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Sulfur Construction Materials

Description: From Abstract: "This Bureau of Mines bulletin summarizes both Government and private sector research related to the use of sulfur in construction materials through 1948. Material properties, mixture design procedures, and applications for these materials are described."
Date: 1985
Creator: McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A. & Fike, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contributions to the Data on Theoretical Metallurgy: [Part] 7. The Thermodynamic Properties of Sulphur and its Inorganic Compounds

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies on the thermodynamics of sulphur. As stated in the introduction, "the present bulletin has as its primary purpose the correlation of the thermodynamic properties of elementary sulphur and its inorganic compounds and the presentation, after careful consideration of all available information, of a self-consistent system of thermodynamic relationships for these substances" (p. 1). This report includes tables.
Date: 1937
Creator: Kelley, K. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contributions to the Data on Theoretical Metallurgy: [Part] 7. The Thermodynamic Properties of Sulphur and its Inorganic Compounds

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the thermodynamic properties of sulfur, and its inorganic compounds. As stated in the introduction, "the present bulletin has as its primary purpose the correlation of the thermodynamic properties of elementary sulfur and its inorganic compounds and the presentation, after careful consideration of all available information, of a self-consistent system of thermodynamic relationships for these substances" (p. 1). This report includes tables.
Date: 1937
Creator: Kelley, K. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production]

Description: Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A new membrane electrode assembly ...
Date: February 24, 2014
Creator: Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L. & Zahn, Steffen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic Investigation of the Gas Phase Atomic Sulfur and Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction

Description: The kinetics of the reaction of atomic sulfur and nitrogen dioxide have been investigated over the temperature range 298 to 650 K and pressures from 14 - 405 mbar using the laser flash photolysis - resonance fluorescence technique. The overall bimolecular rate expression k (T) = (1.88 ± 0.49) x10-11 exp-(4.14 ± 0.10 kJ mol-1)/RT cm3 molecule-1 s-1 is derived. Ab initio calculations were performed at the CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory and a potential energy surface has been derived. RRKM theory calculations were performed on the system. It is found that an initially formed SNO2 is vibrationally excited and the rate of collisional stabilization is slower than the rate of dissociation to SO + NO products by a factor of 100 - 1000, under the experimental conditions.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Thompson, Kristopher Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Report of the Selby Smelter Commission

Description: From Preface: "This bulletin presents the report of the commission and the papers, prepared by the various experts, which give the results of investigations undertaken by the commission and form the basis of its findings."
Date: 1915
Creator: Holmes, J. A.; Franklin, Edward C.; Gould, Ralph A. & Gould, Ralph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Wet Thiogen Process for Recovering Sulphur from Sulphur Dioxide in Smelter Gases: A Critical Study

Description: From Introduction: "A critical study of the wet Thiogen process for extracting sulphur from smoke of smelters is one of several investigations related to the general smelter-smoke problem that are being conducted under direction of the Bureau of Mines. Work on the Thiogen process was started again in January, 1916, in the laboratories of the new mining experiment station at Berkeley, Cal., and was continued during the spring of 2016 until a point was reached where it was felt that the essential parts of the process had been carefully covered, and that some definite statements concerning the technical features and possibilities of the process, as given in this report, were warranted."
Date: 1917
Creator: Wells, A. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of Sulfur: Experimental Study of the Reaction of Atomic Sulfur with Acetylene and Theoretical Study of the Cn + So Potential Energy Surface

Description: The kinetics of the reaction of atomic sulfur with acetylene (S (3P) + C2H2) were investigated experimentally via the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence method, and the theoretical potential energy surface for the reaction CN + SO was modeled via the density functional and configuration interaction computational methods. Sulfur is of interest in modern chemistry due to its relevance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, in the Claus process, in soot and diamond-film formation and in astrochemistry. Experimental conditions ranged from 295 – 1015 K and 10 – 400 Torr of argon. Pressure-dependence was shown at all experimental temperatures. The room temperature high-pressure limit second order rate constant was (2.10 ± 0.08) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The Arrhenius plot of the high-pressure limit rate constants gave an Ea of (11.34 ± 0.03) kJ mol-1 and a pre-exponential factor of (2.14 ± 0.19) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. S (3P) + C2H2 is likely an adduct forming reaction due to pressure-dependence (also supported by a statistical mechanics analysis) which involves intersystem crossing. The potential energy surface for CN + SO was calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(d) level and refined at the QCISD/6-311G(d) level. The PES was compared to that of the analogous reaction CN + O2. Notable energetically favorable products are NCS + O, CO + NS, and CS + NO. The completed PES will ultimately be modeled at the CCSD(T) level (extrapolated to infinite basis set limit) for theoretical reaction rate analysis (RRKM).
Date: May 2013
Creator: Ayling, Sean A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sulfur Compounds in Crude Oil

Description: From Abstract: "This report summarizes a systematic 20-year study of the organic sulfur compounds in Wasson, Texas, crude oil and, to a lesser extent, of three crude oils, that culminated in some 200 individual sulfur-compound identifications. This report reviews early sulfur literature covering petroleum sulfur compound identifications completed before this study was begun, and cites 58 papers resulting from this work."
Date: 1972
Creator: Rall, H. T.; Thompson, C. J.; Coleman, H. J. & Hopkins, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Membranes for the Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Laboratory Scale Demonstration

Description: INL has developed polymeric membrane-based chemical separations to enable the thermochemical production of hydrogen. Major activities included studies of sulfuric acid concentration membranes, hydriodic acid concentration membranes, SO2/O2 separation membranes, potential applications of a catalyst reactor system for the decomposition of HI, and evaluation of the chemical separation needs for alternate thermochemical cycles. Membranes for the concentration of sulfuric acid were studied using pervaporation. The goal of this task was to offer the sulfur-iodine (S-I) and the hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycles a method to concentrate the sulfuric acid containing effluent from the decomposer without boiling. In this work, sulfuric acid decomposer effluent needs to be concentrated from ~50 % acid to 80 %. This task continued FY 2006 efforts to characterize water selective membranes for use in sulfuric acid concentration. In FY 2007, experiments were conducted to provide specific information, including transmembrane fluxes, separation factors, and membrane durability, necessary for proper decision making on the potential inclusion of this process into the S-I or HyS Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Stewart, Frederick F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sulfur Poisoning of Fixed Beds of Iron Catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Description: From Introduction: "This bulletin describes the results of poisoning of fixed beds of reduced, carbided, and nitrided fused iron oxide catalysts and reduced steel turnings by H2S in 1H2 + 1CO synthesis gas in tests in which the temperature (1) was held constant and (2) was increased as required to maintain constant productivity."
Date: 1965
Creator: Anderson, R. B.; Karn, F. S.; Kelly, R. E. & Shultz, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT

Description: Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method ...
Date: January 15, 2002
Creator: Pienkos, Philip T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with prospective ...
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Boltz, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department