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Summary of Available Data on the Strontium 90 Content of Foods and of Total Diets in the United States

Description: From Present Programs: "There has been a gradual expansion of the Sr^90 food analysis program to include vegetable foods and finally entire diets. In some cases the analyses have also been extended to other nuclides but these data are so limited that they will not be emphasized in this report. It is expected that considerable data on Ra^226 and other naturally occurring radionuclides will be generated in coming year."
Date: August 18, 1960
Creator: Harley, John H. & Rivera, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Gummed Film Results Through December, 1959

Description: From Abstract: "The data for gummed film fallout measurements through December 1959 are reported. The bulk of the report consists of summary tables for each gummed film station listing the monthly estimates of strontium 90 deposition and infinity gamma dose."
Date: September 5, 1960
Creator: Harley, John H.; Hallden, Naomi A. & Ong, Long D. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, October 1, 1959

Description: From Introduction: "Quarterly summary reports are prepared by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL) with the objective of presenting a current picture of the Strontium Program. This report, which up-dates HASL-65, presents data routinely reported by the Analytical Division of the Health and Safety Laboratory and its contractor laboratories - Nuclear Science and Engineering Corporation, Isotopes, Incorporated, Radiochemistry, Incorporated, and Tracelab, Incorporated. In addition, this issue includes data submitted by the U.S. Public Health Service, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Lamont Geological Observatory, and the Medical Laboratory of the National Defense Research Council ToNoOo - Netherlands."
Date: October 1, 1959
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, May 29, 1959

Description: From Abstract: "This report is one of a sequence of quarterly reports, each designed to up-date its predecessor beginning with HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests". Herein are presented data which have accrued since HASL-55. Levels of strontinum-90 in fallout, milk, air, water, vegetation, foods, and bone are given, based on data available from February 1, 1959 to May 20, 1959."
Date: May 29, 1959
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, February 24, 1959

Description: From Abstract: "This report is one of a sequence of quarterly reports, each designed to up-date its predecessor beginning with HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests." Herein are reported data which have accrued since HASL-51. In particular, the levels of strontium 90 in fallout, milk, tap water, vegetation, and foods are given, based on data available from November 1, 1958 to January 30, 1959."
Date: February 24, 1959
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium Program: Quarterly Summary Report, November 19, 1958

Description: From Abstract: "This report up-dates certain sections of HASL-42, "Environmental Contamination from Weapon Tests". In particular, the levels of Strontium-90 in fallout, milk, tap water, air, and soil are included for data available up to November 1, 1958."
Date: November 19, 1958
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr. & Klein, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

Description: In 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary. Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing strontium-90 flux to the Columbia River. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.
Date: April 2, 2009
Creator: Fix, N. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Polymer Technology for Containing and Immobilizing Strontium-90 in the Subsurface - 8361

Description: Many Department of Energy (DOE) sites, including Idaho and Hanford, have heavy metals and/or radionuclides (e.g. strontium-90) present that are strongly adsorbed in the vadose zone, but which nevertheless are propagating toward the water table. A key challenge for immobilization of these contaminants is bringing the chosen amendment or remediation technology into contact with the contaminated porous medium, while ensuring that contaminated water and colloids do not escape. This is particularly challenging when the subsurface geology is complex and highly heterogeneous, as is the case at many DOE sites. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the University of Texas at Austin (UT) has conducted research sponsored through the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Advanced Remediation Technologies Phase I program that successfully demonstrated application of a novel, pH-triggered advanced polymer for creating a physical barrier that prevents heavy metals and radionuclides in vadose zone soil and soil-pore water from migrating to the groundwater. The focus of this paper is on the column and sandbox experiments conducted by researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory in support of the Phase I program objectives. Proof of these concepts provides a technology basis for confining or isolating a volume of contaminated groundwater, to be implemented in future investigations at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at INL.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Baker, K.; Heath, G.; Scott, C.; Schafer, A.; Bryant, S.; Sharma, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64404 - Field Investigations of Microbially Facilitated Calcite Precipitation for Immobilization of Strontium-90 and Other Trace Metals in the Subsurface

Description: Subsurface radionuclide and metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide 90Sr, is co-precipitation in calcite. We have previously found that that nutrient addition can stimulate microbial ureolytic activity that this activity accelerates calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of Sr, and that higher calcite precipitation rates can result in increased Sr partitioning. We have conducted integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate the relationships between ureolysis and calcite precipitation rates and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions, and investigated the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and precipitate distribution. A field experimental campaign conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site located at Rifle, CO was based on a continuous recirculation design; water extracted from a down-gradient well was amended with urea and molasses (a carbon and electron donor) and re-injected into an up-gradient well. The goal of the recirculation design and simultaneous injection of urea and molasses was to uniformly accelerate the hydrolysis of urea and calcite precipitation over the entire inter-wellbore zone. The urea-molasses recirculation phase lasted, with brief interruptions for geophysical surveys, for 12 days followed by long-term monitoring which continued for 13 months. Following the recirculation phase we found persistent increases in urease activity (as determined from 14C labeled laboratory urea hydrolysis rates) in the upper portion of the inter-wellbore zone. We also observed an initial increase (approximately 2 weeks) in urea concentration associated with injection activities followed by decreasing urea concentration and associated increases in ammonium and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) following the termination of injection. Based on the loss of urea and the appearance of ammonium, a first order rate constant for urea hydrolysis of 0.18 day-1 rate with an associate ...
Date: October 12, 2012
Creator: Smith, Robert W.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Ginn, Timothy R. & Hubbard, Susan S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples

Description: A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.
Date: May 24, 2012
Creator: Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K. & Shaw, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: An update on Barrier Performance

