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A Probabilistic Approach to Classifying Supernovae UsingPhotometric Information

Description: This paper presents a novel method for determining the probability that a supernova candidate belongs to a known supernova type (such as Ia, Ibc, IIL, etc.), using its photometric information alone. It is validated with Monte Carlo, and both space- and ground-based data. We examine the application of the method to well-sampled as well as poorly sampled supernova light curves and investigate to what extent the best currently available supernova models can be used for typing supernova candidates. Central to the method is the assumption that a supernova candidate belongs to a group of objects that can be modeled; we therefore discuss possible ways of removing anomalous or less well understood events from the sample. This method is particularly advantageous for analyses where the purity of the supernova sample is of the essence, or for those where it is important to know the number of the supernova candidates of a certain type (e.g., in supernova rate studies).
Date: December 14, 2006
Creator: Kuznetsova, Natalia V. & Connolly, Brian M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Importance of Supernovae at z<0.1 for Probing Dark Energy

Description: Supernova experiments to characterize dark energy require a well designed low redshift program; we consider this for both ongoing/near term (e.g. Supernova Legacy Survey) and comprehensive future (e.g., SNAP) experiments. The derived criteria are: a supernova sample centered near z=0.05 comprising 150-500 (in the former case) and 300-900 (in the latter case) well measured supernovae. Low redshift Type Ia supernovae play two important roles for cosmological use of the supernova distance-redshift relation: as an anchor for the Hubble diagram and as an indicator of possible systematics. An innate degeneracy in cosmological distances implies that 300 nearby supernovae nearly saturate their cosmological leverage for the first use, and their optimum central redshift is z=0.05. This conclusion is strengthened upon including velocity flow and magnitude offset systematics. Limiting cosmological parameter bias due to supernova population drift (evolution) systematics plausibly increases the requirement for the second use to less than about 900 supernovae.
Date: February 20, 2007
Creator: Miller, Jeanne M & Linder, E.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Generalized {ital K} Correction for Type Ia Supernovae: Comparing {ital R}-band Photometry Beyond {ital z=9.2} with B,V, and {ital R}-band Nearby Photometry

Description: Photometric measurements show that, as a group, nearby Type Ia supernovae follow similar light curves and reach similar peak magnitudes (Branch & Tammann 1992). Thus, these supernovae may serve as standard candles or calibrated candles at cosmological distances. Magnitudes of local and distant supernovae, both in the same filter band, are compared using a K correction to account for the different spectral regions incident on that filter. A generalized approach compares magnitudes in different bands for the nearby and distant supernovae, bands that are selected to give sensitivity in corresponding regions of the unredshifted and redshifted spectra. Thus, R magnitudes for supernovae at z {approx} 0.5 are compared with B magnitudes of local supernovae. We compute these generalized K corrections over a range of redshifts and bandpass pairs and discuss their advantages over the traditional single-band K correction. In particular, errors near maximum light can be kept below 0.05 mag out to at least z = 0.6, whereas the traditional K correction is less accurate and can be difficult to determine beyond z > 0.2.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Kim, Alex; Goodbar, Ariel & Perlmutter, Saul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing Zero-point Systematics in Dark Energy Supernova Experiments

Description: We study the effect of filter zero-point uncertainties on future supernova dark energy missions. Fitting for calibration parameters using simultaneous analysis of all Type Ia supernova standard candles achieves a significant improvement over more traditional fit methods. This conclusion is robust under diverse experimental configurations (number of observed supernovae, maximum survey redshift, inclusion of additional systematics). This approach to supernova fitting considerably eases otherwise stringent mission cali- bration requirements. As an example we simulate a space-based mission based on the proposed JDEM satellite; however the method and conclusions are general and valid for any future supernova dark energy mission, ground or space-based.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Faccioli, Lorenzo; Kim, Alex G; Miquel, Ramon; Bernstein, Gary; Bonissent, Alain; Brown, Matthew et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae have differentenvironments

Description: When massive stars exhaust their fuel they collapse andoften produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known ascore-collapse supernovae. On occasion, this stellar collapse also powersan even more brilliant relativistic explosion known as a long-durationgamma-ray burst. One would then expect that long gamma-ray bursts andcore-collapse supernovae should be found in similar galacticenvironments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. We find thatthe long gamma-ray bursts are far more concentrated on the very brightestregions of their host galaxies than are the core-collapse supernovae.Furthermore, the host galaxies of the long gamma-ray bursts aresignificantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of thecore-collapse supernovae. Together theseresults suggest thatlong-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the most massive starsand may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Ourresults directly imply that long gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare ingalaxies such as our own MilkyWay.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Fruchter, A.S.; Levan, A.J.; Strolger, L.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Thorsett, S.E.; Bersier, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

