed using a drop-table to produce a peak acceleration load of 1792 g's over a period of 1.5 ms. For the second test the MEMS devices were assembled in a gun-fired penetrator and shot into a cement target at the Army Waterways Experiment Station in Vicksburg Mississippi. This test resulted in a peak acceleration of 7191 g's for a duration of 5.5 ms. The MEMS devices were instrumented using the MEMS Diagnostic Extraction System (MDES), which is capable of driving the devices and recording the device output data during the high-g event, providing in-flight data to assess the device performance. A total of six devices were monitored during the experiments, four mechanical non-volatile memory devices (MNVM) and two Silicon Reentry Switches (SiRES). All six devices functioned properly before, during, and after each high-g test without a single failure. This is the first known test under flight conditions of an active, powered MEMS device at Sandia.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Baker, Michael Sean & Pohl, Kenneth Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-speed, sub-pull-in voltage MEMS switching.

Description: We have proposed and demonstrated MEMS switching devices that take advantage of the dynamic behavior of the MEMS devices to provide lower voltage actuation and higher switching speeds. We have explored the theory behind these switching techniques and have demonstrated these techniques in a range of devices including MEMS micromirror devices and in-plane parallel plate MEMS switches. In both devices we have demonstrated switching speeds under one microsecond which has essentially been a firm limit in MEMS switching. We also developed low-loss silicon waveguide technology and the ability to incorporate high-permittivity dielectric materials with MEMS. The successful development of these technologies have generated a number of new projects and have increased both the MEMS switching and optics capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Spahn, Olga Blum; Brewer, Steven; Olsson, Roy H.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Luck, David L.; Watts, Michael R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fault tolerant issues in the BTeV trigger

Description: The BTeV trigger performs sophisticated computations using large ensembles of FPGAs, DSPs, and conventional microprocessors. This system will have between 5,000 and 10,000 computing elements and many networks and data switches. While much attention has been devoted to developing efficient algorithms, the need for fault-tolerant, fault-adaptive, and flexible techniques and software to manage this huge computing platform has been identified as one of the most challenging aspects of this project. They describe the problem and offer an approach to solving it based on a distributed, hierarchical fault management system.
Date: December 3, 2002
Creator: al., Jeffrey A. Appel et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Active RF Pulse Compression using Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switches

Description: In this paper, we will present our recent results on the research of the ultra-fast high power RF switches based on silicon. We have developed a switch module at X-band which can use a silicon window as the switch. The switching is realized by generation of carriers in the bulk silicon. The carriers can be generated electrically or/and optically. The electrically controlled switches use PIN diodes to inject carrier. We have built the PIN diode switches at X-band, with <300ns switching time. The optically controlled switches use powerful lasers to excite carriers. By combining the laser excitation and electrical carrier generation, significant reduction in the required power of both the laser and the electrical driver is expected. High power test is under going.
Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Guo, J. & Tantawi, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low power ultra-fast current transient measuring device.

Description: We have studied the feasibility of an innovative device to sample 1ns low-power single current transients with a time resolution better than 10 ps. The new concept explored here is to close photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) with a Laser for a period of 10 ps. The PCSSs are in a series along a Transmission Line (TL). The transient propagates along the TL allowing one to carry out a spatially resolved sampling of charge at a fixed time instead of the usual timesampling of the current. The fabrication of such a digitizer was proven to be feasible but very difficult.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Doyle, Barney Lee; Rossi, Paolo; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Foltynowicz, Robert J. & Zutavern, Fred J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUBCONTRACT REPORT: DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicles

Description: The goal of this project is to develop and fabricate a 5kW dc-dc converter with a baseline 14V output capability for fuel cell and hybrid vehicles. The major objectives for this dc-dc converter technology are to meet: Higher efficiency (92%); High coolant temperature,e capability (105 C); High reliability (15 Years/150,000miles); Smaller volume (5L); Lower weight (6kg); and Lower cost ($75/kW). The key technical challenge for these converters is the 105 C coolant temperatures. The power switches and magnetics must be designed to sustain these operating temperatures reliably, without a large cost/mass/volume penalty.
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Marlino, Laura D & Zhu, Lizhi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The integration of advanced photonics and MEMS : LDRD 26519 final report.

Description: In this work we have demonstrated the fabrication of two different classes of devices which demonstrate the integration of simple MEMS structures with photonics structures. In the first class of device a suspended, movable Si waveguide was designed and fabricated. This waveguide was designed to be able to be actuated so that it could be brought into close proximity to a ring resonator or similar structure. In the course of this work we also designed a technique to improve the input coupling to the waveguide. While these structures were successfully fabricated, post fabrication and testing involved a significant amount of manipulation of the devices and due to their relatively flimsy nature our structures could not readily survive this extra handling. As a result we redesigned our devices so that instead of moving the waveguides themselves we moved a much smaller optical element into close proximity to the waveguides. Using this approach it was also possible to fabricate a much larger array of actively switched photonic devices: switches, ring resonators, couplers (which act as switches or splitters) and attenuators. We successfully fabricated all these structures and were able to successfully demonstrate splitters, switches and attenuators. The quality of the SiN waveguides fabricated in this work were found to be qualitatively compatible to those made using semiconductor materials.
Date: December 1, 2003
Creator: Fleming, James Grant & Lin, Shawn-Yu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments on planar plasma flow switches at Los Alamos

