An investigation was conducted on the impossible use of beta radiation to promote chemical reactions at high temperatures and pressures. The advantages of beta sources over other radiation sources are enumerated. A radiation processing apparatus is described which allows operations to 10,000 psi and 500 deg C and uses 90 C of Sr/sup 90/-Y/sup 90/. The dosimetry of the source was accomplished with an iodineheptane system, and the mean dose rate within the chemical reactor was determined to be 0.98 x 10/sup 6/ rad/hr. The radiation utilization efficiency in the dosimetry measurements was determined to be 34.7%. Results of runs on hydrogenation of coal extract indicate that radiation does not increase the extent of hydrogenation, but that radiation reduces the content of hetero atoms N and S in the 100 x 400 deg C boiling oil products. The use of beta radiation in the hydrorefining of oils is suggested. (D.L.C.)
The objectives of the SNAP 7A program were to design, manufacture, test, and deliver a five-watt electric generation system for a U. S. Coast Guard 8 x 26E light buoy. The 10-watt Sr/sup 90/ thermoelectric generator, the d-c-to-d-c converter, batteries and the method of installation in the light buoy are describcd. The SNAP 7A generator was fueled with four capsules containing a total of 40,800 curies of Sr/sup 90/ titanate. After fueling and testing, the SNAP 7A electric generating system was installed in the Coast Guard light buoy at Baltimore, Maryland, on December 15, 1961. Operation of the buoy lamp is continuous. (auth)
A computer code, INREM II, was developed to calculate the internal radiation dose equivalent to organs of man which results from the intake of a radionuclide by inhalation or ingestion. Deposition and removal of radioactivity from the respiratory tract is represented by the Internal Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group Lung Model. A four-segment catenary model of the gastrointestinal tract is used to estimate movement of radioactive material that is ingested, or swallowed after being cleared from the respiratory tract. Retention of radioactivity in other organs is specified by linear combinations of decaying exponential functions. The formation and decay of radioactive daughters is treated explicitly, with each radionuclide in the decay chain having its own uptake and retention parameters, as supplied by the user. The dose equivalent to a target organ is computed as the sum of contributions from each source organ in which radioactivity is assumed to be situated. This calculation utilizes a matrix of dosimetric S-factors (rem/..mu..Ci-day) supplied by the user for the particular choice of source and target organs. Output permits the evaluation of components of dose from cross-irradiations when penetrating radiations are present. INREM II has been utilized with current radioactive decay data and metabolic models to produce extensive tabulations of dose conversion factors for a reference adult for approximately 150 radionuclides of interest in environmental assessments of light-water-reactor fuel cycles. These dose conversion factors represent the 50-year dose commitment per microcurie intake of a given radionuclide for 22target organs including contributions from specified source organs and surplus activity in the rest of the body. These tabulations are particularly significant in their consistent use of contemporary models and data and in the detail of documentation.
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