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Description: We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.
Date: June 10, 2009
Creator: Butter, Daniel & Gaillard, Mary K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Quadratic Divergences in Supergravity, Vacuum Energy and theSupersymmetric Flavor Problem

Description: We examine the phenomenological consequences ofquadratically divergent contributions to the scalar potential insupergravity effective Lagrangians. We focus specifically on the effectof these corrections on the vacuum configurationof scalar fields insoftly-broken supersymmetric theory is and the role these correctionsplay in generating non-diagonal soft scalar masses. Both effects can onlybe properly studied when the divergences are regulated in a manifestlysupersymmetric manner -- something which has ths far been neglected inpast treatments. We show how a supersymmetric regularization can impactpast conclusions about both types of phenomena and discuss what types ofhigh-energy theories are likely to be safe from unwanted flavor-changingneutral current interactions in the context of supergravity theoriesderived from heterotic string compactifications.
Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Gaillard, Mary K. & Nelson, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modular invariant gaugino condensation in the presence of ananomalous U(1)*

Description: Starting from the previously constructed effective supergravity theory below the scale of U(1) breaking in orbifold compactifications of the weakly coupled heterotic string, we study the effective theory below the scale of supersymmetry breaking by gaugino and matter condensation in a hidden sector. Questions we address include vacuum stability and the masses of the various moduli fields, including those associated with flat directions at the U(1) breaking scale, and of their fermionic superpartners. The issue of soft supersymmetry-breaking masses in the observable sector presents a particularly serious challenge for this class of models.
Date: December 10, 2003
Creator: Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel & Mints, Aleksey L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supergravity Analysis of Hybrid Inflation Model from D3--D7 System

Description: The slow-roll inflation is a beautiful paradigm, yet the inflaton potential can hardly be sufficiently flat when unknown gravitational effects are taken into account. However, the hybrid inflation models constructed in D = 4 N = 1 supergravity can be consistent with N = 2 supersymmetry, and can be naturally embedded into string theory. This article discusses the gravitational effects carefully in the string model, using D = 4 supergravity description. We adopt the D3--D7 system of Type IIB string theory compactified on K3 x T^2/Z_2 orientifold for definiteness. It turns out that the slow-roll parameter can be sufficiently small despite the non-minimal Kahler potential of the model. The conditions for this to happen are clarified in terms of string vacua. We also find that the geometry obtained by blowing up singularity, which is necessary for the positive vacuum energy, is stabilized by introducing certain 3-form fluxes.
Date: November 20, 2003
Creator: Koyama, Fumikazu; Tachikawa, Yuji & Watari, Taizan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for squarks and gluinos with the D-Zero Detector

Description: We report on a search for squarks and gluinos in p{anti p} collisions at {radical} s= 1.8 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab. Data corresponding to 79.2 {+-} 4.2 pb{sup -1} were examined for events with large missing transverse energy, three or more jets, and the absence of isolated leptons. No events were observed significantly in excess of Standard Model background predictions, and we place limits on the Minimal Supergravity parameters M{sub 0} and M{sub 1/2}.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Abbott, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models

Description: We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.
Date: March 19, 2007
Creator: Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K. & Nelson, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Duality, Entropy and ADM Mass in Supergravity

Description: We consider the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in four dimensional extended ungauged supergravity and its electric-magnetic duality property. Symmetries of both"large" and"small" extremal black holes are considered, as well as the ADM mass formula for N=4 and N=8 supergravity, preserving different fraction of supersymmetry. The interplay between BPS conditions and duality properties is an important aspect of this investigation.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio & Zumino, Bruno
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectra in standard-like Z_3 orbifold models

