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HTS generator assessment. Final report, DOE SPI-Phase I: Task I

Description: The intention of this work was to continue the superconducting generator work that was terminated in the eighties. The generator design concept employs a sc generator rotor winding and aims at capitalizing fully on the very high magnetic flux density in the generator air gap now possible through the use of superconductivity in the generator field.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Cotzas, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on discussions with utility engineers about superconducting generators

Description: This report relates to a series of discussions with electric utility engineers concerning the integration of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generators into the present electric power system. The current and future interest of the utilities in the purchase and use of HTS generators is assessed. Various performance and economic factors are also considered as part of this inspection of the utility prospects for HTS generators. Integration of HTS generators into the electric utility sector is one goal of the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI). The SPI, a major part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, features vertical teaming of a major industrial power apparatus manufacturers, a producer of HTS wire, and an end-user with assistance and technical support for the national laboratories. The SPI effort on HTS generators is headed by a General Electric Corporation internal team comprised of the Corporate Research Laboratories, Power Generation Engineering, and Power Systems Group. Intermagnetics General corporation, which assisted in the development of the superconducting coils, is the HTS wire and tape manufacturer. Additional technical support is provided by the national laboratories: Argonne, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge, and the New York State Institute on Superconductivity. The end-user is represented by Niagara-Mohawk and the Electric Power Research Institute.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and fabrication of a Bi-2223 racetrack coil for generator applications

Description: The development and fabrication of a layer-wound, epoxy-impregnated Bi-2223 high-temperature superconducting (HTS) racetrack coil which generates 40,000 ampere-turns of magnetomotive force (MMF) at 25 K is described. The coil was wound using Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tape conductor laminated with copper foils for strength enhancement and insulated using a paper-wrap method. After epoxy impregnation, the coil was tested over a range of 16--25 K in a vacuum dewar using a closed-cycle helium refrigeration system. Descriptions of the tape lamination and insulation processing, the coil winding and impregnation, and the experimental test setup are given.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Herd, K.G.; Salasoo, L.; Laskaris, E.T.; Ranze, R.A.; King, C.G.; Haldar, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTS coil development and fabrication. Final report

Description: The objective of this subtask (Task 2C) was to develop high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coil technology aimed specifically at superconducting generator applications. Bi-2223 tape produced in a separate subtask (Task 2A) was first wound and tested in a small circular coil. This small coil winding experience led the authors to develop a tape strengthening method using a lamination process and to develop a turn insulation method using a paper wrap process. A prototype racetrack coil was wound using 2500 feet of the laminated and insulated Bi-2223 tapes. The racetrack coil was cooled to 20K in a vacuum dewar using a unique closed-cycle helium gas refrigeration system.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Herd, K.G.; Salasoo, L. & Ranze, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 100 MVA generator utilizing high temperature superconducting windings -- design assessment & component development. Final report

Description: The operation of a high temperature superconducting generator rotor using closed-cycle refrigeration to indirectly cool the field windings was considered to be the best choice for an HTS application. The SPI program proposed to achieve the following goals: In Task 1 a 100 MVA generator with a HTS rotor field winding would be designed. An energy and economic benefits analysis was to be a key part of the program. In addition, the generator/grid interactions were to be modeled. Concurrently, Task 2 was to include further development of Bi-2223 silver-clad tape as well as an alternate Tl-1223 conductor, manufacture of 3,000 meters of tape, and development and fabrication of a prototype field coil. Details of progress have been reported in the quarterly status reports and summarized in the final reports on the tasks. Therefore this report will give a review of the original goals of each task and summary of results for each.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Lay, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator

Description: In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.
Date: May 25, 2007
Creator: Fogarty, James M. & Bray, James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test results for a Bi-2223 HTS racetrack coil for generator applications

