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POST-REMEDIATION BIOMONITORING OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENT NEAR THE UNITED HECKATHORN SUPERFUND SITE, RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA

Description: Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and dieldrin concentrations in mussel tissues were lower than measured levels from preremediation surveys and also lower than Year 1 levels from post-remediation biomonitoring. Sediment analyses showed the presence of elevated DDT, dieldrin, PCB aroclor 1254, and very high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lauritzen Channel.
Date: September 6, 2000
Creator: Antrim, Liam D. & Kohn, Nancy P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TCEQ Superfund Sites

Description: This publication provides information on internet sites as they relate to superfunds.
Date: unknown
Creator: Texas Commission on Environmental Quality
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

Description: Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.
Date: September 5, 2000
Creator: Antrim, Liam D. & Kohn, Nancy P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit

Description: This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site.
Date: June 13, 2002
Creator: Fraley, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The EPA Office of Environmental Justice Small Grants Program

Description: This report is an inventory of the profiles of the Environmental Justice Small Grants awarded for FY 2003. It shows each regions grants awards depending on socioeconomic balance, diversity of recipients, and sustainability of benefits.
Date: October 26, 2004
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

Description: The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act -- otherwise known as CERCLA or Superfund -- provides a Federal "Superfund" to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous-waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment. Through CERCLA, EPA was given power to seek out those parties responsible for any release and assure their cooperation in the cleanup.
Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: United States. Congress.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

Description: A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final. The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers). COC with similar properties were grouped for the screening evaluation. The screening evaluation was conducted in two primary steps. The initial screening step evaluated potential remediation methods based on whether they can be effectively applied within the environmental setting of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit for the specified contaminants. In the second step, potential remediation methods were screened using scoping calculations to estimate the scale of infrastructure, overall quantities of reagents, and conceptual approach for applying the method for each defined grouping of COC. Based on these estimates, each method was screened with respect to effectiveness, implementability, and relative cost categories of the CERCLA feasibility study screening process defined in EPA guidance.
Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Truex, Michael J.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.; Dresel, P EVAN. & Murray, Christopher J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INL Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Report FY2006

Description: This document reports the results of the fiscal year 2006 institutional controls assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act sites at the Idaho National Laboratory. These activities are described in the INEEL Sitewide Institutional Control Plan. Inspections were performed by Long-term Stewardship Program personnel with representatives of the various facilities. The assessments showed that the various institutional control measures in place across the Idaho National Laboratory Site are functioning as intended. Information in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan was reviewed as part of the annual assessment and was revised as needed to reflect the current status of the institutional control sites.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Jolley, W. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INL Sitewide Operations and Maintenance Report for CERCLA Response Actions - FY2006

Description: This report documents how remedies mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act for the Idaho National Laboratory Site were operated and maintained during Fiscal Year 2006. The activities addressed in the INEEL Sitewide Operations and Maintenance Plan are reported in this document.
Date: October 2, 2006
Creator: Olaveson, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statement of Work for Drilling Five CERCLA Groundwater Monitoring Wells During Fiscal Year 2006, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the regulators have agreed that two characterization wells along with three additional performance monitoring wells shall be installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit as defined in the proposed Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement [TPA]) Milestone M-24-57 and the 300-FF-5 Limited Field Investigation plan (DOE/RL-2005-47). This document contains the statement of work required to drill, characterize, and construct the proposed groundwater monitoring wells during FY 2006.
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Williams, Bruce A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G) Operable Unit

Description: This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the FDHTF located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina. The selected alternative was developed in accordance with RCRA, CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA unit.
Date: February 10, 1999
Creator: Palmer, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund Program: Breakdown of Appropriations Data

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "On February 18, 2004, we issued a report updating the appropriations and expenditure data for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund program that we included in our July 2003 report on the status of the program. To supplement this information, Congress requested that we provide a breakdown of the appropriations data, showing the amounts for the Superfund program, amounts designated for the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and the Brownfields program. Superfund program operations are funded by appropriations from the general revenue fund and the Superfund trust fund. Historically, a tax on crude oil and certain chemicals and an environmental tax on corporations were the primary sources of revenues for the trust fund; however, the authority for these taxes expired in 1995. The trust fund continues to receive revenues in the form of cost recoveries, interest on the fund balance, fines and penalties, and general revenue fund appropriations that supplement the trust fund balance."
Date: May 14, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: Information on Cost and Other Issues Related to the Cleanup of the Federal Creosote Site

