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Some calorimetric investigations of the role of electrons in superconductivity and magnetism

Description: Thesis. The heat capacity of the system (La,Ce)Al//sub 2/ for 0.0, 0.193, 0.64, and 0.906 at.% Ce has been measured between approximately 0.06 and 22 K and in magnetic fields up to 38 kOe. In the normal state, there is R1n2 entropy associated wtih the Ce spin system and this entropy is removed in the formation of the spin-compensated state. The nonmal state Kondo temperature is 0.42 K. The three more-dilute samples exhibit supenconductivity but cannot be described by the Bardeen - Cooper -- Schrieffer on Abrlkosov -Gor'kov theories. Significant low-energy excitations are evident in the superconducting state and they may be associated with quasibound states deep in the energy gap of the pure superconductor. Fon the 0.193 at.% Ce alloy in the superconducting state the characteristic temperature associated with Ce-spin ordering in the nonmal state is reduced by an estimated order of magnitude. For the 0.64 at.% Ce alloy a small, broadened superconducting anomaly appears in the heat capacity above 1 K, however, no anomaly that could be interpreted as a broadened discontinuity was found at the magnetically-detected transition back into the normal state at lower temperatures. The heat capacities of five samples of alpha -U have been measured between approximately 0.1 and 2 K at zero pressure. The four polycrystalline samples exhibited broad, bulk superconducting transitions. The gamma -values and the smearing of the superconducting transitions are sensitive to grain size--the small-grained samples had the highest gamma -values and the broadest superconducting transitions. A single crystal had the lowest gamma value and appeared to be beginning to enter the superconducting state below 0.25 K. The shape of the heat capacity anomaly near Tc for the large-grained polycrystal indicates that alpha -U is a BCS superconductor and, hence, local moments and pair-breaking mechanisms do not play a role in ...
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Bader, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landau quantization and superconductivity at high magnetic fields

Description: Recently, the possibility of superconducting for fields stronger than the semiclassical H{sub c2} due to Landau quantization has been raised again. In this paper, the theory of such a state is reviewed for both 2D and 3D systems. We explicitly discuss the effects of impurities and Zeeman splitting. A critical analysis of the possibility of observing this reentrant behavior in real materials is given. Finally, solutions of the mean field gap equations (Bogoliubov-deGennes equations) in the quantum limit are presented and discussed in regards to their flux lattice structure.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Norman, M. R.; Akera, H. & MacDonald, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

After seven years, where`s the consensus?

Description: It has been 7 years since the discovery of copper oxide superconductors, yet there is no consensus on the correct theory for this phenomenon. The theory can be divided into 3 groups: ordinary (phonons), exotic (AF spin fluctuations, nested Fermi liquid, excitons, spin bags, odd frequency pairing), and revolutionary (Luttinger liquid, spin-charge separation, gauge theories, anyons, marginal Fermi liquid). C-axis dispersion, dHvA, and magneto-oscillations are also discussed.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Norman, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on π-conjugated semiconductor systems

Description: Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of excitons and charge carriers in π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Degradation behavior of the negative spin-1/2 electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR) was observed in Alq3 devices. The increase in the resonance amplitude implies an increasing bipolaron formation during degradation, which might be the result of growth of charge traps in the device. The same behavior of the negative spin-1/2 ELDMR was observed in 2wt% Rubrene doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) devices. However, with increasing injection current, a positive spin-1/2 ELDMR, together with positive spin 1 triplet powder patterns at {delta}m{sub S}={+-}1 and {delta}m{sub S}={+-}2, emerges. Due to the similarities in the frequency dependences of single and double modulated ELDMR and the photoluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (PLDMR) results in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2 -ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenyl ene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) films, the mechanism for this positive spin-1/2 ELDMR was assigned to enhanced triplet-polaron quenching under resonance conditions. The ELDMR in rubrene doped Alq3 devices provides a path to investigate charge distribution in the device under operational conditions. Combining the results of several devices with different carrier blocking properties and the results from transient EL, it was concluded trions not only exist near buffer layer but also exist in the electron transport layer. This TPQ model can also be used to explain the positive spin-1/2 PLDMR in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films at low temperature and in MEH-PPV films at various temperatures up to room temperature. Through quantitative analysis, TE-polaron quenching (TPQ) model is shown having the ability to explain most behaviors of the positive spin-1/2 resonance. Photocurrent detected magnetic resonance (PCDMR) studies on MEH-PPV devices revealed a novel transient resonance signal. The signal may originate from the higher concentration of deep traps near cathode. A quantitative analysis based on this assumption was carried out and found to be consistent with the experimental ...
Date: December 6, 2011
Creator: Chen, Ying
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First principles analysis of lattice dynamics for Fe-based superconductors and entropically-stabilized phases