Description: Testing, results and analysis of a Bi-2223 model superconducting generator coil produced under the DOE Superconductivity Partnership Initiative are presented. The test arrangement enables coil energization with dc and transient currents over a range of operating temperatures to explore coil performance under conditions analogous to those that would be experienced by a superconducting generator field coil. Analytical calculations of coil ac and ohmic losses and temperature rise compare well with experimental measurements. Good performance is predicted for a typical 3-phase fault condition. Coil steady state and transient performance can be predicted with confidence for full scale superconductor application.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Salasoo, L.; Herd, K.G.; Laskaris, E.T.; Hart, H.R. Jr. & Chari, M.V.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Assessment of Direct Drive High Temperature Superconducting Generators in Multi-Megawatt Class Wind Turbines

Description: This paper summarizes the work completed under the CRADA between NREL and American Superconductor (AMSC). The CRADA combined NREL and AMSC resources to benchmark high temperature superconducting direct drive (HTSDD) generator technology by integrating the technologies into a conceptual wind turbine design, and comparing the design to geared drive and permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD) wind turbine configurations. Analysis was accomplished by upgrading the NREL Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model to represent geared and PMDD turbines at machine ratings up to 10 MW and then comparing cost and mass figures of AMSC's HTSDD wind turbine designs to theoretical geared and PMDD turbine designs at 3.1, 6, and 10 MW sizes. Based on the cost and performance data supplied by AMSC, HTSDD technology has good potential to compete successfully as an alternative technology to PMDD and geared technology turbines in the multi megawatt classes. In addition, data suggests the economics of HTSDD turbines improve with increasing size, although several uncertainties remain for all machines in the 6 to 10 MW class.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Maples, B.; Hand, M. & Musial, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A worldwide overview of superconductivity development efforts for utility applications

Description: The progress and prospects for the application of high temperature superconductivity to the electric power sector has been the topic of an IEA Implementing Agreement begun in 1990. The present task members are: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. As a result of the Implementing Agreement, work has been performed by the Operating Agent with the full participation of all of the member countries. This work has facilitated the exchange of information among experts in all member countries and is the basis for much of the information contained in this paper. This paper summarizes progress toward application of high temperature superconductivity to devices for use in the electric power sector such as: fault-current limiters, cables, superconducting magnetic energy Storage, rotating machinery, transformers, and flywheels incorporating magnetic bearings. Such devices are being designed, built and tested throughout the world.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Giese, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting fault current limiter. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, May 8-July 7, 1979

Description: Up until now, this project has established performance objectives for the superconducting fault current limiter (SCFCL) in terms of the limitations of circuit breakers and strategies for locating the SCFCLs within the system. During this fourth quarter, the possibility has also been explored of using SCFCLs to protect specific machines, namely superconducting alternators and transformers. Unique characteristics and requirements of these machines are identified in section 2 of this report and the possible benefits to be gained by using SCFCLs are suggested. It is concluded that no further specific design work, either on the SCFCL or on the machines be done toward this goal until these superconducting devices have proved themselves further. The most promising SCFCL device is the resistive type of limiter (see the Second Quarterly Report for this project). The detailed analysis and design of this device have proceeded in the following aspects this quarter: transient circuit analysis; transient heat transfer analysis; switching field and film geometry; and shunt resistance and shunt capacitance.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting fault current limiter. Third quarterly technical progress report, February 8, 1979-May 7, 1979

Description: During the first two quarters of this program considerable effort was invested in determining performance objectives for superconducting fault current limiters (SCFCL) and deciding what would be the best design concept for a SCFCL device. This third quarter has been a period of starting new long-range programs based on the decisions made in the earlier quarters. Because of the long-term nature of these studies, there are no specific results yet to report. An investigation is now in progress to determine whether there is an advantage to using SCFCLs with superconducting generators and transformers. SCFCL performance objectives specifically for these applications will be established. A detailed device analysis of the magnetically-switched, resistive SCFCL has been started. The objective of this analysis will be to determine a complete device design, including size, shape, material and operating characteristics, for a typical set of performance specifications. An experimental facility is now being prepared to make key measurements of switching and thermal recovery speeds for the magnetically-switched, resistive concept.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Eaton, R. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

Description: The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T. & Suzuki, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

Description: Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.
Date: August 25, 1992
Creator: Giese, R.F. & Wolsky, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department