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In the 1990s, creosote was discovered under a residential neighborhood in Manville, New Jersey. Creosote, a mixture of chemicals, is used to preserve wood products, such as railroad ties. Some of the chemicals in creosote may cause cancer, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA found that creosote from a former wood-treatment facility (known as the Federal Creosote site) had contaminated soil and groundwater at the site. Under the Superfund program--the federal government's principal program to clean up hazardous waste--EPA assessed site risks, selected remedies, and worked with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to clean up the site. As of May 2009, construction of EPA's remedies for the site had been completed; however, total site costs were almost $340 million and remedial construction costs had exceeded original estimates. In this context, GAO was asked to examine (1) how EPA assessed risks and selected remedies for the site, and what priority EPA gave to site cleanup; (2) what factors contributed to the difference between the estimated and actual costs; and (3) how EPA and the Corps divided responsibilities for site work. GAO analyzed EPA and Corps documents and data on the cleanup effort and its costs, and interviewed officials from these agencies. This report contains no recommendations. EPA generally agreed with GAO's findings on the agency's cleanup costs and actions, while the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had no comments."
Date: February 25, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: Funding and Reported Costs of Enforcement and Administration Activities

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that one in four Americans lives within 3 miles of a hazardous waste site. To clean up these highly contaminated sites, the Congress established the Superfund program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in 1980. EPA, the principal agency responsible for administering the Superfund program, has since identified more than 47,000 hazardous waste sites potentially requiring cleanup actions and has placed some of the most seriously contaminated sites on its National Priorities List (NPL). Through the end of fiscal year 2007, EPA had classified 1,569 sites as NPL sites. Cleanup efforts at NPL sites are typically expensive and can take many years. There are two basic types of cleanup actions: (1) removal actions--generally short-term or emergency cleanups to mitigate threats--and (2) remedial actions--generally long-term cleanup activities. Among other efforts, EPA may respond to and provide technical support for emergency actions, collect and analyze site data, and design and construct remedies, or oversee the work of others. However, the parties responsible for contributing to the contamination of a hazardous waste site are also primarily responsible for conducting or paying for the cleanup of the site. Responsible parties include current or former owners or operators of a site or the generators and transporters of the hazardous substances. CERCLA authorizes EPA to compel the responsible parties to clean up contaminated sites and also allows EPA to conduct cleanups and then seek reimbursement from the responsible parties. One of EPA's goals is ensuring that, to the extent possible, parties who are responsible for the contamination perform or pay for cleanup actions. In some cases, however, parties cannot be identified or may be unwilling or financially unable to perform the cleanup; we previously ...
Date: July 18, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: Interagency Agreements and Improved Project Management Needed to Achieve Cleanup Progress at Key Defense Installations

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Before the passage of federal environmental legislation in the 1970s and 1980s, Department of Defense (DOD) activities contaminated millions of acres of soil and water on and near DOD sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has certain oversight authorities for cleaning up contaminants on federal property, and has placed 1,620 of the most contaminated sites--including 141 DOD installations--on its National Priorities List (NPL). As of February 2009, after 10 or more years on the NPL, 11 DOD installations had not signed the required interagency agreements (IAG) to guide cleanup with EPA. GAO was asked to examine (1) the status of DOD cleanup of hazardous substances at selected installations that lacked IAGs, and (2) obstacles, if any, to cleanup at these installations. GAO selected and visited three installations, reviewed relevant statutes and agency documents, and interviewed agency officials."
Date: July 15, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: Better Financial Assurances and More Effective Implementation of Institutional Controls Are Needed to Protect the Public

Description: A statement of record issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Under the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund program, parties responsible for pollution bear the cost of cleaning it up. However, these parties sometimes no longer exist, leaving the problem for others, typically the federal government, to address. Furthermore, many sites' cleanup remedies leave some waste in place, relying on institutional controls--legal or administrative restrictions on land or water use--to limit the public's exposure. GAO was asked to summarize the findings of its August 2005 report, Environmental Liabilities: EPA Should Do More to Ensure that Liable Parties Meet Their Cleanup Obligations (GAO-05-658) and its January 2005 report, Hazardous Waste Sites: Improved Effectiveness of Controls at Sites Could Better Protect the Public (GAO-05-163). GAO's statement addresses the actions EPA could take to better ensure that parties meet their cleanup obligations and the long-term effectiveness of institutional controls in protecting the public. GAO's reports recommended, among other things, that EPA (1) implement a financial assurance mandate for businesses handling hazardous substances; (2) enhance its oversight and enforcement of existing financial assurances and authorities; (3) ensure that the frequency and scope of monitoring of controls sufficiently maintain their effectiveness; and (4) ensure that information on controls reported in new tracking systems accurately reflects actual conditions."
Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: Information on the Nature and Costs of Cleanup Activities at Three Landfills in the Gulf Coast Region