K-corrections and spectral templates of Type Ia supernovae

Description: With the advent of large dedicated Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) surveys, K-corrections of SNe Ia and their uncertainties have become especially important in the determination of cosmological parameters. While K-corrections are largely driven by SN Ia broadband colors, it is shown here that the diversity in spectral features of SNe Ia can also be important. For an individual observation, the statistical errors from the inhomogeneity in spectral features range from 0.01 (where the observed and rest-frame filters are aligned) to 0.04 (where the observed and rest-frame filters are misaligned). To minimize the systematic errors caused by an assumed SN Ia spectral energy distribution (SED), we outline a prescription for deriving a mean spectral template time series that incorporates a large and heterogeneous sample of observed spectra. We then remove the effects of broadband colors and measure the remaining uncertainties in the K-corrections associated with the diversity in spectral features. Finally, we present a template spectroscopic sequence near maximum light for further improvement on the K-correction estimate. A library of ~;;600 observed spectra of ~;;100 SNe Ia from heterogeneous sources is used for the analysis.
Date: March 20, 2007
Creator: Nugent, Peter E.; Hsiao, E.Y.; Conley, A.; Howell, D.A.; Sullivan, M.; Pritchet, C.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

Description: We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.
Date: October 12, 2006
Creator: Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey,S.; Baltay, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Type Ia Supernova Intrinsic Magnitude Dispersion and the Fitting of Cosmological Parameters

Description: I present an analysis for fitting cosmological parameters from a Hubble Diagram of a standard candle with unknown intrinsic magnitude dispersion. The dispersion is determined from the data themselves, simultaneously with the cosmological parameters. This contrasts with the strategies used to date. The advantages of the presented analysis are that it is done in a single fit (it is not iterative), it provides a statistically founded and unbiased estimate of the intrinsic dispersion, and its cosmological-parameter uncertainties account for the intrinsic dispersion uncertainty. Applied to Type Ia supernovae, my strategy provides a statistical measure to test for sub-types and assess the significance of any magnitude corrections applied to the calibrated candle. Parameter bias and differences between likelihood distributions produced by the presented and currently-used fitters are negligibly small for existing and projected supernova data sets.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Kim, Alex G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectra of High-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae and a Comparison withtheir Low-Redshift Counterparts

Description: We present spectra for 14 high-redshift (0.17 < z < 0.83) supernovae, which were discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project as part of a campaign to measure cosmological parameters. The spectra are used to determine the redshift and classify the supernova type, essential information if the supernovae are to be used for cosmological studies. Redshifts were derived either from the spectrum of the host galaxy or from the spectrum of the supernova itself. We present evidence that these supernovae are of Type Ia by matching to spectra of nearby supernovae. We find that the dates of the spectra relative to maximum light determined from this fitting process are consistent with the dates determined from the photometric light curves, and moreover the spectral time-sequence for SNe Type Ia at low and high redshift is indistinguishable. We also show that the expansion velocities measured from blueshifted Ca H&K are consistent with those measured for low-redshift Type Ia supernovae. From these first-level quantitative comparisons we find no evidence for evolution in SNIa properties between these low- and high-redshift samples. Thus even though our samples may not be complete, we conclude that there is a population of SNe Ia at high redshift whose spectral properties match those at low redshift.
Date: July 20, 2005
Creator: Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Burns,M.S.; Conley, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

Description: We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.
Date: March 24, 2008
Creator: Supernova Cosmology Project
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The progenitors of subluminous type Ia supernovae

Description: We find that spectroscopically peculiar subluminous SNe Ia come from an old population. Of the thirteen subluminous SNe Ia known, nine are found in E/S0 galaxies, and the remainder are found in early-type spirals. The probability that this is a chance occurrence is only 0.1%. The finding that subluminous SNe Ia are associated with an older stellar population indicates that for a sufficiently large lookback time (already accessible in current high redshift searches) they will not be found. Due to a scarcity in old populations, hydrogen and helium main sequence stars and He red giant stars that undergo Roche lobe overflow are unlikely to be the progenitors of subluminous SNe Ia. Earlier findings that overluminous SNe Ia (DELTA m{sub 15} (B) < 0.94) come from a young progenitor population are confirmed. The fact that subluminous SNe Ia and overluminous SNe Ia come from different progenitor populations and also have different properties is a prediction of the CO white dwarf merger progenitor scenario.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Howell, D. Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The nearby supernova factory

Description: The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 &lt; z &lt; 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to {approx}12 SNe/month in 2003.
Date: January 23, 2004
Creator: Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Four Papers by the Supernova Cosmology Project