Description: Modern calculations are becoming an essential, complementary tool to inelastic x-ray scattering studies, where x-rays are scattered inelastically to resolve meV phonons. Calculations of the inelastic structure factor for any value of Q assist in both planning the experiment and analyzing the results. Moreover, differences between the measured data and theoretical calculations help identify important new physics driving the properties of novel correlated systems. We have used such calculations to better and more e#14;ciently measure the phonon dispersion and elastic constants of several iron pnictide superconductors. This dissertation describes calculations and measurements at room temperature in the tetragonal phase of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and LaFeAsO. In both cases, spin-polarized calculations imposing the antiferromagnetic order present in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase dramatically improves the agreement between theory and experiment. This is discussed in terms of the strong antiferromagnetic correlations that are known to persist in the tetragonal phase. In addition, we discuss a relatively new approach called self-consistent ab initio lattice dynamics (SCAILD), which goes beyond the harmonic approximation to include phonon-phonon interactions and produce a temperature-dependent phonon dispersion. We used this technique to study the HCP to BCC transition in beryllium.
Date: July 20, 2012
Creator: Hahn, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural and magnetic properties and superconductivity in Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}TM{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}

Description: We studied the effects on structural and magnetic phase transitions and the emergence of superconductivity in transition metal substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. We grew four series of Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}TM{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (TM=Ru, Mn, Co+Cr and Co+Mn) and characterized them by crystallographic, magnetic and transport measurements. We also subjected Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} and Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} to heat treatment to explore what changes might be induced.
Date: July 23, 2012
Creator: Thaler, Alexander
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural and magnetic properties of transition metal substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds studied by x-ray and neutron scattering

Description: The purpose of my dissertation is to understand the structural and magnetic properties of the newly discovered FeAs-based superconductors and the interconnection between superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and structure. X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are powerful tools to directly observe the structure and magnetism in this system. I used both xray and neutron scattering techniques on di#11;erent transition substituted BaFe2As2 compounds in order to investigate the substitution dependence of structural and magnetic transitions and try to understand the connections between them.
Date: August 28, 2012
Creator: Kim, Min Gyu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic structure and f-orbital occupancy in Yb-substituted CeCoIn5

Description: The local structure and 4f orbital occupancy have been investigated in Ce{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x}CoIn{sub 5} via Yb L{sub III}-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), Ce and Yb L{sub III}-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements. Yb(III) (4f{sup 13}) is the hole analog of Ce(III) (4f{sup 1}). Yb is found to be strongly intermediate-valent in Ce{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x}CoIn{sub 5} throughout the entire doping range, including pure YbCoIn{sub 5}, with an f-hole occupancy for Yb of n{sub f} ≃ 0.3 (i.e. Yb{sup 2.3+}), independent of Yb concentration and independent of temperature down to T = 20 K. In contrast, the f-electron orbital occupancy for Ce remains close to 1 for all Yb concentrations, suggesting that there is no mutual influence on n{sub f} between neighboring Ce and Yb sites. Likewise, ARPES measurements at 12 K have found that the electronic structure along {Gamma} − X is not sensitive to the Yb substitution, suggesting that the Kondo hybridization of Ce f electrons with the conduction band is not affected by the presence of Yb impurities in the lattice. The emerging picture is that in Ce{sub 1−x}Yb{sub x}CoIn{sub 5} there are two networks, interlaced but independent, that couple to the conduction band: one network of Ce ions in the heavy-fermion limit, one network of Yb ions in the strongly intermediate-valent limit. The robustness of the local and electronic structure to doping suggests the absence of charge transfer between the Ce and Yb ions, and may explain the relative robustness of superconductivity for this Ce-site substitution as compared to the In-site substitution.
Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: Booth, C. H.; Durakiewicz, T.; Capan, C.; Hurt, D.; Bianchi, A. D.; Joyce, J.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Itinerant and localized magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 2}CoGa thin films identified with x-ray magnetic linear dichroism: experiment and ab initio theory

