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SNAP 7D: stronium-90 fueled thermoelectric generator power source, thirty-watt U.S. Navy Floating Weather Station, final report

Description: The objectives of the SNAP-7D program were to design, manufacture, test and deliver a thirty-watt electric generating system for a modified U.S. Navy NOMAD-class weather buoy to be stationed in the Gulf of Mexico. The sixty-watt Strontium-90 thermoelectric generator, the relay panel, the batteries, and the installation of the system in a boat-type buoy are described. In addition to delivering the power supply, many tests were required for the SNAP-7D system to demonstrate its conformance to the contract statement of work.
Date: March 15, 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Snap 7B: Stronium-90 Fueled Thermoelectric Generator Power Source, Thirty- Watt U.S. Coast Guard Automatic Light Station. Final Report

Description: The objectives of the SNAP 7B program were to design, manufacture, test and deliver a thirty-watt electric generating system for a U. S. Coast Guard Automatic Light Station. This report describes the sixty-watt, strontium-90 thermoelectric generator, the converter, the batteries, and the installation of the generator into the container. The electrical tests of the generator and of the system, the shock and vibration tests, and the tests at the environmental temperature extremes are discussed.
Date: June 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium 90 Power Project: Final Summary Report

Description: From summary: The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of converting reactor waste Strontium-90 into a safe and useful source of electrical energy. Secondary purpose is physical and environmental testing of the power conversion device or thermoelectric couples. This required actual fabrication of a 100-thermal-watt strontium titanate fuel element
Date: March 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Available Data on the Strontium 90 Content of Foods and of Total Diets in the United States

Description: From Present Programs: "There has been a gradual expansion of the Sr^90 food analysis program to include vegetable foods and finally entire diets. In some cases the analyses have also been extended to other nuclides but these data are so limited that they will not be emphasized in this report. It is expected that considerable data on Ra^226 and other naturally occurring radionuclides will be generated in coming year."
Date: August 18, 1960
Creator: Harley, John H. & Rivera, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, February 24, 1959

Description: From Abstract: "This report is one of a sequence of quarterly reports, each designed to up-date its predecessor beginning with HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests." Herein are reported data which have accrued since HASL-51. In particular, the levels of strontium 90 in fallout, milk, tap water, vegetation, and foods are given, based on data available from November 1, 1958 to January 30, 1959."
Date: February 24, 1959
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, October 1, 1959

Description: From Introduction: "Quarterly summary reports are prepared by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL) with the objective of presenting a current picture of the Strontium Program. This report, which up-dates HASL-65, presents data routinely reported by the Analytical Division of the Health and Safety Laboratory and its contractor laboratories - Nuclear Science and Engineering Corporation, Isotopes, Incorporated, Radiochemistry, Incorporated, and Tracelab, Incorporated. In addition, this issue includes data submitted by the U.S. Public Health Service, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Lamont Geological Observatory, and the Medical Laboratory of the National Defense Research Council ToNoOo - Netherlands."
Date: October 1, 1959
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Gummed Film Results Through December, 1959

Description: From Abstract: "The data for gummed film fallout measurements through December 1959 are reported. The bulk of the report consists of summary tables for each gummed film station listing the monthly estimates of strontium 90 deposition and infinity gamma dose."
Date: September 5, 1960
Creator: Harley, John H.; Hallden, Naomi A. & Ong, Long D. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, May 29, 1959

Description: From Abstract: "This report is one of a sequence of quarterly reports, each designed to up-date its predecessor beginning with HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests". Herein are presented data which have accrued since HASL-55. Levels of strontinum-90 in fallout, milk, air, water, vegetation, foods, and bone are given, based on data available from February 1, 1959 to May 20, 1959."
Date: May 29, 1959
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, November 19, 1958

Description: From Abstract: "This report up-dates certain sections of HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests". In particular, the levels of Strontium-90 in fallout, milk, tap water, air, and soil are included for data available up to November 1, 1958."
Date: November 19, 1958
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Precipitation of Strontium Sulfate in Gels