Description: Our search for high-redshift Type Ia supernovae discovered, in its first years, a sample of seven supernovae. Using a 'batch' search strategy, almost all were discovered before maximum light and were observed over the peak of their light curves. The spectra and light curves indicate that almost all were Type Ia supernovae at redshifts z = 0.35 - 0.5. These high-redshift supernovae can provide a distance indicator and 'standard clock' to study the cosmological parameters q{sub 0}, {Lambda}, {Omega}{sub 0}, and H{sub 0}. This presentation and the following presentations of Kim et al. (1996), Goldhaber et al. (1996), and Pain et al. (1996) will discuss observation strategies and rates, analysis and calibration issues, the sources of measurement uncertainty, and the cosmological implications, including bounds on q{sub 0}, of these first high-redshift supernovae from our ongoing search.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Perlmutter, S. & al., et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cosmic Closure: Relating the Ultimate Fate of Massive Stars and the Ultimate Fate of the Universe

Description: We give a brief overview of the status of core collapse supernova modeling, particularly as it pertains to predictions of neutrino signatures for the next galactic or near extragalactic supernova. We also consider the implications of neutrino mass for both the supernova mechanism and neutrino signature predictions.
Date: September 7, 1998
Creator: Bruenn, S.W. & Mezzacappa, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of cosmological time dilation using type Ia supernovae as clocks

Description: This work is based on the first results from a systematic search for high redshift Type Ia supernovae. Using filters in the R-band we discovered seven such SNe, with redshift z = 0.3-0.5, before or at maximum light. Type Ia SNe are known to be a homogeneous group of SNe, to first order, with very similar light curves, spectra and peak luminosities. In this talk we report that the light curves we observe are all broadened (time dilated) as expected from the expanding universe hypothesis. Small variations from the expected 1 + z broadening of the light curve widths can be attributed to a width-brightness correlation that has been observed for nearby SNe (z < 0.1). We show in this talk the first clear observation of the cosmological time dilation for macroscopic objects.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Goldhaber, G., FNAL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scheduled discoveries of 7+ high-Redshift supernovae: First cosmology results and bounds on q{sub 0}

Description: Our search for high-redshift Type Ia supernovae discovered, in its first years, a sample of seven supernovae. Using a ``batch`` search strategy, almost all were discovered before maximum light and were observed over the peak of their light curves. The spectra and light curves indicate that almost all were Type Ia supernovae at redshifts z = 0.35 - 0.5. These high-redshift supernovae can provide a distance indicator and ``standard clock`` to study the cosmological parameters q{sub 0} , {Lambda}, {Omega}{sub 0} , and H{sub 0}. This presentation and the following presentations of Kim et al. (1996), Goldhaber et al. (1996), and Pain et al. (1996) will discuss observation strategies and rates, analysis and calibration issues, the sources of measurement uncertainty, and the cosmological implications, including bounds on q{sub 0} , of these first high-redshift supernovae from our ongoing search.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Perlmutter, S., FNAL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

97-ERD-022 final report: Supernova on Nova

Description: This is the final year of the 3-year LDRD-ERD involving Lasers, D&NT, Physics, and ILSA to develope astrophysics experiments on intense lasers such as the Nova and Gekko lasers. During this 3 year period, we have developed a highly successful experiment probing the hydrodynamics of the explosion phase of core-collapse supernovae, which occurs during the first ~3 hours after core collapse. This was in collaboration with the Univ. of Arizona and CEA/Saclay. We also developed a very successful experiment to probe the hydrodynamics of the later time, young remnant phase, meaning the first ~10-20 years after core collapse. This was in collaboration with the Univ. of Michigan and Univ. of Colorado. Finally, we developed during the final year an exquisite experiment to probe the dynamics of radiative, high Mach number astrophysical jets, in collaboration with the Univ. of Maryland and Osaka Univ. Each experiment has received very high visibility, with a multitude of publications, both in the technical journals (most importantly, the astrophysical journals) and in the popular press. The attached publication list shows 25 papers published or submitted to technical journals, 5 articles appearing in the popular press (including a cover story of Sky and Telescope), and 65 conference presentations, ~10 of which were invited talks. The most important papers to come out of this effort was a comprehensive theory paper for Ap. J. establishing the rigorous scaling between laboratory laser experiments and the astrophysical subjects of interest: supernovae, supernova remnants, and jets; and a review article for Science covering this emerging subfield of Astrophysics on Intense Lasers. Since there are so many publications that have resulted from this LDRD project, only these two most important papers are attached. The rest are properly referenced, and can be found online or in the library. In anticipation of the closing of ...
Date: March 11, 1999
Creator: Remington, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systematic Effects in Type-1a Supernovae Surveys from Host Galaxy Spectra