Description: This report updates a previous report covering the performance of a permeable reactive barrier installed at 100N. In this report we re-evaluate the results after having an additional year of performance monitoring data to incorporate.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Fritz, Brad G.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E. & Williams, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

Description: The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

Description: Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E. & Williams, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecological Dose Modeling of Aquatic and Riparian Receptors to Strontium-90 with an Emphasis on Radiosensitive Organs

Description: The 100-NR-2 site is the location of elevated releases of strontium-90 to the Columbia River via contaminated groundwater. The resulting dose to aquatic and riparian receptors was evaluated in 2005 (DOE 2009) and compared to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) dose guidance values. We have conducted additional dose assessments for a broader spectrum of aquatic and riparian organisms using RESRAD Biota and specific exposure scenarios. Because strontium-90 accumulates in bone, we have also modeled the dose to the anterior kidney, a blood-forming and immune system organ that lies close to the spinal column of fish. The resulting dose is primarily attributable to the yttrium-90 progeny of strontium-90 and very little of the dose is associated with the beta emission from strontium-90. All dose modeling results were calculated with an assumption of secular equilibrium between strontium-90 and yttrum-90.
Date: July 20, 2011
Creator: Poston, Ted M.; Traub, Richard J. & Antonio, Ernest J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for DOE Grant No. DE-SC0006609 - Persistence of Microbially Facilitated Calcite Precipitation as an in situ Treatment for Strontium-90

Description: Subsurface radionuclide and metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE?s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide Sr-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. We have previously found that nutrient addition can stimulate microbial ureolytic activity, that this activity accelerates calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of Sr, and that higher calcite precipitation rates can result in increased Sr partitioning. We have conducted integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate the relationships between ureolysis and calcite precipitation rates and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions, and investigated the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and precipitate distribution. A field experimental campaign conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site located at Rifle, CO was based on a continuous recirculation design; water extracted from a down-gradient well was amended with urea and molasses (a carbon and electron donor) and re-injected into an up-gradient well. The goal of the recirculation design and simultaneous injection of urea and molasses was to uniformly accelerate the hydrolysis of urea and calcite precipitation over the entire inter-wellbore zone. The urea-molasses recirculation phase lasted, with brief interruptions for geophysical surveys, for 12 days and was followed by long-term monitoring which continued for 13 months. A post experiment core located within the inter-wellbore zone was collected on day 321 and characterized with respect to cation exchange capacity, mineral carbonate content, urease activity, ureC gene abundance, extractable ammonium (a urea hydrolysis product) content, and the C-13 isotopic composition of solid carbonates. It was also subjected to selective extractions for strontium and uranium. Result of the core characterization suggest that urea hydrolysis occurred primarily within the upper portion of the inter-wellbore zone and that strontium was mobilized from cation exchange sites and subsequently co-precipitated with new ...
Date: November 15, 2013
Creator: Smith, Robert W & Fujita, Yoshiko
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2005.

Description: The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2005 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby handpumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the handpumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.
Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Golchert, N. W. & Oversight, ESH /QA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Work Plan: Sequestration of Strontium-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of an Apatite Solution

Description: We propose to develop an infiltration strategy that defines the precipitation rate of an apatite-forming solution and Sr-90 sequestration processes under variably saturated (low water content) conditions. We will develop this understanding through small-scale column studies, intermediate-scale two-dimensional (2-D) experiments, and numerical modeling to quantify individual and coupled processes associated with apatite formation and Sr-90 transport during and after infiltration of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution. Development of capabilities to simulate these coupled biogeochemical processes during both injection and infiltration will be used to determine the most cost-effective means to emplace an in situ apatite barrier with a longevity of 300 years to permanently sequester Sr-90 until it decays. Biogeochemical processes that will be investigated are citrate biodegradation and apatite precipitation rates at varying water contents as a function of water content. Coupled processes that will be investigated include the influence of apatite precipitation (which occupies pore space) on the hydraulic and transport properties of the porous media during infiltration.
Date: April 30, 2006
Creator: Szecsody, Jim E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surveillance of site A and plot M, report for 2007.

Description: The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2007 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to: (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.
Date: March 25, 2008
Creator: Golchert, N. W. & Oversight, ESH /QA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research in Radiobiology. Annual Report of Work in Progress on the Chronic Toxicity Program

Description: Separate abstracts were prepared on 8 sections of this report. Data are also included on the status of dogs at various time intervals following the injection of various doses of Ra/sup 226/, Pu/sup 239/, Ra/sup 228/, Th/sup 228, and Sr/sup 90/. (C. H.)
Date: March 31, 1962
Creator: Dougherty, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The HASL Bone Program 1961-1964

Description: Report documenting the measuring of strontium-90 levels contained in the bones of children and adults of various age brackets across the United States.
Date: August 16, 1965
Creator: Rivera, Joseph & Harley, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide contaminated soil: Laboratory study and economic analysis of soil washing. Final report

Description: The objective of the work discussed in this report is to determine if soil washing is a feasible method to remediate contaminated soils from the Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The contaminants are predominantly Cs-137 and Sr-90. The authors have assumed that the target activity for Cs-137 is 50 pCi/g and that remediation is required for soils having greater activities. Cs-137 is the limiting contaminant because it is present in much greater quantities than Sr-90. This work was done in three parts, in which they: estimated the volume of contaminated soil as a function of Cs-137 content, determined if simple removal of the fine grained fraction of the soil (the material that is less than 0.063 mm) would effectively reduce the activity of the remaining soil to levels below the 50 pCi/g target, assessed the effectiveness of chemical and mechanical (as well as combinations of the two) methods of soil decontamination. From this analysis the authors were then able to develop a cost estimate for soil washing and for a baseline against which soil washing was compared.
Date: May 20, 1996
Creator: Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H.; Patel, B.; Bowerman, B. & Brower, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department