Description: The growth of strontium sulfate precipitate by diffusion in various gels was studied by using optical transmission and confocal microscopies, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and energy dispersive X ray fluorescence. Pure silica gel, pure agarose gel and the silica/agarose mixed gel at pH 7 - 10 were used throughout the present study. Precipitate morphology is sensitive to pH and to the nature of the growth medium. The morphology was observed as a function of time. The lack of change is presumably because of rapid depletion of the limiting reagent after the very beginning of precipitation. The problem of separating strontium sulfate precipitate from the gel medium is discussed.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Lee, Ya
Partner: UNT Libraries

SNAP Programs Quarterly Progress Report, Task 8--Stontium-90 Fuled Thermoelectric Generator Development: Number 1, November 1, 1960-January 31, 1961

Description: From summary: The SNAP 7 program is being conducted for the purpose of developing four radioisotope-fueled thermo-electric power generation systems. An important phase of this program is the processing of Strontium-90 into heat sources for these systems. The current effort involves the design and engineering analysis of two of the four thermo-electric generators.
Date: June 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SNAP Programs Quarterly Progress Report, Task 8--Stontium-90 Fuled Thermoelectric Generator Development: Number 5, November 1, 1961-January 31, 1962

Description: From introduction and summary: The SNAP 7 program is being conducted by the Martin Company for the purpose of developing four radioisotope-fueled thermo-electric power generation systems. The current program in its entirety covers: design, fabrication, test and delivery of four-radioisotope-fueled thermo-electric generator systems are to be designed to meet the rigorous environmental requirements of field use by the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Navy.
Date: 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SNAP Programs Quarterly Progress Report, Task 8--Stontium-90 Fuled Thermoelectric Generator Development: Number 6, February 1, 1962-April 30, 1962

Description: From introduction and summary: The prime effort on this contract has been directed toward: Manufacture, assembly and test of the 60-watt thermo-electric generators, procurement of SNAP-7D system components, installation and checkout of the Strontium-90 isotope process equipment.
Date: 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SNAP Programs Quarterly Progress Report, Task 8--Stontium-90 Fuled Thermoelectric Generator Development: Number 7, May 1, 1962-July 31, 1962

Description: From introduction and summary: The effort in this area (Task 8 portion of contract) has been confined to operating the reliability model. There have been fluctuations in output power that can be attributed to variations in the operating parameters, plus an increase in the internal resistance.
Date: 1962
Creator: McDonald, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples

Description: A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.
Date: May 24, 2012
Creator: Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K. & Shaw, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of elevated strontium 89/90 analytical responses -- An investigative study

Description: For a one week period, erroneously elevated strontium 89/90 readouts, up to 1,000 fold, were received from extracted process material analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Counting. The samples were extracted from heavy water waste tanks. While laboratory personnel realized that the responses were higher than historically observed, measurement control indicators were within control limits. An effort was launched to determine probable causes. This paper summarizes those efforts taken to answer: (1) Why did the standard fail to signal an out-of-control method? (2) What were the factors that contributed to the elevated readouts? Additionally, the corrective actions implemented to preclude other occurrences are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of groundwater flow paths through combined inversion of strontium isotope ratios and hydraulic head data. Final report

Description: Strontium (Sr) isotope and other geochemical data were collected for groundwater samples from the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These geochemical data provide strong evidence for slow and fast groundwater flow zones that had not been previously characterized. The geochemical data were combined with existing hydraulic head data in groundwater flow and transport models. These models enable quantitative extraction of flow information from the data (i.e., inversion of the data). This new approach and the implications for INEEL environmental activities will be reported in two journal articles. One submitted recently and a second in preparation.
Date: December 4, 1999
Creator: Johnson, Thomas M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The HASL Bone Program 1961-1964

Description: Report documenting the measuring of strontium-90 levels contained in the bones of children and adults of various age brackets across the United States.
Date: August 16, 1965
Creator: Rivera, Joseph & Harley, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with existing data sets. The first data set used laboratory generated ...
Date: September 24, 2012
Creator: Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A. & Miller, Todd J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt and Sediment Infill Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

Description: The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose of this study is to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine Kds of six basalt core samples, five samples of sediment infill of vesicles and fractures, and six standard material samples. Analyses of data from these experiments indicate that the Kds of the sediment infill samples are significantly larger than those of the basalt samples. Quantification of such information is essential of furthering the understanding of transport processes of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer and in similar environments.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Pace, M. N.; Bartholomay, R. C. & Rosentreter, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department