Description: The authors have performed a series of experiments on the Colt facility at Los Alamos to study the performance of plasma flow switches and to understand the important physics issues which affect that performance. These experiments were done in planar geometry on a small machine to allow for better diagnostic access and a higher repetition rate. The Colt facility is a capacitor bank which stores 300 kJ at maximum charge and produced a peak current of 1.1 MA in 2.0 microseconds for these experiments. The diagnostics used for these experiments included an array of b-dot probes, visible framing pictures, visible spectroscopy, and laser interferometry. Characteristics of the switch are determined from spatial and temporal profiles of the magnetic field and the spatial profile and temperature of the switch plasma. Here the authors present results from experiments for a variety of switch conditions.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Benage, J. F., Jr.; Wysocki, F. J.; Bowers, R. & Oona, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Thyristors for Repetitive Narrow Pulse, High Power Switching

Description: Inverter type thyristors were switched repetitively to failure with 1 {micro}s pulses at repetition rates of 10, 50 and 100 pps and at peak currents up to 12 kA. Millions of pulses could be obtained before failure if the peak current were held at around 6 kA.
Date: January 13, 2000
Creator: BAYNE,S.B.; PORTNOY,W.M. & ROHWEIN,G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MODELING A RESISTIVE WALL MODE CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE BANG-BANG TYPE

Description: OAK-B135 Feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode is usually accomplished by using linear amplifiers. In this paper a study is made of a possibility of controlling resistive wall modes using switches instead of linear amplifiers, i.e., using bang-bang control. The motivation is that bang-bang control systems may be cheaper than conventional feedback systems. A distinct disadvantage of the bang-bang system is complexity due to its inherent nonlinearity. Further studies, particularly of engineering issues, are needed to determine the attractiveness of a bang-bang system.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: JENSEN,TH
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Si-based RF MEMS components.

Description: Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D. & Dyck, Christopher William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

Description: Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.
Date: December 18, 2013
Creator: Hirshfield, Jay L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High speed switching in gases

Description: A fast, efficient and reliable switch is the basic ingredient of a pulse power accelerator. Two switches have been proposed so far: the solid state switch, and the vacuum photodiode switch. The solid state version has been tested to some extent, albeit at low (few kilovolts) level, with risetime around 10 ps in the radial line transformer configuration. The vacuum photodiode is being investigated by Fisher and Rao at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Common to both switches is the need of a short laser pulse; near infrared for the solid state switch, and ultraviolet for the vacuum photodiode switch. Another common feature is the poor energy gain of these switches: the gain being the ratio between the electrical energy switched and the laser energy needed to drive the switch. For the solid state switch, calculations and experimental data show that the energy gain cannot exceed a value between 5 and 10. For the vacuum photodiode, the situation is somewhat similar, unless very high quantum efficiency, rugged photocathodes can be found. A closing switch also can be used to produce short pulses of rf at frequencies related to its closing time, using a well-known device called the frozen wave generator. For a risetime of the order of 30 ps, one could produce several Gigawatts of rf at Xband at very low cost. 12 refs., 12 figs.
Date: February 1, 1989
Creator: Cassell, R.E. & Villa, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

6H-SiC Photoconductive Switches Triggered at Below Bandgap Wavelengths

Description: Semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive material for application as high voltage, photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) due to its large bandgap, high critical electric field strength, high electron saturation velocity and high thermal conductivity. The critical field strength of 300 MV/m for 6H-SiC makes it particularly attractive for compact, high voltage, fast switching applications. To realize the benefits of the high bulk electric field strength of SiC and diffuse switch current, carriers must be excited throughout the bulk of the photo switch. Photoconducting switches with opposing electrodes were fabricated on ''a'' plane, vanadium compensated, semiinsulating, 6H-SiC substrates. The PCSS devices were switched by optically exciting deep extrinsic levels lying within the 6H-SiC bandgap. The SiC photoswitches were tested up to a bias voltage of 11000 V with a corresponding peak current of 150 A. The 6H-SiC substrates withstood average electric fields up to 27 MV/m. Minimum PCCS dynamic resistances of 2 and 10 {Omega} were obtained with 13 mJ optical pulses at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, respectively.
Date: February 13, 2007
Creator: Sullivan, J S & Stanley, J R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser triggering of water switches in terrawatt-class pulse power accelerators.

Description: Focused Beams from high-power lasers have been used to command trigger gas switches in pulse power accelerators for more than two decades. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was aimed at determining whether high power lasers could also command trigger water switches on high-power accelerators. In initial work, we determined that focused light from three harmonics of a small pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm could be used to form breakdown arcs in water, with the lowest breakdown thresholds of 110 J/cm{sup 2} or 14 GW/cm{sup 2} at 532 nm in the green. In laboratory-scale laser triggering experiments with a 170-kV pulse-charged water switch with a 3-mm anode-cathode gap, we demonstrated that {approx}90 mJ of green laser energy could trigger the gap with a 1-{sigma} jitter of less than 2ns, a factor of 10 improvement over the jitter of the switch in its self breaking mode. In the laboratory-scale experiments we developed optical techniques utilizing polarization rotation of a probe laser beam to measure current in switch channels and electric field enhancements near streamer heads. In the final year of the project, we constructed a pulse-power facility to allow us to test laser triggering of water switches from 0.6- MV to 2.0 MV. Triggering experiments on this facility using an axicon lens for focusing the laser and a switch with a 740 kV self-break voltage produced consistent laser triggering with a {+-} 16-ns 1-{sigma} jitter, a significant improvement over the {+-} 24-ns jitter in the self-breaking mode.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Johnson, David Lee (Titan Pulse Sciences, San Leandro, CA); Wilkins, Frank (Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Van De Valde, David (EG&G Technical Services, Albuquerque, NM); Sarkisov, Gennady Sergeevich (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Zameroski, Nathan D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department