Description: General features of the spectra of matter states in all 175 models found in a previous work by the author are discussed. Only twenty patterns of representations are found to occur. Accomodation of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) spectrum is addressed. States beyond those contained in the MSSM and nonstandard hypercharge normalization are shown to be generic, though some models do allow for the usual hypercharge normalization found in SU(5) embeddings of the Standard Model gauge group. The minimum value of the hypercharge normalization consistent with accommodation of the MSSM is determined for each model. In some cases, the normalization can be smaller than that corresponding to an SU(5) embedding of the Standard Model gauge group, similar to what has been found in free fermionic models. Bizarre hypercharges typically occur for exotic states, allowing for matter which does not occur in the decomposition of SU(5) representations--a result which has been noted many times before in four-dimensiona lstring models. Only one of the twenty patterns of representations, comprising seven of the 175 models, is found to be without an anomalous U(1). The sizes of nonvanishing vacuum expectation values induced by the anomalous U(1) are studied. It is found that large radius moduli stabilization may lead to the breakdown of sigma-model perturbativity. Various quantities of interest in effective supergravity model building are tabulated for the set of 175 models. In particular, it is found that string moduli masses appear to be generically quite near the gravitino mass. String scale gauge coupling unification is shown to be possible, albeit contrived, in an example model. The intermediate scales of exotic particles are estimated and the degree of fine-tuning is studied.
Date: August 31, 2001
Creator: Giedt, Joel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Target space supersymmetric sigma model techniques

Description: We briefly review the covariant formulation of the Green-Schwarz superstring by Berkovits, and describe how a detailed tree-level and one-loop analysis of this model leads, for the first time, to a derivation of the low-energy effective action of the heterotic superstring while keeping target-space supersymmetry manifest. The resulting low-energy theory is old-minimal supergravity coupled to tensor multiplet. The dilaton is part of the compensator multiplet.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: de Boer, Jan & Skenderis, Kostas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the solution to the Polonyi problem with no-scale type supergravity

Description: We study the solution to the Polonyi problem in the framework of no-scale type supergravity. In such a model, Polonyi field can weigh as O(10TeV) and decay just before the big-bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that in spite of a large entropy production by the decay of the Polonyi field, one can naturally explain the present value of the baryon-to-entropy ratio, {eta}{sub B}/S {approximately} (10{sup {minus}10} {minus} 10{sup {minus}11}) if the Affleck-Dine mechanism for baryogenesis works. It is pointed out, however, that there is another cosmological problem related to the abundance of the lightest superparticles produced by the decay of the Polonyi field.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Moroi, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supergravity grand unification, proton decay and cosmological constraints

Description: Properties and experimental predictions of a broad class of supergravity grand unified models possessing an SU(5)-type proton decay and R parity are described. Models of this type can be described in terms of four parameters at the Gut scale in addition to those of the Standard Model i.e. m{sub 0} (universal scalar mass), m{sub 1/2} (universal gaugino mass), A{sub 0} (cubic soft breaking parameter) and tan {beta} = <H{sub 2}>/<H{sub 1}>. Thus the 32 SUSY masses can be expressed in terms of m{sub 0}, M{sub 1/2}, A{sub 0} tan {beta} and the as yet unknown t-quark mass M{sub t}. Gut thresholds are examined and a simple model leads to grand unification consistent with p-decay data when 0.114 < {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub z}) < 0.135, in agreement with current values of {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub Z}). Proton decay is examined for the superheavy Higgs triplet mass H{sub H3} < 10M{sub G}(M{sub G} {approx_equal} 1.5 {times} 10{sup 16} GeV) and squarks and gluinos lighter than 1 TeV. Throughout most of the parameter space chargino-neutralino scaling relations are predicted to hold: 2m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 1} {congruent} m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} {congruent} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 2}, m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} {approx_equal} (1/4)m{sub {anti g}} (for {mu} > 0) or m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} {approx_equal} (1/3)m{sub {anti g}} (for {mu} < 0), while m{sub {anti W}}{sub 2} {congruent} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 3} {congruent} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 4} {much_gt} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 1}. Future proton decay experiments combined with LEP2 lead to further predictions, e.g. for the entire parameter space either proton decay should be seen at these or the {anti W}{sub 1} seen at LEP2. Relic density constraints on the {anti Z}{sub 1} further constrain the parameter space e.g. so that m{sub t} < 165 GeV, M{sub h} < 105 GeV, m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} < 100 GeV ...
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Arnowitt, R. & Nath, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gaugino mass without singlets