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that one in four Americans lives within 3 miles of a contaminated site, many of which pose serious risks to human health and the environment. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) provided the federal government with authority to respond to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances and created a trust fund to provide for certain cleanup activities. Under CERCLA, EPA established the Superfund program to address the threats that contaminated sites pose. Although EPA has paid for the cleanup of many of these sites through the Superfund program, funding for these cleanups has diminished in recent years. In 2010, we reported that EPA's estimated costs to clean up existing contaminated sites exceed the Superfund program's current funding levels and that some sites have not received sufficient funding for cleanup to proceed in the most cost-efficient manner. Additionally, in July 2009, we reported that EPA does not collect sufficient information on the cost of cleanup activities at Superfund sites and recommended, among other things, that EPA assess and improve the data it collects on the status and cost of cleanups. EPA coordinates the cleanup of Superfund sites by identifying sites potentially requiring cleanup action and placing eligible sites on its National Priorities List (NPL). EPA may compel the parties responsible for contaminating these sites to clean them up, or the agency may, using resources from the trust fund established by CERCLA, conduct cleanups itself and seek reimbursement from responsible parties. In some cases, EPA may not be able to obtain reimbursement because the agency cannot identify a responsible party or the responsible party or parties may be insolvent or may no longer exist. One category of contaminated ...
Date: February 18, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: EPA's Estimated Costs to Remediate Existing Sites Exceed Current Funding Levels, and More Sites Are Expected to Be Added to the National Priorities List

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "At the end of fiscal year 2009, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) included 1,111 of the most seriously contaminated nonfederal hazardous waste sites. Of these sites, EPA had identified 75 with unacceptable human exposure, 164 with unknown exposure, and 872 with controlled exposure that may need additional cleanup work. EPA may fund remedial actions--long-term cleanup--from its trust fund, and compel responsible parties to perform or reimburse costs of the cleanup. GAO was asked to determine (1) the cleanup and funding status at currently listed nonfederal NPL sites with unacceptable or unknown human exposure; (2) what is known about EPA's future cleanup costs at nonfederal NPL sites; (3) EPA's process for allocating remedial program funding; and (4) how many NPL sites some state and EPA officials expect to be added in the next 5 years, and their expected cleanup costs. GAO analyzed Superfund program data, surveyed and interviewed EPA officials, and interviewed state officials."
Date: May 6, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: EPA Should Take Steps to Improve Its Management of Alternatives to Placing Sites on the National Priorities List

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) most commonly addresses the cleanup of sites it has identified as eligible for the National Priorities List (NPL) by deferring oversight of the cleanup to approaches outside of the Superfund program. As of December 2012, of the 3,402 sites EPA identified as potentially eligible, EPA has deferred oversight of 1,984 sites to approaches outside the Superfund program, including 1,766 Other Cleanup Activity (OCA) deferrals to states and other entities. However, EPA has not issued guidance for OCA deferrals as it has for the other cleanup approaches. Moreover, EPA's program guidance does not clearly define each type of OCA deferral or specify in detail the documentation EPA regions should have to support their decisions on OCA deferrals. Without clearer guidance on OCA deferrals, EPA cannot be reasonably assured that its regions are consistently tracking these sites or that their documentation will be appropriate or sufficient to verify that these sites have been deferred or have completed cleanup. Under the Superfund program, EPA oversees the cleanup of 1,313 sites on the NPL, 67 sites under the Superfund Alternative (SA) approach, and at least 38 sites under another undefined approach."
Date: April 9, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund Program: Updated Appropriation and Expenditure Data

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report contains GAO's update of the appropriation and expenditure data for the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program since a July 2003 report."
Date: February 18, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfund: Progress and Challenges

Description: A statement of record issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Superfund hazardous waste cleanup program, focusing on: (1) the progress, cleanup pace, and accomplishments of the program; (2) trends in the amount of funds that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends on administrative and support activities in the program and the amount of these costs that it recovers from parties contributing to contamination at Superfund sites; (3) the number and types of waste sites that may be cleaned up by the program in the future; and (4) barriers to the redevelopment of brownfields--abandoned and idled industrial properties, often located in economically distressed urban areas--and federal efforts to remove these barriers."
Date: May 25, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department