Description: Epitaxial thin films of the half-metallic X{sub a}-compound Mn{sub 2}CoGa (Hg{sub 2}CuTi prototype) were prepared by dc magnetron co-sputtering with different heat treatments on MgO (001) substrates. High-quality #12;lms with a bulk magnetization of 1.95(5) {mu}{sub #22;}B per unit cell were obtained. The average Mn magnetic moment and the Co moment are parallel, in agreement with theory. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra agree with calculations based on density functional theory and reveal the antiparallel alignment of the two inequivalent Mn moments. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism allows to distinguish between itinerant and localized Mn moments. It is shown that one of the two Mn moments has localized character, whereas the other Mn moment and the Co moment are itinerant.
Date: August 8, 2011
Creator: Meinert, M.; Schmalhorst, J; Klewe, C.; Reiss, G.; Arenholz, E.; Bohnert, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal-insulator transition in low dimensional La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}VO{sub 3} thin films

Description: We report on the metal-insulator transition that occurs as a function of film thickness in ultrathin La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}VO{sub 3} films. The metal-insulator transition displays a critical thickness of 5 unit cell. Above the critical thickness, metallic films exhibit a temperature driven metal-insulator transition with weak localization behavior. With decreasing film thickness, oxygen octahedron rotation in the films increases, causing enhanced electron-electron correlation. The electronelectron correlations in ultrathin films induce the transition from metal to insulator in addition to Anderson localization.
Date: June 15, 2011
Creator: Dao, Tran M.; Mondal, Partha S.; Takamura, Y.; Arenholz, E. & Lee, Jaichan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators

Description: High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.
Date: June 22, 2011
Creator: Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis, Structure, and Physical Properties of YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9.23}

Description: The physical properties of YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9.23}, including the crystal structure, magnetization, specific heat, valence, and electrical resistivity, are reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes with the rhombohedral space group R32 and has unit cell parameters a=7.2443(3) Å and c=27.251(3) Å with some crystallographic disorder on an Al site. The compound orders antiferromagnetically at T{sub N}=3 K despite the presence of strong ferromagnetic correlations, accompanied by a spin flop-like transition to a moment-aligned rate above 0.1 T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a localized Yb{sup 3+} electronic configuration, while the Sommerfeld coefficient in the magnetically ordered state was determined to be approximately 135 mJ/mol-K{sup 2}, suggesting moderately heavy fermion behavior. Therefore, these data indicate a balance between competing Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) and Kondo interactions in YbNi{sub 3}Al{sub 9.23} with a somewhat dominant RKKY interaction that leads to a relatively high ordering temperature.
Date: November 4, 2010
Creator: Tobash, P. H.; Jiang, Y.; Ronning, F.; Booth, C. H.; Thompson, J. D.; Scott, B. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic frustration effects in uranium intermetallics

Description: The effect of geometrical frustration on the development of the heavy-fermion state and quantum criticality is studied in UAuCu{sub 4}, UAuPt{sub 4}, UAu{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} samples through measurements of their magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity. In addition, since lattice disorder can play a large role in defining magnetic properties in frustrated systems, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data have also been obtained. The local structure results show a strong correlation with the magnetic properties in these samples.
Date: June 10, 2010
Creator: Jiang, Yu; Booth, C. H.; Tobash, P. H.; Gofryk, K.; Torrez, M. A.; Ronning, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department