Description: In models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector, the gaugino masses in the observable sector have been believed to be extremely suppressed (below 1 keV), unless there is a gauge singlet in the hidden sector with specific couplings to the observable sector gauge multiplets. We point out that there is a pure supergravity contribution to gaugino masses at the quantum level arising from the superconformal anomaly. Our results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory and are related to the ''exact'' beta functions for soft terms. There is also an anomaly contribution to the A terms proportional to the beta function of the corresponding Yukawa coupling. The gaugino masses are proportional to the corresponding gauge beta functions, and so do not satisfy the usual GUT relations.
Date: December 21, 1998
Creator: Giudice, Gian F.; Luty, Markus A.; Murayama, Hitoshi & Rattazzi, Riccardo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-universal SUSY breaking, hierarchy and squark degeneracty

Description: I discuss non-trivial effects in the soft SUSY breaking terms which appear when one integrates out heavy fields. The effects exist only when the SUSY breaking terms are non-universal. They may spoil (1) the hierarchy between the weak and high-energy scales, or (2) degeneracy among the squark masses even in the presense of a horizontal symmetry. I argue, in the end, that such new effects may be useful in probing physics at high-energy scales from TeV-scale experiments.
Date: March 15, 1995
Creator: Murayama, Hitoshi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Is the Universal String Axion the QCD Axion

Description: We consider the class of effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string in which local supersymmetry is broken by gaugino condensation in a hidden sector, with dilaton stabilization achieved through corrections to the classical dilaton Kahler potential. If there is a single hidden condensing (simple) gauge group, the axion is massless (up to contributions from higher dimension operators) above the QCD condensation scale. We show how the standard relation between the axion mass and its Planck scale coupling constant is modified in this class of models due to a contribution to the axion-gluon coupling that appears below the scale of supersymmetry breaking when gluinos are integrated out. In particular there is a point of enhanced symmetry in parameter space where the axion mass is suppressed. We revisit the question of the universal axion as the Peccei-Quinn axion in the light of these results, and find that the strong CP problem is avoided in most compactifications of the weakly coupled heterotic string.
Date: October 14, 2005
Creator: Gaillard, Mary K. & Kain, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking

Description: We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds up on previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kahler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions.
Date: June 27, 2002
Creator: Gaillard, Mary K. & Giedt, Joel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geometry of non-supersymmetric three-charge bound states

Description: We study the smooth non-supersymmetric three-charge microstatesof Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener using Kaluza-Klein reductions of the solutions to five and four dimensions. Our aim is to improve our understanding of the relation between these non-supersymmetric solutions and the well-studied supersymmetric cases. We find some surprising qualitative differences. In the five-dimensional description, the solution has orbifold fixed points which break supersymmetry locally, so the geometries cannot be thought of as made up of separate half-BPS centers. In the four-dimensional description, the two singularities in the geometry are connected by a conical singularity, which makes it impossible to treat them independently and assign unambiguous brane charges to these centers.
Date: May 14, 2007
Creator: Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Levi, Thomas S. & Ross, Simon F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black holes in supergravity: the non-BPS branch

Description: We construct extremal, spherically symmetric black hole solutions to 4D supergravity with charge assignments that preclude BPS-saturation. In particular, we determine the ground state energy as a function of charges and moduli. We find that the mass of the non-BPS black hole remains that of a marginal bound state of four basic constituents throughout the entire moduli space and that there is always a non-zero gap above the BPS bound.
Date: October 25, 2007
Creator: Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Larsen, Finn & Simon, Joan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Explicit Supersymmetry Breaking on Boundaries of Warped Extra Dimensions