Description: The physical relation between the properties of Type Ia supernovae and their host galaxies is investigated. Such supernovae are used to constrain the properties of dark energy, making it crucial to understand their physical properties and to check for systematic effects relating to the stellar populations of the progenitor stars from which these supernovae arose. This grant found strong evidence for two distinct populations of supernovae, and correlations between the progenitor stellar populations and the nature of the supernova light curves.
Date: August 23, 2013
Creator: Strauss, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Unusual Type Ia SN1999ac

Description: The authors present optical spectra of the peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 1999ac. The data extend from -15 to +42 days with respect to B-band maximum and reveal an event that is unusual in several respects. prior to B-band maximum, the spectra resemble those of SN 1999aa, a slowly declining event, but possess stronger Si II and Ca II signatures (more characteristic of a spectroscopically normal SN). Spectra after B-band maximum appear more normal. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from Si II are among the slowest ever observed, though SN 1999ac is not particularly dim. The analysis of the parameters v{sub 10}(Si II), R(Si II), v, and {Delta}m{sub 15} further underlines the unique characteristics of SN 1999ac. They find convincing evidence of C II {lambda}6580 in the day -15 spectrum with ejection velocity v &gt; 16,000 km s{sup -1}, but this signature disappears by day -9. This rapid evolution at early times highlights the importance of extremely early-time spectroscopy.
Date: July 12, 2005
Creator: Garavini, G.; Aldering, G.; Amadon, A.; Amanullah, R.; Astier,P.; Balland, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-layered Spectral Formation in SNe Ia Around Maximum Light

Description: We use the radiative transfer code \phx\ to study the line formation of the wavelength region 5000-7000 Angstrom. This is the region where the SNe Ia defining Si II feature occurs. This region is important since the ratio of the two nearby silicon lines has been shown to correlate with the absolute blue magnitude. We use a grid of LTE synthetic spectral models to investigate the formation of line features in the spectra of SNe Ia. By isolating the main contributors to the spectral formation we show that the ions that drive the spectral ratio are FeIII, FeII, SiII and SII. While the first two strongly dominate the flux transfer, the latter two form in the same physical region inside of the supernova. We also show that the naive blackbody that one would derive from a fit to the observed spectrum is far different than the true underlying continuum.
Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Bongard, Sebastien; Baron, E.; Smadja, G.; Branch, David & Hauschildt, Peter H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Omega_m, Omega_Lambda from a blind analysis of TypeIa supernovae with CMAGIC: Using color information to verify theacceleration of the Universe

Description: We present measurements of {Omega}{sub m} and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} from a blind analysis of 21 high redshift supernovae using a new technique (CMAGIC) for fitting the multicolor lightcurves of Type Ia supernovae, first introduced in Wang et al. (2003). CMAGIC takes advantage of the remarkably simple behavior of Type Ia supernovae on color-magnitude diagrams, and has several advantages over current techniques based on maximum magnitudes. Among these are a reduced sensitivity to host galaxy dust extinction, a shallower luminosity-width relation, and the relative simplicity of the fitting procedure. This allows us to provide a cross check of previous supernova cosmology results, despite the fact that current data sets were not observed in a manner optimized for CMAGIC. We describe the details of our novel blindness procedure, which is designed to prevent experimenter bias. The data are broadly consistent with the picture of an accelerating Universe, and agree with a at Universe within 1.7{sigma}, including systematics. We also compare the CMAGIC results directly with those of a maximum magnitude fit to the same SNe, finding that CMAGIC favors more acceleration at the 1.6{sigma} level, including systematics and the correlation between the two measurements. A fit for w assuming a at Universe yields a value which is consistent with a cosmological constant within 1.2{sigma}.
Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Conley, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Wang, L.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Commins, E.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low Mach Number Modeling of Type Ia Supernovae

Description: We introduce a low Mach number equation set for the large-scale numerical simulation of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs experiencing a thermonuclear deflagration. Since most of the interesting physics in a Type Ia supernova transpires at Mach numbers from 0.01 to 0.1, such an approach enables both a considerable increase in accuracy and savings in computer time compared with frequently used compressible codes. Our equation set is derived from the fully compressible equations using low Mach number asymptotics, but without any restriction on the size of perturbations in density or temperature. Comparisons with simulations that use the fully compressible equations validate the low Mach number model in regimes where both are applicable. Comparisons to simulations based on the more traditional an elastic approximation also demonstrate the agreement of these models in the regime for which the anelastic approximation is valid. For low Mach number flows with potentially finite amplitude variations in density and temperature, the low Mach number model overcomes the limitations of each of the more traditional models and can serve as the basis for an accurate and efficient simulation tool.
Date: August 5, 2005
Creator: Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Rendleman, Charles A. & Zingale,Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department