Description: Explicit supersymmetry breaking is studied in higher dimensional theories by having boundaries respect only a subgroup of the bulk symmetry. If the boundary symmetry is the maximal subgroup allowed by the boundary conditions imposed on the fields, then the symmetry can be consistently gauged; otherwise gauging leads to an inconsistent theory. In a warped fifth dimension, an explicit breaking of all bulk supersymmetries by the boundaries is found to be inconsistent with gauging; unlike the case of flat 5D, complete supersymmetry breaking by boundary conditions is not consistent with supergravity. Despite this result, the low energy effective theory resulting from boundary supersymmetry breaking becomes consistent in the limit where gravity decouples, and such models are explored in the hope that some way of successfully incorporating gravity can be found. A warped constrained standard model leads to a theory with one Higgs boson with mass expected close to the experimental limit. A unified theory in a warped fifth dimension is studied with boundary breaking of both SU(5) gauge symmetry and supersymmetry. The usual supersymmetric predictionfor gauge coupling unification holds even though the TeV spectrum is quite unlike the MSSM. Such a theory may unify matter and Higgs in the same SU(5) hypermultiplet.
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori; Okui, Takemichi & Oliver, Steven J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at One Loop

Description: We expose simple and practical relations between the integrated four- and five-point one-loop amplitudes of N {ge} 4 supergravity and the corresponding (super-)Yang-Mills amplitudes. The link between the amplitudes is simply understood using the recently uncovered duality between color and kinematics that leads to a double-copy structure for gravity. These examples provide additional direct confirmations of the duality and double-copy properties at loop level for a sample of different theories.
Date: August 19, 2011
Creator: Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Boucher-Veronneau, C.; /SLAC; Johansson, H. & /Saclay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Massive Supergravity and Deconstruction

Description: We present a simple superfield Lagrangian for massive supergravity. It comprises the minimal supergravity Lagrangian with interactions as well as mass terms for the metric superfield and the chiral compensator. This is the natural generalization of the Fierz-Pauli Lagrangian for massive gravity which comprises mass terms for the metric and its trace. We show that the on-shell bosonic and fermionic fields are degenerate and have the appropriate spins: 2, 3/2, 3/2 and 1. We then study this interacting Lagrangian using goldstone superfields. We find that achiral multiplet of goldstones gets a kinetic term through mixing, just as the scalar goldstone does in the non-supersymmetric case. This produces Planck scale (Mpl) interactions with matter and all the discontinuities and unitarity bounds associated with massive gravity. In particular, the scale of strong coupling is (Mpl m^4)^1/5, where m is the multiplet's mass. Next, we consider applications of massive supergravity to deconstruction. We estimate various quantum effects which generate non-local operators in theory space. As an example, we show that the single massive supergravity multiplet in a 2-site model can serve the function of an extra dimension in anomaly mediation.
Date: March 23, 2004
Creator: Gregoire, Thomas; Schwartz, Matthew D. & Shadmi, Yael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Stringy Test of Flux-Induced Isometry Gauging

Description: Supergravity analysis suggests that the effect of fluxes in string theory compactifications is to gauge isometries of the scalar manifold. However, isometries are generically broken by brane instanton effects. Here we demonstrate how fluxes protect exactly those isometries from quantum corrections which are gauged according to the classical supergravity analysis. We also argue that all other isometries are generically broken.
Date: June 29, 2005
Creator: Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro & /Stanford U., ITP
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective Supergravity from the Weakly Coupled HeteroticString

Description: The motivation for Calabi-Yau-like compactifications of the weakly coupled E{sub 8} {circle_times} E{sub 8} heterotic string theory, its particle spectrum and the issue of dilaton stabilization are briefly reviewed. Modular invariant models for hidden sector condensation and supersymmetry breaking are described at the quantum level of the effective field theory. Their phenomenological and cosmological implications, including a possible origin for R-parity, are discussed.
Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Gaillard, Mary K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-Dual Supergravity from N = 2 Strings

Description: A new heterotic N = 2 string with manifest target space supersymmetry is constructed by combining a conventional N = 2 string in the right-moving sector and a Green-Schwarz-Berkovits type string in the left-moving sector. The corresponding sigma model is then obtained by turning on background fields for the massless excitations. We compute the beta functions and we partially check the OPE's of the superconformal algebra perturbatively in {alpha}{prime}, all in superspace. The resulting field equations describe N = 1 self-dual supergravity.
Date: September 24, 1997
Creator: de Boer, J. & Skenderis, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department